Balsam fir "diamond" will decorate your suburban area. Such plants all year round delight the look, charge positive energy. Green colors are especially important in winter. With such plants do not have the blues, they charge a positive.
Evergreen trees are popular in many countries. Breeders are actively working with conifers. The most popular are decorative dwarf species. They are actively used in landscape design. Balsam fir "diamond" refers to rare and valuable species. This plant is not artificially cultivated, but belongs to natural dwarfs. Therefore, it is so popular with domestic designers.
Balsam fir "diamond" - the original plant, which belongs to the Pine family. Its natural habitat is Canada and the United States. The peculiarity of this culture is a short life cycle. Coniferous plant grows well in the shade, but the sun grows much better. The main thing is that the sites are protected from drafts and wind. It is better to plant a plant on well-drained, slightly acidic, fertile soil. View tolerates frost. For young trees is characterized by elegant smooth bark of ashy color, without cracks.
Balsam fir "diamond" is valued by gardeners because of its compact size. Plant height does not exceed 50 cm. Miniature sizes allow growing seedlings in containers. This variety of fir is also actively used in open ground.
The crown has the shape of a flat ball. The delicate scent of pine needles will appeal to many lovers of coniferous forests. Needles are soft, pleasant to the touch.
In the description of fir balsamic "diamond" it is indicated that the annual growth is about 3-4 cm per 1 year. Therefore, by 10 years of life, the plant will be 30-40 cm tall. It is slowly growing and it is in the hands of those who want to use it on alpine slides or mixborders.
Negatively affects the development of balsam fir "diamond" smoked and polluted air with a low humidity level.
Most conifers heavily restore their strength after transplantation. But firs are not among them. Remember that the plant is very easy to damage. When transplanting should follow a number of rules on planting and care. Balsam fir "diamond" is not a fastidious plant. The rules sounded further will allow you to keep a young and healthy coniferous plant.
So, the conditions of transplanting a sapling or adult:
- Within a radius of one meter from the fir, circular holes should be made using a sharp garden spade.
- Next, you need to gently raise the circumference of a circular spade and remove the earthen clod with roots.
- If the seedling should be moved a long distance, it should be laid on a wheelbarrow covered with a thick cloth.
- In a prepared pit you can shift the earthen room, straightening the roots.
Remember, before planting a plant should be prepared. A year before this procedure, pristvolny circle is processed. The soil around the plant should be prodded with a shovel, and the circumference of the future grown plant should be taken into account.
During this year, the fir will have time to produce new roots within the marked circle. This contributes to the rapid recovery and adaptation of the plant after transplantation. When moving, special attention should be paid to the presence of an earthen coma.
During this year, the fir will have time to produce new roots within the marked circle. This contributes to the rapid recovery and adaptation of the plant after transplantation. When moving, special attention should be paid to the presence of an earthen coma.
Balsam fir "diamond" is very sensitive to drought. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly monitor the soil moisture. Young seedlings are particularly demanding for watering. In the month they must be watered at least twice. If the summer is dry, watering should be carried out as the topsoil is drained.
When the seedling takes root, regular watering should be gradually canceled. The main reference for you should be the weather. After all, subject to prolonged lack of precipitation, the plant needs additional moisture.
Prevent excessive watering. It can also have a detrimental effect on the development of the diamond balsam fir. The photo of this tree conquers with its uniqueness and attractiveness. Therefore, gardeners who decide to acquire such an attractive plant, should know how to properly care for him. In fact, it is simple. The main thing is to regularly ensure that the fir received the necessary moisture.
Due attention should be paid to pristvolnomu circle. After watering is required to regularly loosen the soil and clean it from weeds. You can additionally make a protective mulch layer. To do this, use peat briquettes, pine needles or sawdust. But remember, you must leave free space next to the root of the neck.
This plant has many positive reviews. Balsam fir "diamond" does not need special care. This also applies to trim plants. Indeed, in the first 15 years of life, these manipulations can not be carried out. It is only necessary to remove dry or diseased branches in early spring. Remember that this procedure should be performed before the movement of the juice. Experts recommend for this use peeled special garden shears.
In order for the plant to remain compact and miniature, branches can be cut to 1/3.
