Trees

Variety of varieties and cultivation of common oak

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Once on the forest Ural swamp was found dubochek. Three - four strong carved leaflets on a small, no more than 15 cm trunk, at the base of which the remains of an acorn peeped out of the ground - this is what he was like. As the acorn fell into the swamp, one can only guess. Perhaps he was brought there by birds.

The oak tree was transplanted to the mountainside. The transplant was made at the end of September to a place closed by bushes from the north winds.

3 years have passed since then. Oak has grown and matured. He tolerates winter frosts well. Only in particularly harsh winters its upper shoots are slightly icy. He does not require special care.

The only thing you need to remove the weeds around him and water in the dry season. As you can see, in the northern regions of Russia it is possible to grow oaks, you just have to do it.

A little bit about oak trees

Oaks are the strongest and most durable trees of all that grow in Russia. They are thermophilic and demanding on soil fertility and grow well in the southern and central regions. Oak groves can still be seen in the Republic of Mari El and Tatarstan, but closer to the Urals and the Ural Mountains, in Siberia, you will not meet them.

There are about 600 types of oak trees. For decorative breeding, red or northern oak, white oak, stone oak, willow oak, chestnut oak and others are used.

On the territory of Russia, Eastern and Western Europe, English oak is the most common (other names are summer, ordinary English). This tree, reaching 50 meters in height, lives from 500 to 1500 years. It is characterized by a rather slow growth. Oaks grow most rapidly between the ages of 5 and 20 years. The pedunculate oak can be grown on virtually any soil, although it prefers fertile. What he does not tolerate is waterlogging. Good illumination is one of the conditions for the growth of this species. Young trees can be damaged by frosts, but they do not lead to the death of plants.

How to grow oak from acorn

If you want to grow an oak from an acorn, the most important thing is to find good acorns and save them until spring planting. You can plant them in the fall, but they are likely to be eaten in winter by mice.

The best acorns are the last ones to fall from the tree. Therefore, they should be collected at the end of September or at the beginning of October. Under the tallest and strongest tree they collect the largest and most healthy-looking acorns.

For storage they are placed in a cool basement or in the refrigerator. In order for acorns to not dry, they must be kept at a temperature of about zero degrees. We need moderate air humidity and its circulation, therefore acorns cannot be stored in a sealed package. At room temperature until spring, they are sure to dry out and prove to be unviable.

How to distinguish living acorns from the dead? Living inside are light yellow, the dead are black. If placed in water, the living acorns will drown, and the dead will float.

Acorns sprout slowly. Planted in the ground they need as soon as the soil warms up. If you want to grow a lot of oak seedlings, then the acorns should be planted in parallel grooves, located 20 centimeters from one another.

Acorns are placed at a distance of 2 to 10 cm from each other. If you are going to grow them in this place as on a constant one, then the distance should be at least 15 cm. Acorns are buried 2 to 3 cm into the soil and sprinkled with earth. Putting them need horizontally. From the germinated acorn, the root first begins to grow, and the shoot appears only a month after the beginning of root growth. Subsequently, weak seedlings are removed, leaving the strongest ones.

Usually, one- and two-year-old oak seedlings are sold. In order for the biennial sapling to have a developed root having many side branches, annual seedlings recommend replanting, cutting off the main root at a distance of 25 cm from the remains of the acorn. If a one-year seedling is planted in a permanent place, the main root should not be cut off.

Planting and care of oak seedlings

Planting is best done in early spring, before the leafing of the plant. The place for landing is chosen light, protected from wind and not overmoistened. It is good if some bushes are planted around it. This will promote faster tree growth.

For planting in the soil with a stick, a hole is made about a quarter of a meter deep. The root of the seedling is straight, rod-shaped, almost without lateral branches. It is lowered into the hole so that the remnants of the acorn on the seedling are at a depth of 2 - 3 cm from the soil level. The land around is compacted.

Care in the cultivation of oak seedlings is to remove weeds and watering in arid time. In order for the oak tree to be better prepared for the winter, a month before the massive leaf fall, watering is stopped.

Oak can be affected by powdery mildew. It is manifested by white bloom on the leaves. Spraying with a 1% solution of copper sulphate or colloidal sulfur is used to combat it.

During return frosts, young trees are recommended to cover with a fine-meshed net or acrylic.

Oak is a strong tree. It survives even in not very suitable climatic conditions, although its growth at the same time may slow down. If you want to have this tree in your garden plot - try to grow it. That you probably will!

