Carrot - vegetable culture, tasty and healthy, it grows every gardener on his site.
Consider in detail: the secrets of proper preparation of carrot seeds for sowing, carrot planting options, top dressing and care of carrots in an open ground.
Carrots are unpretentious in growing, but in order to get a quality crop, they need proper care. When growing carrots, it is demanding to feed during growth and to nutrient soil.
Preparing beds for planting carrots
Do not fertilize with fresh manure, the roots will grow irregular and ugly. Manure must be made under its predecessor.
Place for landing fit open, sunny, beds along the length is better to arrange from North to South, this is the uniform illumination of the plantations.
Predecessors for planting carrots - Tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, potatoes, peas. Do not plant carrots 2 years in a row at the same place, as well as after celery, parsley, dill.
Next to the beds of carrots, plant onions, garlic or marigolds to fight a carrot fly.
Before planting in the soil, add wood ash, enriching with nutrients.
Seed sowing time
The correct time is the time when the soil thaws and the earth warms up a little. But it’s too early to plant carrots in the wrong way, in the cold earth the seeds will simply lie and then germinate for a long time.
The weather should remain warm, up to +13 degrees in the afternoon, the soil should warm up to +7. Approximate date of sowing seeds the second half of April - the beginning of MayIt all depends on the weather in your area.
Popular ways of sowing carrot seeds
1 way - the easiest, sowing of dry seeds in the grooves. With this method of sowing seeds piled a lot, carrots grow very thick and then need to thin out the seedlings for a long time. Another disadvantage is that it is necessary to wait a long time for the seedlings themselves.
2 way - sowing germinated seeds. With this variant of sowing, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture, it must be increased, otherwise the carrot will die. With this method, the seeds sprout faster.
3 way - planting carrots in the bag. To do this, in early spring, dig a hole in the spade bayonet, moisten the seeds with water and put it in this hole. Cover the hole with earth and cover it with snow. Days after 10 seeds to slip, mix them with sand and distribute them along the bed.
4 way - convenient and economical option. You need to mix 1-2 tbsp. l carrot seeds with a bucket of sand (an incomplete 1 liter bucket) and throw this mixture into the grooves in the plot. It is important that the sand is dry for uniform mixing of the seeds.
Then it is good to spill the beds with water and sprinkle with a small layer of soil. With this method, it is not necessary to thin the beds.
5 way - mixed sowing method. Mix the seeds of radish and carrots, add a little dry sand and distribute in the grooves. The radish quickly rises and is gradually eaten, for carrots there is all an empty seat. It is not necessary to thin out such a bed. Radish can be replaced by another quickly ripening plant - lettuce, spinach.
6 way - gluing seeds. Today is a very popular way - sticking seeds on the tape. There are such seeds on the tape for sale, but you can glue carrot seeds yourself with a paste with a distance of 3 cm.
This technology of planting carrots is very convenient, the cooked tape (you can use cut toilet paper) you just need to stretch along the furrow and sprinkle with earth.
7 way - Purchase of coated carrot seeds. Each carrot seed is in a jelly of dry hydrogel and fertilizer with trace elements. Dragee of bright color, clearly visible when sowing and can be laid where needed.
8 way - liquid. Take water and dissolve mineral complex fertilizers in it. Cook on this water by adding flour or starch, paste and let the solution cool.
Pour the prepared carrot seeds (2 packs of 2 g per 1 liter of the prepared paste, you can add radish seeds) and mix.
Pour the mixture into a plastic bottle, make a hole in the lid and shake it evenly in the grooves. The seed paste lies down smoothly and easily.
Seeds of carrots are sown in the grooves to a depth of 1.5 cm. Leave approximately 30 cm between the rows.
Do not forget that the maximum shelf life of carrot seeds is 2 years. Watering carrots to produce only until the appearance of these 3 leaves.
Choosing a place to land
The plant feels good only on sufficiently lit areas, shaded place will lead to a decrease in the yield of root crops and the deterioration of their taste characteristics. Also, when choosing a place where carrots will be sown, take into account which plants were grown here before. After some crops it is strictly forbidden to sow carrots for one year, such plants include dill and parsley, celery and parsnips.