The ideal time to transplant a plant is from early April to October. It is necessary to prepare not only a hole of a certain size in advance, but also a special soil with which it will be filled. Experts recommend using peat, coarse sand, clay, leaf humus.
The prepared soil allows to increase the friability of the existing soil. To achieve this goal will help and thick drainage layer. For its manufacture, you can use sawdust, crushed stone and expanded clay.
To the prepared soil you can add and some mineral fertilizers. In the future (the next 2 years) the plant can not be fed. Mineral compounds can be used to stimulate the growth of fir trees.
First you need to choose a suitable, brightly lit area. In extreme cases, the landing site may be in partial shade. The best time for the procedure is a warm day, without a bright light. The rainy season is also a suitable period for transplanting.
Two weeks before planting a plant is required to prepare a place. The hole is dug 60 cm deep and 50 cm wide. This takes into account the size of the earth coma with the root system.
If you want to create an alley of fir, then the distance between the seedlings should be about 2.5 m.
In the prepared pit pour 1 bucket of water.
At the bottom of the pit lay claydite, crushed stone or broken brick. Such drainage will help to avoid marshy soil and stagnant water in it.
Next, you should prepare a soil mixture of the above ingredients (humus, sand, clay, sawdust). She is buried in a pit and left alone for fourteen days.
After two weeks, you can transplant a seedling into a prepared pit, gently straightening the roots. The missing amount of soil should be poured from above. The surface is leveled with light movements.
Fir should be watered thoroughly and evenly.
Growing conditions for balsamic fir diamond are very important if you want to get a gorgeous plant in your garden. In addition to the prepared soil and the correct technology of transplantation, special attention should be paid to fertilizing. After all, depleted soil has a detrimental effect on the development of any plant, including conifers. Therefore, periodically it is necessary to introduce nutrients into the soil.
In the spring, 100 grams of “Kemira” should be added to the stem of the plant. After feeding, the soil is carefully watered, because dry land in combination with fertilizers can adversely affect the condition of the fir.
Fertilize balsam fir can be once a year. If necessary, re-introduction of mineral components into the soil is allowed in autumn.
Growing in a container
The description and photo of the diamond balsam fir indicate that plants often use for decoration not only personal plots, but also entertainment centers and restaurants. In short, this type of coniferous plants are often grown in containers. In this case, you should know that the fir grows wide.
Therefore, the plant should be regularly transplanted into a larger, larger container. For planting it is better to use rounded pots.
At the bottom should be sure to lay the drainage layer. This may be crushed stone, pebbles or fragments of ceramic dishes. Make sure that several holes are drilled in the bottom to drain the water.
Diseases and pests
So, when growing balsam fir "diamond" (photo), planting and leaving do not cause any particular difficulties. The plant attracts with its unpretentiousness and beauty. But special attention should be paid to preventive treatment of the tree from diseases and pests.
Fir is quite unpretentious plant. Many coniferous trees are distinguished by endurance and resistance.
The loss of attractive appearance often indicates the appearance of such a pest as fir hermes. This is a dangerous type of aphid that promotes yellowing of the needles. Females of this pest wake up in spring. During this period, it is best to treat the plants with the Rogor or Antio solutions. For 10 liters of water will need 20 grams of the drug. The development and reproduction of this pest can lead to the death of the plant.
Systemic insecticides also interfere with the reproduction of the shoots moth and cone leafworm.
If rust began to form on the shoots, and the needles turned yellow, then this may cause the spread of the fungal disease. In this case, remove all affected areas. Cut branches should be carefully collected and burned.
On the cut-off places it is necessary to apply garden pitch. It is recommended that the fir crown be treated with a 2% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Balsam fir "diamond" - an attractive ornamental plant. It is used for gardening gardens, both in single and in group plantings. Due to its compactness, the plant feels great in containers. Dwarf fir is used in the preparation of complex landscape compositions.
How to care at home
Balsam fir prefers a moist substrate.
The plant is very sensitive to dry conditions. You will need to regularly moisten the soil. The young seedling needs to be watered twice a month. In hot summer watering is necessary as the topsoil is drained.