Description of common oak

The most common type is ordinary oak, it is also called English or pedunculate. It belongs to the family of Bukovy, the area of ​​growth of the species covers the Northern Hemisphere, where the climate is close to temperate, although some species can be found in the equatorial region and south. Most oaks are deciduous plants, but there are also evergreens. You can list several varieties of this tree, each of which has its own small external differences and vegetative features:

  1. Mongolian,
  2. Caucasian highland
  3. Red,
  4. Large-fruited
  5. Chestnut
  6. Marsh,
  7. Stone,
  8. White.

The greatness of this mighty handsome man is best revealed when he grows in open areas: on the edge of a forest, in a clearing, lawn, at some distance from other trees. Then he gets the maximum power and light, and the branches have the opportunity to take a natural free sprawling shapecharacteristic of the crown of this species. The branches are arranged alternately on the trunk and, in the presence of free space, occupy a large area, forming many turns and bends.

Oak leaf in most cases is an oblong lobed shape, pinhole, with jagged edges. It has from five to seven blades and a dense leathery texture. It is easy to distinguish oak evergreen from leaf deciduous oak in the form of leaves: deciduous tree species have a dissected form, while evergreens have a smooth edge. The leaves form an openwork crown, it is located on a wide trunk, forming a kind of tent, which creates a dense shadow under it.

Bloom

Common oak blossoms in mid-late spring, immediately after the leaves appear on the branches. Same-sex flowering, male and female vegetative organs are formed on the same plant. Flowering form - long green earrings (male type) and shorter, with a pinkish tinge (female type). By the middle of autumn the fruits of the tree are ripening - acorns. For many forest animals, they are a valuable source of nutrients.

Root system

The root system of oak has a powerful structure. The main taproot goes to great depth, while the lateral roots form a tortuous system of peculiar sleeves that repeatedly change the direction of growth in search of moisture and nourishment, just as the branches of the crown repeatedly bend in search of sunlight. The oak tree increases the root system in volume approximately equal to the projection of the crown, and sometimes even exceeding its area.

Growing a tree

Those who are going to grow this tree on their site should first understand what does oak look likewhere the oak grows in nature and what are its requirements for growing conditions. Given the size of the plant in adulthood, it is worth thinking well before planting it in your yard. Perhaps it makes sense to pay attention to small species, such as Caucasian oak alpine or varietal varieties of pedunculate:

Artificially bred varieties have small dimensions and a beautiful compact crown shape that will adorn any garden landscape. But you should know that the need for lighting and nutrition in this plant are great. It does not like shading and beautiful healthy copy of the tree can be grown only in the open. At the same time, no plant can grow under the oak itself, since fallen leaves produce tannins that suppress the growing season.

Oak is fairly easy to grow from acorns. They can be planted immediately after falling, and you can wait until spring, because the seedlings sometimes germinate immediately after planting and die with the arrival of frost. But despite the comparative ease of germination, it will take a long time to wait for full development, because this tree grows slowly, and begins to bear fruit only a couple of decades after planting. Considering this, it is more expedient to purchase a growing copy of the desired variety in the nursery.

Requirements for growing conditions

To the composition of the soil, the tree is not demanding, it can grow both on sandy soils and on wet soils of different acidity. But it is preferable to grow this beautiful giant on a flat open place, not subject to flooding with melt water. Every autumn, it is recommended to rake up the fallen leaves of the tree and burn or compost it. This should be done because the leaves remaining to overheat at the site will fill the soil with tannins, and the cultivation of any greenery within the crown radius will be impossible.

Trees of this species have a large margin of safety. They are cold-resistant, resistant to wind and drought, but susceptible to fungal diseases and pest damage. When growing them on your own plot, you should not neglect regular preventive treatments just as it is done for fruit trees. Such measures will require some effort, but will help keep pets and grow them healthy and beautiful.

Cultivation and care

In favorable conditions, the tree usually grows without problems. If you do not take care of good soil, the tree can grow poorly and also look unattractive.

The decision to plant oak on the plot should be carefully thought out so that the tree does not become a problem in the future, especially for future generations.

Young plants have a slight annual growth, but after a few years they grow much faster. In this phase of development, they are also prone to powdery mildew, which weakens them, limits growth, and also increases the susceptibility of trees to the freezing of young shoots.