After some plants, on the contrary, the carrot will feel great. You can plant a root crop in the beds, which were previously grown cucumbers and tomatoes, cabbage and onions, garlic and potatoes.
Soil composition is important: the plant prefers black soil, sandy and sandy soils. Land for planting should be well loosened, moisturized. If you sow seeds in clay and loamy soil, the carrot gives bad yields, stops growing, and gives curved, ugly root vegetables.
The yield of the crop depends on how correctly the carrot sowing time is chosen. When choosing the time of sowing, they are guided by the variety of carrot, its ripening period and the period when it is planned to harvest. To obtain early root crops, the plant is sown for the winter, or seedlings used in early spring are sown.
Sub-winter seeding is not suitable for all regions., as in some climatic zones, winter frosts can destroy seeds even when using covering materials. If the climatic zone allows sowing carrots for the winter, choose the end of October or the beginning of November for sowing, when there is no risk of a significant increase in air temperature. If podzimny planting is carried out earlier, germination of seeds may occur due to high temperatures.
Early Spring Crops begin at a time when the top layer of the earth warms to zero temperatures. To obtain an early harvest of carrots, which will be immediately eaten, it is sufficient to warm the soil to 3 ° C, this temperature is set in April or early May.
Varieties of carrots, which are characterized by medium and late ripening, are sown throughout May, depending on the climatic conditions, the time of sowing may be extended to the beginning of June. The most suitable conditions for planting are a steady increase in the ambient temperature, when the air warms up to 15-18 ° C, in most regions this temperature falls in May. If carrots are sown during this period, the crop will be stored for a long time in winter.
The purpose of preplant preparation - remove defective seeds that can not germinate. Also, seed preparation helps to improve and accelerate seed germination, and thus increase yield. All the necessary manipulations with the seeds are carried out when preparing for their direct seeding. Preseeding preparation is carried out in two stages:
- Elimination of seeds incapable of germination. To do this, pour the seeds with warm water and leave for 10-12 hours. After this time, empty seeds will float to the surface. They are collected, or drained with water.
- Treatment to improve seed germination. Take a piece of cloth, moisten it with water and lay out the selected seeds on it. Top seeds are also covered with a damp cloth. Within a few days, the fabric should be moistened, the ambient temperature for this period should be at least 20-24 ° C. As a result, the seeds should "turn". When the seeds germinate, they can be sown in the ground.
Sow carrots to a depth of 2-3 cm, if you do not comply with these parameters and plant seeds deeper, they will not be able to germinate through a thick layer of soil. You also need to keep the distance between the rows - the optimal distance is 15 cm, in such conditions, the carrots will grow freely and give the roots of good size. One should not forget about the distance between the seeds - it should be no less than 3 cm. If you fail to comply with this recommendation, when the carrot rises, thin out.
It is possible to facilitate planting and accuracy of observance of distance between seeds, using this method: On a strip of loose paper as a toilet, a pre-welded and cooled paste is applied (starch plus water). On the paste with the help of tweezers at the right distance spread the prepared seeds, a strip of paper is dried and rolled up. When planting, paper strips with seeds are simply laid out in prepared grooves, covered with earth. Paper from moisture, which is in the ground, will limp, and will not prevent seed germination.
To obtain a rich and high-quality crop, an important part of carrot cultivation is caring for it during the entire period of its growth. Components of care are:
- Weeding It begins when the carrot has not yet sprouted, and continues constantly, as the weeds negatively affect the development of the carrot.
- Loosening the soil. The land on the plot where the carrots are planted should always be loose to ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the roots. In dense soil, the germination of carrots will be difficult, the roots can grow crooked, without sufficient volume.
- Thinning crops. When two pairs of leaflets appear on the plants, they remove extra carrots, since too close proximity will prevent them from gaining weight. After thinning between individual plants should be a distance of 3-5 cm.