After sufficient rooting, it is possible to continue watering only if there is a prolonged absence of precipitation. Excessive watering is detrimental to the development of fir.
Particular attention should be paid to pristvolnom circle. Regularly need to loosen the soil after watering. Additionally, you can clean the soil from weeds.
Sawdust or peat briquettes can be used as a protective mulch layer.
As mulch should use sawdust or pine needles.
It is very important to leave free space near the root neck.
Unlike other representatives of conifers, fir quickly recuperates after replanting. To damage a plant is very simple. You must follow a number of rules to save the young fir:
- Within a radius of forty centimeters from the plant should be done circular holes with a sharp garden shovel.
- The depth of the spade should be carefully raised.
- Carefully remove the earthy ball and fir roots.
- Fir should be carefully moved to the wheelbarrow, covered with clean dense cloth.
- In the pit prepared in advance, you should shift the earthen room and straighten the roots.
One year prior to transplanting an adult fir, the tree trunk should be processed. With a shovel you need to pierce the soil. It is necessary to take into account the large circle for the grown-up plant.
It is necessary to prepare in advance for the transplant of fir.
In the current growing season, the culture will have time to produce new roots within the circle. Fir will be able to recover faster after changing location. Self-extraction of coniferous trees can harm the plant. It is advisable to attract to move several assistants. It is important to monitor the preservation of earthy coma.
If the fir is planted in a container, it is necessary to monitor the growth of the root system. The displacement of the soil and the appearance of roots in the bottom of the tank are clear signs of the need to change the soil and the pot.
Balsam fir in the first fifteen years of development does not need pruning. You can clean the plant in early spring from the affected or dry branches. Conduct sanitary procedure should be before the start of sap flow. It is advisable to use peeled garden shears.
Fir has a beautiful natural crown shape.
The plant itself forms a delightful crown.
For compactness, you can prune shoots to the third part.
Fir in open field
Fir should be planted on the site from the beginning of March to the first decrease in temperature in late autumn. It is necessary to prepare the mixture to fill the wells. It is advisable to use clay, peat, leaf humus and coarse sand.
To increase the looseness of the soil by using a thick drainage layer. It is recommended to prepare crushed stone, sawdust and expanded clay.
In the pit when planting, you can add a small dose of mineral fertilizers. During the first two years, it is not advisable to feed. Mineral compounds can be used as growth promoters for sprouted fir.
Tree in a natural environment.
It is advisable to choose a brightly lit area for the fir. The plant is able to support development in the penumbra. For planting fir in the open air you will need:
- Choose the best time from early April to September. It is recommended to perform the procedure on a warm day without bright sunshine. You can plant a conifer in the rainy season.
- Two weeks before landing, you must carefully prepare the place. It is necessary to dig a hole with a depth of about 70 cm and a width of no more than 55 cm. It is also necessary to take into account the volume of the earthen coma with the root system. To create an alley or hedge you should keep a distance of at least 4 meters between cultures. For group planting distance can be reduced to 2.5 meters.
- In the hole you need to pour about 10 liters of water.
- The drainage layer of broken bricks will help to avoid stagnation of water and soil wetting.
- For the preparation of soil mixture, you can use clay, sand and humus. You can add to the composition of sawdust and two hundred grams of nitrophoska. Fill the well with the mixture.
- After 14 days you can put the seedlings in the hole. It is necessary to gently straighten the roots.
- Top need to fill the missing amount of soil and lightly level the surface.
- After planting, it is necessary to water the fir carefully and evenly.
Detailed step by step instructions for planting can be found in the video:
How to prepare the soil
Fir prefers drained, sufficiently moist and nutritious soil. It is recommended to plant the plant next to water.
It is advisable to prepare a loamy soil with sufficient capacity. Before planting it is necessary to loosen the ground thoroughly.
Depleted soil detrimental effect on the development of fir. It should be periodically made to the soil useful nutrients. In early spring, one hundred grams of Kemira’s remedy should be added to the tree trunk. After feeding you must carefully pour the soil.
After feeding, it is necessary to moisten the soil.
Dry earth combined with fertilizer can destroy fir.