Pedunculate oak, in principle, does not require pruning, such a procedure is performed only if necessary.

Breeding

In order to replenish stocks of pedunculate oak, simply sow ripened acorns. They germinate easily and seedlings can be obtained without problems. Harvesting mature acorns should be carried out in late September and early October. Seeds can be sown immediately in a permeable substrate to a depth of about 5 cm. In winter, the seeds will undergo a natural stratification. Can be sown directly in the ground or in a container in the garden. Seeds are sown in April, must first be stratified. Varieties are propagated by grafting.

Diseases and pests

The tree is very often infected with powdery mildew (Microsphaera alphitoides). Mealy dew is a fungal disease that is dangerous, especially for very young trees, which, in the event of severe damage, can die and become more susceptible to frost. A whitish bloom appears on the affected leaves. Infected trees have smaller growths, weakened, more susceptible to other diseases and pests. Affected leaves dry out and fall prematurely. At the time of occurrence of the first lesion should be spraying the appropriate fungicide.

Another very dangerous disease is the death of shoots. Just like powdery mildew, it is a fungal disease. Unfortunately, this leads to the death of trees. Symptom of the disease are darkened and falling leaves, as well as watery brown spots. To prevent the spread of disease, infected trees are destroyed.

In addition to diseases, the tree is exposed to numerous pests. Of course, many of us had the opportunity to observe on the oak leaves round growths in the form of galls, which represent the refuge of the larvae. Large balls with a diameter of up to 2 cm form an oak-walnut nut-poker. Pineal galls form the pineal cone, and for small, numerous, yellow and flat galls on the underside of the leaves, the grape-shaped walnut. Parasites are treated by spraying, as well as removing and destroying the leaves with galls.

Aphids (including tuberculoides annulatus), weevils (for example, Orchestes quercus), false guard (oak false protective board), butterflies (for example, green oak and root nutcracker) may appear on leaves. If pests occur, spraying with a special preparation should be performed.

Application

Because of its picturesque crown, as well as longevity, oak has long been included in park plantings. Often landed along the roads. Due to the numerous varieties, the use of oak is also becoming more and more common in gardens.

English oak, due to its size, always arouses admiration and it is difficult to look without emotion at the powerful oaks that grow in the surrounding landscape. It is therefore not surprising that in ancient times these trees were isolated, making up an element of the beliefs of the ancient population. Very often planted as a memorial tree.

In forestry, oak fruits are used as food for forest animals.

For hundreds of years, oaks have also been valued for solid wood, which is used, in particular, in the construction, furniture industry, and is also valued for its high burning temperature.

In folk medicine, oak bark is valued for its properties, in particular, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and bactericidal.

general description

Regardless of the type and grade of wood, oak has common distinctive features, which determine the belonging to the genus:

  • The height of an individual is from 25 to 40 meters,
  • Deciduous or evergreen crown,
  • The leaf in oaks of different varieties is blade or toothed with feathery venation,
  • The bark is rough, with age cracks,
  • The trunk of young individuals is thin, noticeably thickened and massive in age.

Many species bloom simultaneously with the blooming of leaves.. Female and male flowers are on the same tree:

  • Women are in the axils of the leaves on the tops of young shoots (as in the photo). Perianth in 3 divisions, poorly developed,

  • Male flowers are collected in earrings at the base of the shoots. Perianth divided into 5-7 sections, up to 12 stamens.

Pollination occurs in the usual ways: by wind or by insects.

The fruit of the oak is an acorn, it ripens in the fall, after wintering begins to grow a new tree. At the base there is always a hard flat cap, on which you can always determine the belonging to the oak family. The shape of the fruit is elongated or spherical, from golden to brown in color depending on the type of plant and the place of its growth.

Oak is propagated by cutting, planting acorns, growth can resume from a live stump.

Habitat

Oak is common in areas with a temperate climate and naturally grows in different countries:

  • In Russia (the Far East, Siberia, Central Asia, Vladikavkaz),
  • In the countries of western and southern Europe,
  • In Canada,
  • USA.

Artificially, different species were transferred to all corners of the world with a suitable oak climate.

Oaks of Russia

Chereshchaty (Quercus robur) - the representative, traditional for Russia and the Western European countries.

  • Resistance to large temperature drops,
  • Tolerance of prolonged drought,
  • Resistant to wind.