- Watering. Carrots belong to drought-resistant plants, but this does not mean that it can not be watered. Regular abundant watering provides abundant harvest of juicy and sweet root crops. When there is not enough water, the carrot grows lethargic, shallow, it has a bitter taste. Therefore, water crops regularly, checking that water penetrates to a depth of not less than 30 cm (this parameter is designed for adult carrots).
- Fertilization. Regular feeding is important for the proper formation and growth of plants. Over the entire period of growing carrots they are carried out at least two times. The first top dressing is recommended 1.5 months after germination, the second - two months after seed germination. As fertilizers, wood ash, potassium nitrate, and urea are used.
- Fight against diseases and pests. Carrot crops are often affected by a carrot fly, its appearance can be determined by the presence of twisted leaves on the plants. To combat the pest use drugs that can be purchased in finished form, for example, Aktellik, Intavir. Of the diseases on carrots there are fomoz (dry rot) and alternariosis. To combat these diseases using Bordeaux liquid.
Competent carrot sowing and further care - a pledge of excellent and abundant harvest, which can be proud of any gardener!
Main varieties and varieties: a detailed description
Carrot is a herbaceous plant. It can be both annual and multiyear. In the first year of “life,” only a leaf rosette and fruit are formed, and already in the second, seeds. Carrot fruit is presented in the form of a cone or cylinder, rather fleshy (the fruit can reach a weight of 1 kg or even more). Carrot inflorescence is a multipath umbrella with small flowers of white, red and yellow on the sides, as well as a central red flower.
The root of the plant contains a significant amount of nutrients: flavonoids, sugars, vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid, etc.
Depending on the length of the growing season, the vegetable can be divided into three subgroups: early ripening (ripening period is 2-3 months), middle ripening (ripening period is about 3-3.5 months, fruits are very juicy and sweet) and late ripening carrots (ripening period is about 4 months ).
There are a large number of different varieties of carrots, but some of them are distinguished from others by particularly high yields, excellent external and taste qualities of the root, as well as immunity to various diseases. Consider just such varieties (you can get acquainted with them in more detail by the photos found on the Internet):
- Amsterdam. Early ripe, very fruitful grade. The root crop reaches a weight of 100-200 g. The plant is extremely immune to various diseases and cracking.
- Finhor. The variety is early ripe (it ripens within one and a half months), it is practically insensitive to diseases. The plant does not need hilling. Root crop is quite large, in the form of a cone.
- Incomparable. The variety is perfect for sowing in the winter. He is also not afraid of pests. The fruits are very tasty, bright orange color.
- Forto. The variety is very productive, resistant not only to diseases, but also to low temperatures (including frost). Fruits grow quite large and long (up to 20 cm).
- Queen of autumn. Very popular variety. Differs in high productivity, immunity to wreckers. Fruits of a cylindrical form with bright tastes - juicy, sweet.
- Golden autumn. Popular variety with excellent yield and good disease resistance. The fruits are large, juicy.
Planting in open ground
Carrots - a plant very resistant to cold, including sub-zero temperatures. But at the same time it loves the light - it takes at least 12 hours of sunlight per day. Properly chosen time for planting is a very important point on which the yield of carrots will directly depend. The term is more dependent on the selected grade. So, early ripe carrots can be sown in winter, but you should take into account the peculiarity of the climatic conditions of your region.
The ideal time for sowing seeds in open ground is early spring. Early ripening varieties can be sown when the temperature is stably positive, around 4-6 degrees. Middle and late varieties are better to sow when the air temperature warms up to 15-18 degrees already, that is, by the end of spring - in the first days of May.
Carrots - a plant rather "tight" at the initial stage of cultivation - it gives the first shoots for a very long time. This process can last up to one and a half months. To speed up the growth process, prepare the seeds in advance. There are several ways to prepare seeds:
- Heat treatment. Seeds are wrapped in cloth and dipped for half an hour in hot water (about 50 degrees). Then they should be immediately removed and immediately immersed in chilled water for a couple of minutes.
- Soak. Carrot seeds are soaked in warm water for a day. An important point: the water needs to be changed every 3 hours. Then the seeds should be washed with water, dried and placed in the refrigerator for a couple of days.