Fertilizer is sufficient to make once a year. If necessary, for one growing season, you can re-feed the soil. Mineral ingredients should be used in the fall.
The tree grows wide. Therefore, as it grows, it is desirable to change the pot to a massive wide container. It is necessary to choose a round pot. As a drainage, you can use pebbles or fragments of ceramic dishes. At the bottom of the tank you need to make several holes to drain the water.
Pests and diseases
Fir rather unpretentious culture. Coniferous tree is resistant and endurance.
The loss of decoration may indicate the appearance of fir hermes. Dangerous representative of aphids causes yellowing of needles. Insect females wake up in early spring.
It is necessary to treat the plant with the solution "Antio" or "Rogor". One dosage includes twenty grams of the drug per ten liters of water.
Systemic insecticides have a strong effect on the cone leafworm and shoots moth.
The simultaneous appearance of yellow needles and rust on the shoots is a consequence of a fungal disease. Rust affected areas must be removed.
All infected areas of the plant must be destroyed.
Обрезанные места нужно обработать садовым варом. На крону пихты следует распылить бордосскую жидкость. Желательно использовать 2% смесь. All cut particles must be carefully collected and destroyed.
Growing on a plot in close proximity with a star sprout or ascicle promotes infection of the crop. It is necessary to transplant plants.
Reaction to fir
Balsam fir oil can cause allergic manifestations. The main signs of intolerance:
- Itching of the skin.
- The appearance of red blisters.
After discontinuation, all symptoms will disappear after three days.
Check the reaction to the plant is very simple. It is enough to put five drops of oil on the front side of the hand. You will need to thoroughly rub the composition into the skin. If within 24 hours there will be characteristic signs of allergies, it is not recommended to use the tool.
With extreme caution it is necessary to take fir oil to people prone to cardiovascular diseases. The components of the tree tend to accumulate in the body.
Collect fir oil.
Fir is contraindicated in epilepsy and a tendency to seizures. It is not recommended to use the substance in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, drinking oil and alcohol can cause symptoms of poisoning. Medicinal effect of fir will disappear.
Fir oil is strictly forbidden to use for pregnant women while breastfeeding and young children.
Prepare planting material is quite difficult. Cones on adult trees form high. After ripening, all seeds of the winged form can fly apart.
It is advisable to get an immature lump. It is necessary to dry it indoors. After opening it is necessary to remove the planting material and place it in storage in a room with a high level of humidity (for example, a basement) or in a refrigerator. With the help of the stratification procedure, the seeds will increase germination.
In April, after the threat of a decrease in temperature has receded, it is possible to disperse seeds into holes or beds two centimeters deep. As a substrate, you must use a mixture of sod land and clean sand. The landing site is not watered to avoid the formation of a crust of the top layer of soil. From above it is necessary to cover with a polyethylene transparent film.
In a month, the first shoots will appear. It is necessary to remove the polyethylene and pour the soil. It is necessary to gently loosen the substrate and weed weeds.
In winter, seedlings need to be protected from a sharp drop in temperature. It will take mulch and spruce branches.
The grown seedling can be moved in the spring to a permanent place of cultivation.
Balsam fir in four years can reach only 35 cm. The main development is in the root system. In subsequent years, growth will accelerate rapidly.
The first shoots of fir.
For distribution it is necessary to use annual shoots of young plants. On the handle should be only one tip. It is not advisable to cut the escape. It is recommended to tear off the cutting with parts of wood and bark by a sharp movement.
It is advisable to prepare planting material in early spring, before the moment of sap flow. Experienced gardeners are advised to use cuttings in the middle section of the crown.
For disinfection it is necessary to use "Fundazol" or "Captan". Planting material can be treated with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
For planting you need to prepare a mixture of leaf humus, fertile soil and clean sand. Cuttings should be placed in a container with the substrate and covered with clear glass.
Promotes rooting heated soil. You can use a heating pad or water bottle. The liquid should be three degrees warmer than room temperature.
It is necessary to place the container in a bright place, protected from direct sunlight. Daily need to air fir. In the cold season it is advisable to move the pot to the basement. In early spring, you can make cuttings to fresh air. Fir roots will appear only after 2 years.
Delightful shade of fir cones.