Prefers a good fertile soil. In field conditions, the plant reaches 50 meters in height. During group landings, individuals are lower, crowns are located in the upper part of the trunk, which is ensured by high luminosity. The leaves are large - up to 15 cm in length. The pedunculate oak is considered to be a long-liver - individuals are 1,500 years old with an average life expectancy of 300-500 years.

The chestnut-shaped oak is a rare representative of the genus listed in the Red Book. Subjected to active logging for use in construction purposes - its wood is highly frost resistant and hard. The trunk can stretch up to 30 meters, the crown has the shape of a tent. Leaves with pointed triangular edges are similar to chestnut leaves, whence the species received the name.

In Russia, a chestnut-leaved plant is found in deciduous forests and in artificial park areas. Active work is underway to restore the population of this species.

Krupnopylnikovy oak grows in the southern mountainous regions of the Caucasus. Artificially planted in park areas.

  • Короткий лист (до 8 см) с тупыми лопастями,
  • Светолюбивость,
  • Медленный рост,
  • Стойкость к засухе и заморозкам.

Монгольский дуб имеет привлекательный декоративный внешний вид, за что его любят ландшафтные дизайнеры. В России дерево высаживают в аллеях в качестве массива или солитера на земельных участках.

Листья представителя вытянутые, достигают 20 см. In the summer, their color is dark green, at the beginning of the fall - bright brown. The tree grows well in a small penumbra.

Gartvis Oak (Armenian) begins in the West Caucasus. Leaves obovate, have up to 12 rounded pairs. Acorns form and develop on long stalks. In view of the peculiarities of origin like moderate shade, humidity, warm temperatures, fertile soil. It doesn’t tolerate winter, so it cannot grow in colder regions.

American genus of oak

The following plant species have origin in the Americas:

Red is a bright, powerful tree up to 30 (sometimes 50) meters high. The diameter of the trunk reaches 1 meter. A distinctive feature is the specific color of the leaves: after blooming, they have a reddish base, in the summer they are bright green, in the fall they take on a crimson or bright brown shade. According to the other characteristics, the tree is similar to the Russian petized representative of the genus.

Bright coloring made red oak popular decoration of urban landscapes - the tree is artificially grown in different parts of the Earth.

Northern (boreal) is from North America, similar to red. Egg-shaped crown and leaves. The barrel is different from other representatives of smoothness - it is less prone to coarsening and cracking.

The leaf reaches 25 cm in length, in autumn it acquires a bright red color.

The tree is widespread in the countries of Europe, grows in wood and park plantings.

The stone evergreen giant is like a classic from films - a wide spreading crown with infrequent branches, a large-diameter stem with gray bark and deep cracks.

The leaves of stone oak trees are small - up to 8 cm. They are distinguished by a yellowish or white substrate, sometimes with a hairiness.

The tree is unpretentious to the conditions of habitat: grows on any soil in any light. Amenable to floristic decoration.

The genus of stone oak includes several ornamental subspecies: curly, small and round, long, narrow-leaved, golden-motley, Ford Form.

Large oak is characterized by the presence of enlarged acorns - up to 5 cm in length. Plyuska takes about half the length of the fruit. The stem is short.

The tree has interesting leaves: elongated with a wedge-shaped base, up to 5 pairs of blades. When blooming, they have a silver color with a sputtering effect, then turn green deeply, acquire luster, the lower plane turns slightly white.

The tree loves moisture, because it grows in rainy areas or near water.

Ivolistny can be confused with willow due to the similar leaf shape - narrow oblong up to 12 cm in length. Crohn in the autumn period becomes a dull yellow color.

Unlike willow, the willow oak is unpretentious to the soil and place of growth: it lives in deciduous forests, looks good in artificial parklands.

Europe and the Mediterranean

Cork oak is an evergreen tree up to 20 meters high. Small oval leaves up to 6 cm in length with a shiny surface and a pubescent substrate. Acorns are small, deeply recessed into a plus.

Cork representative likes moisture, but is drought tolerant, grows slowly. It is planted in alleys and squares.

It is a valuable probkonos from the Mediterranean.

The rocky (sedentary) species is widely used as the main massif in forest and park plantings. The leaf has a long two-centimeter petiole, in female acorns and flowers the stem is short.

The tree loves warmth, shade, moderate humidity. The genus originates in Eastern Europe: in the Carpathians, in Moldova, Ukraine, is slightly distributed in Western Europe.