Tip Experienced gardeners add wood ash to the water to soak the seeds (1 tbsp per liter of water).
- Burying Quite an effective method, which is to pre-bury seeds in the soil in small bags at a depth of 15 cm. On the day of planting, the seeds need to be dug, dried thoroughly and planted again in the soil.
- Drazhirovanie. Creating a nutritional shell for seeds. In the same proportions, mullein, humus, and peat are used to create the nutrient mixture. Seeds need to be immersed in it for just a few minutes, then reach and dry.
It is necessary to choose a place for planting carrots carefully: it should be sunny, even. The soil must be prepared in advance: since the fall, the earth has been digging one and a half bayonet shovels.
Fertilizers are also applied to the soil: superphosphate (20 g), potassium (15-20 g), nitrogen (15-20 g) and some humus. All figures are based on one square meter. On the eve of sowing, the soil needs to be loosened and leveled a little. Fissures for seeding about 5 cm wide are prepared. The distance between rows of 25-30 cm is surely observed. Seeds are planted very closely to each other - at a distance of only a couple of centimeters, 2 cm deep. It is advisable to fill the sow with peat mixture from above.
Carrots - a plant that is quite demanding in the care, so to get a good harvest will have to try their best.
Since the reproduction of carrots is a rather thin process, it is important to properly and regularly take care of the crops. The earth must be periodically weeded. You can begin to do this even before the first shoots appear.
To prevent a crust from forming on the ground surface, be sure to regularly flush the ground. It is advisable to do this after watering the plant. Also, carrots should not have "neighbors" in the form of weeds. The plot sown with this vegetable should always be clean.
In addition, the plant must be well thinned. This applies, of course, only when the seeds have been sown too densely. Впервые растение прореживается тогда, когда на ростках появятся несколько листочков. В результате расстояние между отдельными всходами должно быть не менее 3 см.
Чтобы корнеплоды выросли крупными и сочными, морковь должна получать достаточное количество влаги. Соответственно, полив должен быть регулярным и щедрым. An insufficient amount of moisture will cause the appearance of lateral processes, which will spoil not only the appearance of the fruit, but also their taste.
Ideal for carrots watering mode - once every 7 days. The amount of water should be:
- about 2-3 liters per square meter - before the shoot of the first shoots,
- about 10 l - after repeated thinning of the plant,
- 15-20 liters - during the active growth of the root.
Fertilizing and fertilizing
Carrots are not very demanding for top dressing - it is enough to “saturate” the soil only 2 times during the entire growth period. The first time is 30 days after the first sprouts appear, the second one after another 30 days. A nutritional mixture is prepared in this composition: 400 g of wood ash, 20 g of nitrophos, 20 g of potash nitrate (urea and superphosphate can be added). All indicated figures are based on one bucket of water.
Fight against diseases and pests
Consider the diseases and pests that the carrot is most afraid of:
- White rot. Occurs when there is an excess of fertilizers containing nitrogen. The method of struggle - the introduction of soil preparations with a copper content.
- Bacteriosis This disease is easily prevented if only healthy seeds are used.
- Gray rot. This is a real fungus, which can be overcome only by disinfecting the plant.
- Felt disease. It affects the vegetable during storage. The method of struggle - the elimination of infected roots.
- Fomoz. Brown spots appearing on carrots indicate that plant precursors were unsuccessfully selected. The method of struggle is the elimination of damaged lethargic fruits.
- Hawthorn aphid. It is rather simple to prevent the appearance of this pest: it is only necessary to check that the hawthorn does not grow near the place of planting of carrot seeds.
The combination of carrots with other plants
The following plants are considered the best predecessors for carrots: members of the nightshade family (potatoes, tomatoes), cucumber, legumes, onions, cabbage, etc. d.
Tip Do not plant carrots for more than two years in a row on the same plot. Precursors such as parsley, dill, celery, etc. should also be avoided.
Here we are with you and got acquainted with the process of growing carrots in the open field. As you can see, this process is quite simple, if the time to implement a number of measures described in detail in our article. We wish you good luck and a rich harvest!