On the coniferous tree are formed dioecious inflorescences. The culture will begin to form buds at the age of twenty.
Fruits are produced once every two years. Pollination lasts for two months (from April to May). Cones appear in September.
How to choose balsam fir
Balsam fir “Nana” sapling 0.8 m in length is sold at an average price of 3,500 rubles. The cost of balsamic "Brilliant" fir seed is 350 rubles for 5 pieces or 600 rubles for 10 pieces.
Very useful and interesting information! Thank you, I will be very attentive. I have long wanted to buy such a miracle! Now I know how to care for this beautiful plant.
Watering balsamic fir
This plant is extremely sensitive to the presence or absence of moisture. In this regard, the soil moisture around the tree should be systematically monitored. Young specimens are particularly demanding for watering. In one month they need to be watered abundantly twice, regardless of the presence and abundance of natural precipitation. And if the summer was drought dry, then watering will need to be repeated as soon as the ground dries.
When the new seedling has enough roots, then it will be possible to begin regular watering slowly to cancel. Excessive watering should also be avoided.but. It can harm a tree just as seriously as an excessive drought. The external beauty of this tree is not the first decade is striking in its attractiveness and unique properties. In this regard, gardeners who have decided to acquire this wonderful tree should understand how to properly care for it. However, you should not be afraid, because it is quite simple. The most important thing is to monitor the watering.
Also, careful attention to the care of the fir must be paid to the condition of its tree circle. It is necessary to regularly monitor the presence of weeds and time to remove them. It will also be helpful to lay a layer of mulch around the plant. Peat briquettes, sawdust or needles are suitable for this fir. However, it should be remembered that it is imperative to leave free space directly near the root collar.
Features landing in the ground
- First, pick a well-lit area. If not, then in extreme cases, you can apply penumbra. But completely dark areas should be avoided.
- The optimal time for a transplant is a warm sunny day, however, without a bright light. Desirable windless. The rainy season may also be suitable for disembarkation.
- Before 14 days before disembarking, it is necessary to prepare a place. The hole is pulled out about 60 cm deep and 50 cm wide. It should also be borne in mind that the size of the earthen ball with the roots must be of suitable size.
- If you want to create a fir line, you need to maintain a distance between plantings of about two and a half, and preferably three meters.
- In a hole dug in advance you need to pour a bucket of water.
- At the bottom is placed crushed stone expanded clay or broken brick. Such a drainage will make it possible to avoid ground swamping, as well as stagnant water.
- After that, an earthen mixture is placed of the ingredients listed above: clay, humus, sand, sawdust.
- The mixture is placed in a pit and does not touch for about 2 weeks.
- When the time is up, you can begin to plant the seedlings in the prepared hole, carefully watching that the roots are not damaged and that they are well-straightened.
- From above it is necessary to water the newcomer with a small amount of moisture.
- At the final stage, soil is poured around the trunk. It should be leveled with shallow movements.
- If you want to grow this amazing and luxurious plants right in your backyard, be sure to save the conditions for growing fir.
- Together with the prepared soil and the correct agrotechnologies of planting, it is necessary to carry out the correct feeding.
- Poor soil will have a detrimental effect on the growth and development of any plant, not excluding coniferous. This suggests that nutrient input into the soil should be systematic. In the spring, about 100 g of Kemira are added to the fir circle.
After feeding, the land is watered properly, since dry land in combination with fertilizers can very detrimentally affect the condition of the fir. Fertilize balsam fir can be once a year. If necessary, re-introduction of mineral components into the soil is allowed in autumn.
Balsam Fir: Description
Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) represents the Pine family, the description of its varieties varies by size and has more than 20. There are both small ornamental shrubs, up to 50 cm high, and powerful trees reaching 40 meters in height. Almost all types of balsamic fir have a regular-shaped pyramidal cone-shaped crown, widely spreading branches with lush needles.
Cones oval-cylindrical shape, brown, brown and brownish-purple, up to 10 cm in length. The bark is gray-brown, smooth. In the wild, tree height usually reaches 23-35 m. The length of the needles reaches 25 mm and has a comb location. The upper part of the needles dark green, shiny, with light stripes at the bottom. Balsam fir has its own structural features - the lack of resin passages in the wood. They are concentrated in the bark, unlike other conifers. In addition, the plant has a superficial root system. The average lifespan of a tree is over 200 years.