Fluffy oak often resembles a bush up to 10 meters high (as in the photo). Its leaves, flowers, shoots and acorns have felt pubes, fruits are deeply sunk into a plus. It grows on calcareous and dry soils under natural conditions, it is difficult to cultivate (almost never occurs). At the same time, it undergoes haircut and crown decoration, serves as an excellent background for a higher composition.

Plant description

The pedunculate oak can grow to incredible size, because the average height of such a tree is 20-50 meters with a tent-shaped or broad-pyramidal crown and very massive branches. The thickness of the trunk is 1-1.5 meters.
The newly planted trees, covering the bark has a gray color, it is smooth to the touch. In older specimens, it is much darker and thicker; in addition, it is very rough, with many longitudinal cracks. Young shoots that sprout on a tree, completely naked or else have a slight coating of fluff, slightly reddish in color with a lot of buds. The root system of the pedunculate oak is developed more than perfectly, all the roots go down to the bowels of the soil, and their length is equal to the height of the tree that it has above the ground.

The foliage covering the branches is alternate, short-stem, elongate-obovate, with a narrowing down (from 7 to 40 centimeters). The blades of the leaf are obtuse, rounded with small cuts between them. All the new leaves are covered with small fluff, the old ones have an edge only on the veins.

The flowers blooming on the oak are same-sex, and the oak itself is monoecious. Staminate flowers - earrings (on each flower, concentrated on 6-10 stamens). Pistillate flowers are collected in 2-5 in the sinuses of the upper leaves, they are small up to 2 millimeters in diameter. Pestle only one with a red 3-lobed ovary.

English oak fruits fruits nuts (acorns), which grow bare, brown in color, ranging from 1.5 to 8 centimeters. The acorn is placed in a so-called saucer, or cup-shaped bowl (0.5-1 centimeter in length).

In total, 2 seasonal forms are distinguished, which pedunculate oak has - early and late. In early oak flowering occurs quickly, and the foliage begins to bloom in the middle of spring (April), but with the arrival of winter, she already has time to fall. In late oaks, foliage appears several weeks later, so that young plants can remain with foliage throughout the winter.

Growing up

Planting oak is not so easy as it seems at first glance. Despite the complexity of this process, this powerful tree can be grown not only in the forests, but also in the backyard or garden plot.

In order to grow a tree correctly, you must adhere to several conditions, which are described below:

  • Rationally chosen landing site on the site,
  • The nature of the soil,
  • Environment.

Choosing a seat is one of the most important moments. Error can lead to loss of all invested effort. First of all, care should be taken to prevent water from stagnating at the site. Also, the place on which the tree will grow should be sunny. The composition of the soil should be sufficiently fertile, with an acidity level (from weak to neutral). For this type of oak, these types of soil are suitable in which plants from deciduous forests grow.

How to distinguish a living acorn from a dead one?

The living and high-quality acorn of the pedunculate oak is light yellow inside, the dead have black insides. A great way to test viability is a water immersion test: a living acorn will sink and a dead one will float.


The rate of germination of an acorn is very slow. Landing should be immediately, as the first warming comes. To grow several oak seedlings at once, it is recommended to plant them at a distance of 20 centimeters from each other. Planting depth of at least 15 centimeters, the acorn lies horizontally. First, a root appears from it, and only after that an escape appears. Mainly there are 1-2 weekly saplings on sale.

Seedling planting and oak care

The landing of an adult oak is recommended to be carried out in early spring, until the leaves start to bloom. The place should be well lit, protected from the wind and with a normal level of moisture. Well, if it is planted with shrubs. These conditions will help the tree grow more quickly.

For the landing, in the ground (stick) you need to make a hole, the depth of which should be about 25 centimeters. The root of the seedling is straight, rod-shaped, the lateral branches are practically absent. Immersion into the ground is made until the remnants of the acorn are at the level of 2-3 centimeters from the level of the soil ball. The ground around the seedling needs to be compacted.

To care for the seedling is easy. The main care is to timely weed weeding and periodic watering, especially during those periods when dry weather is outside. To oak well prepared for winter, a month before the beginning of leaf fall, watering is stopped.

Of pests and diseases, pedunculate oak is very sensitive to powdery mildew. The disease manifests itself in the form of white bloom on the foliage. To eliminate this problem, use the method of spraying 1% solution of copper sulphate or colloidal sulfur. If the winter passes with strong frosts, young trees are recommended to cover with acrylic.

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