Popular varieties of balsamic fir
In nature, there are more than twenty varieties of balsam fir, including wild and cultural forms.
The most popular for growing in summer cottages are dwarf, slow-growing varieties:
- Kiwi - slow-growing, dwarf shrub up to 50 cm high. It has a rounded crown and dark green, thick, shiny needles, relatively short. Young trees have bluish color needles. This variety is popular in small, rocky gardens or rockeries, and is the ideal form for growing in pots.
- Nana - dwarf, slow-growing shrub in height from 50 cm to 1 m. Crohn round shape, up to 2 m in diameter. It has spreading, dense, horizontal branches. The needles are thick, dark green, short with white and blue stripes at the bottom. This shade-tolerant and cold-resistant balsamic fir variety is easy to plant and care for. Looks good in containers, rocky gardens and garden landscaping.
- Hudsonia - One of the most common fir, also dwarf. It has very thick branches and short, flat needles, painted in black and green above and bluish green below. Bred in the United States, New Hampshire, where it grows in the upper forests.
- Piccolo - highly decorative, miniature variety, tree height does not exceed 30-50 cm. It has a rounded dark green crown, of a saturated color. Young shrubs light green. Great for alpine slides, container landings.
- Green Globe - a small coniferous plant, has very thick and soft dark green needles. The height of the adult fir is up to 1 m. The crown is even, spherical, not requiring trimming. Planted in solitary form, decorating lawns, alpine slides and rocky gardens, as well as well grown in containers.
What kind of soil loves balsamic fir
Culture grows well in moist, rich, well-drained, loamy soil. Since it is rather difficult to grow fir in heavy soil, it will be necessary to arrange a 20 cm drainage layer of fine crushed stone or small broken brick. Then it is necessary to pour a mixture of complex mineral fertilizers with rotted sawdust over the drainage layer. It should also be borne in mind that although fir balsamic and likes well-moistened soils, it cannot stand stagnant water.
Planting balsamic fir
For planting balsamic fir in the country will require seedlings not younger than four years. Landings are made in April, and it is better to choose a rainy or overcast day for this. Two weeks before planting, you need to dig a hole about 60x60x60 cm, depending on the size of the seedling's root system. Then, 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the pit and, after it has been absorbed, dig the bottom by half a shovel.
Lay a five-centimeter layer of drainage from crushed stone or brick battle and fill half the substrate. A composition of 3 parts of humus, 2 parts of clay, peat and sand of 1 part, 10 kg of sawdust and 0.2-0.3 kg of nitrophoska will work well. Two weeks after the soil has settled in the pit, place a seedling in it so that the root collar remains level with the surface of the plot. Then straighten the roots and fill the pit with the remaining half of the substrate, seal the fit and pour. If you want to grow a balsamic fir alley, then plantings should be located at a distance of 4-5 m from each other.
Features care for balsamic fir
Balsam fir is distinguished by good shade tolerance and frost resistance, therefore, it is easy to care for fir plantings. But in harsh climatic conditions with a sharp change in temperature, frostbite of the trunk part of the tree is often observed. Therefore, in the winter you will need to cover the young planting spice plants. It is also worth remembering that fir has a superficial root system, which makes the plant unstable, because of this it is often damaged by strong gusts of wind.
Top dressing of a balsam fir
After planting, as well as for the winter, it is necessary to mulch the stem of the seedling in diameter of about 50 cm with chips, sawdust or peat, laying mulch 5-10 cm layer. The plant needs additional feeding only 2-3 years after planting. In the spring, it will be necessary to add 100-125 g of Kemira Universal to the near-bar circle.
How to form a crown of fir
Balsam fir does not require special care, however, for the cultivation of lush coniferous beauty in the garden will require periodic sanitary pruning. It is carried out in the spring, before the beginning of the active movement of juices. Garden scissors remove old, dry and damaged branches. Decorative pruning to form a crown is done if necessary, because the fir is naturally tidy and regular crown. But if there is a need to correct the form, it should be done by shortening the shoots by no more than a third the length.
Major pests and plant diseases
As you could be convinced, to plant a fir on the seasonal dacha, special skills and efforts are not required. But to grow a healthy tree, sometimes you have to deal with some diseases and pests of this culture. Most decorative balsamic fir suffers from spruce-fir hermes, a kind of aphid. The defeat of this pest leads to yellowing and weakening of the needles. To get rid of Hermes, the preparations "Antio" or "Rogor" will be suitable, with which fir is treated in early spring, when surviving wintering individuals wake up. The solution is prepared from 20 g of one of these preparations and 10 liters of water.
The same insecticides will also help in the case of the attack of other insect pests — a fir cone leafworm and a fir spur moth. Sometimes the fir may have yellowing of the needles and the formation of rusty cushions on the shoots. The reason for this is rust, a type of fungal disease. In this case, the diseased branches are cut and burned together with fallen needles, and the cuts are smeared with garden pitch. After that, the crown must be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid 2%.
Planting and maintenance of balsam fir
Fir seedlings are planted in the open land from the beginning of spring to the end of autumn. Seedlings can be purchased in greenhouses or grow independently. As for the soil, the best option is loamy soil.
If at the site there is no such, then it is necessary to prepare a substrate that needs to be added to the dimple for planting. To create the soil, it is necessary to take three parts of humus, the same amount of clay, one part of sand and peat.
Land for landing must be carefully dig. Lay a drainage layer at the bottom of the pit. A good option is a mixture based on sawdust and rubble.
The size of the pit for planting a bush should be at least 50 by 50 cm. When planting, the edge of the root should be flush with the ground. Best of all taken seedlings, which age from 5 years.
Growing a few fir bushes, it should be noted that there should be a distance of about 3 m between the trees. It is explained by the growth of the root system.
In Canada, balsam fir is considered the most popular species. Its habitat is the border with coniferous forest.
Two years after planting the fir, you can begin to fertilize it. As a top dressing, special mineral compounds suitable for coniferous plants are suitable. Fertilizers are also applied during planting to ensure rapid rooting.
If you plan to grow fir in a pot or container, then as the tree grows you should change the capacity to a larger one. Fir feels well in the shade, but the sun loves more, so an open area with good lighting will be the best landing site.
Fir is not a capricious tree. It is resistant to frost and wind. Wet and cool soil will be the best place for fir. Soil for its full growth should be fertile, loose, with average acidity. Высокая температура воздуха, большое количество песка в почве являются для пихты губительными.
Если в вашей местности регулярно идут дожди, то деревья можно не поливать. В ином случае орошать пихту следует регулярно. Два раза в неделю отстоянной водой будет достаточно. Уплотненная почва способна негативно сказаться на развитии растения. Therefore, you should regularly dig up the soil around the plants so that it becomes loose. It is recommended to mulch the soil periodically with peat or sawdust.
Digging can not be done close to the trunk, so as not to touch the roots.
The fir has very strong branches, but if a lot of snow falls, then under its weight they can bend and break. Therefore, it is very important to install props. It is better not to plant fir in conditions of polluted air, since it is harmful for it. It is best to place a tree in the countryside, where the climate is cleaner.
In most varieties, the crown of the tree is formed by itself; it is not necessary to trim the branches for its modeling. To create the crown remove only the central shoots of the side branches. A similar procedure is carried out in the autumn period of the year, when the flow of juice is suspended.
In the winter months, when severe frosts are observed, small fir should be covered.
Pests and diseases
The plant is quite resistant to various ailments. Rare watering or negative weather changes can weaken the immune system. These factors provoke spruce-fir hermes in the plant. The disease manifests itself in lightening the color of the needles. In addition, a sign of the disease is the appearance of white dots and black insects on the needles. Fir is prone to the disease in springtime. If you notice signs of illness, treat the plant with insecticides that have a complex effect.
Balsam fir in landscape design
Balsam fir is a frequent element of landscape design. Used in the formation of alleys, to create hedges. Fir has external elegance and attractiveness, so it stands out in a variety of compositions. Also looks beautiful and self-growing. Shrub looks great on both large and small areas and cottages. When you create a site in the style of modern, Japanese style, you can safely use fir. In the garden of coniferous plants, it will take its place of honor. Balsam fir is beautiful on the alpine hills, rockeries, heather garden.
In the wild, the tree lives along the coast. Therefore, on the backyards you can safely plant it near the reservoirs. When making a personal plot by planting fir, one should pay attention to the fact that the balsam fir Nana and Hudzonia are most suitable for these purposes.
Balsam Diamond Fir General Description
The height of the fir does not exceed 50 cm. The compact root allows you to grow a variety not only in unlimited soil, but also in tubs. The crown of the diamond is spherical, slightly flattened. The color of the needles - bright light green, closer to the light green. The aroma is strong, characteristic of fir. To the touch the needles are soft.
The annual growth of the plant is from 3 to 4 cm. By 10 years old, the fir has a height of no more than 40 cm, and its growth from that moment slows down. Size 50 cm have only fully grown plants. In winter, the miniature fir should be covered with sacking to prevent frosting. The rest of the diamond does not require complex care.
The description of the variety is attractive, and it is effectively used in landscape design. Soft needles make fir safe for children and allows you to use playing areas for landscaping.
How to plant and transplant fir?
This fir belongs to unpretentious conifers. Proper planting, and, if necessary, transplanting - the key to the full growth of the plant. It is recommended to plant Brilliant fir in open ground from the age of 5 years. Planted earlier, it may not settle down due to insufficient development of the root system. Choose for planting should solar plot, protected from the wind. You can not plant fir in places where water stagnates.
The pit for planting is prepared 50 to 50 cm, 80 cm deep. In case of heavy soil, a drainage layer of expanded clay or crushed stone is laid on the bottom, which must be covered with sand or sawdust from above. The soil that is poured into the pit is prepared from 3 parts of clay, the same amount of humus, 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. Also available and available land for conifers.
First, the landing pit should be half filled with earthen sand. Then the plant is put into it and the roots are evenly distributed, preventing them from turning. After that, the roots gently fall asleep the remaining soil, without deepening the root neck of the seedling. Then the soil is compacted, and the fir is watered abundantly. For 1 plant requires 30 liters of water.
When transplanting the ephedra around the plant, a trench is dug. Its distance from the trunk should be at least 50 cm. Then the fir is removed with a clod of earth and transferred to a new location. If the distance to it is large, then a clod of earth is wrapped into burlap to prevent it from shedding. Fir is planted in the same way as described above.
The optimal time for transplanting will be the middle of spring. If there is an urgent need, you can move the canister in another period, but at the same time it will be stronger to repot the transplant, and more care will be required.
Rules for the care of fir brilliant
The plant is sensitive to both excess and lack of moisture. Young specimens are watered 2 times a month with moderate rainfall and once a month with heavy. With a shortage of rain, watering is needed every time the topsoil dries out.
The land around the plant is regularly loosened. Its surface is partially mulched with sawdust - they are not sprinkled with soil in the immediate vicinity of the root collar. Weed plants should be shed as they appear.
Top dressing is carried out once a year in spring, when plantings are restored after winter. Use special dressings for conifers. Additionally, fertilizer should not be applied during the year, as this will harm the conifer.
Trimming in the first 15 years after planting is not required. However, it is necessary to cut off the branches dried in the spring after the winter or badly damaged by frost. In addition, pruned branches affected by disease. Use for this sharp pruner, which cuts the branch, not razmochalivaya it.
How does the plant reproduce?
Brilliant can be propagated by seed or cuttings. Breeding seeds at home is difficult and does not apply. The main breeding method for Fir Diamond is grafting. As planting material used annual shoots from a young plant. It is better to tear off the cutting by a sharp movement, and not to cut it off. The material is harvested at the beginning of spring until the moment of activation of sap flow.
Cuttings rooted in greenhouse conditions or use a container that is covered with glass on top. For the development of cuttings it is better to use a mixture of leaf earth and sand. To enhance the process of rooting, cuttings before planting in the ground is lowered into Kornevin.
Brilliant is a beautiful plant that can be used for various gardens due to its ability to grow in the open field and tubs.