Vegetables

Leek: planting and care, useful properties

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Leek is a giant among the rest of the bows. Some of his varieties reach a meter height. Traditionally, many leeks are grown in the south of Ukraine, in the Baltic States and Transcaucasia. In Russia, he is just gaining popularity.

The main edible part of the vegetable is a bleached false stalk consisting of leaf sheaths. The length of this part of the plant can reach 50 cm. Young leek leaves can also be used as food - wide, ribbon-like. Having matured, they will plunge and become tasteless.

Adding leeks to food makes it tasty and digestible. Onions do not have a sharp smell, it has a delicate aroma and delicate taste. The bleached part of the leek is sweetish, so it can be eaten for people with diseases of the alimentary tract

Requirements for growing conditions

Leek belongs to the group of sweet Spanish onions, along with shallot, bulb, batun, stacked and chives. The birthplace of culture is the northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean. Hence the requirements for temperature - the plant is cold-resistant enough to tolerate short-term lowering of temperature to -5, sometimes to -10 degrees, and long-term lowering to -1 ... -2 degrees.

The optimum temperature for photosynthesis in a leek is the same as in other vegetables of Mediterranean origin - within + 17 ... +23. Leek grows poorly at temperatures above +30 degrees.

Leek Temperature Range

The optimum acidity of the soil for culture is 6.8-6.0.

Like all bows, leek is a rosette plant, but unlike tubular leaves of batun and turnip, leek leaves have a linear tape-like shape.

Leek is a biennial. In the first year, leaves are formed, in the second - the stocking organ (bulb) and seeds.

Despite the exotic look, the lee is cold-resistant. In areas where there is a lot of snow, for example, in Siberia, it can successfully winter right on the garden bed. The following year, the plant will give onions and seeds.

Recommended varieties

The state register includes 27 varieties suitable for cultivation in all regions of Russia, including Siberia and the Far East. In seed shops you can buy seeds of the following varieties:

  • Alligator - medium late, mass of bleached part 300 g, yield 3.5 kg square. m,
  • Karantan - late ripe, the mass of the bleached part is 300 g, the taste is semi-sharp,
  • Elephant's trunk - mid-season, summer-autumn in ripening, the mass of the productive part of 150 g, yield more than 4 kg per square meter. m

Preparing for landing

Due to the length of the growing season, most regions of the Russian Federation grow leek seedlings. Only in the south can it be sown with seeds in open ground. Plants sown directly on the bed, more hardened, more easily tolerate drought and cold weather.

Leek seedlings are conveniently grown in cassettes. Cassettes allow you to transplant young plants without injuring the roots, which ensures their rapid survival. Cassette seedlings do not need a pick. Plant survival rate is almost 100%.

Seedlings are better not to grow. The highest yield is achieved when planting 30-40 day plants. When planting 50-day seedlings can be lost in yield, as its roots will be damaged during transplantation.

Good seedlings at the time of landing in open ground has a length of 15-20 cm, 3-4 true leaves and 0.3-0.4 cm in diameter.

Beyond the Ural, seeds for seedlings are sown on March 15, in the middle lane no later than March 1. Planting tanks are filled with peat mixed with diammophoska (40 g of fertilizer per 10 liters of substrate).

Brief history and description of the plant

Leek (it is also sometimes called the pearl onion), originated in ancient times in Asia, from where it was common in the Mediterranean. There it grows wild in the present. In the cultural form was known to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Due to the growing popularity in the Middle Ages, it spread throughout Europe. The maximum cultivation, consumption and exports of leeks are achieved in Western Europe, especially in France, and it is also widely distributed in North America. In Russia, in the middle of the last century, they knew little about this bow. In 1961, the first of the Poeren, Karantansky, appeared in the State Register, where it existed alone for 22 years. Only since 1993, the list gradually began to expand, and at present its number has reached twenty-seven varieties with different ripening terms.

Being a two-year-old herbaceous plant, the leek is an onion without onions or with a small number of them. From the center of it comes a stem, from which broad linear leaves depart. Depending on the variety, as well as on the growing conditions, the leaves can be light or dark green. The lower white part is called the false stem, which is mainly used in food. Its length is usually from 10 to 50 cm, and a diameter of 2-5 cm. These parameters depend on the method of planting and growing conditions. Reported cases of leeks weighing up to nine kilograms.

Cases of growing leeks weighing up to nine kilograms

If you leave the leek for the second year, then it forms a spherical peduncle up to two meters in height, which blooms in mid-summer. At first it is covered with a cover, after opening of which small white or pale pink flowers appear (they can also be purple or lilac in various varieties of onions). Seeds are harvested, as a rule, in September.

First, the leech peduncle is covered with a cover, after the opening of which small white or whitish-pink flowers appear.

Leeks are rich in salts:

And also there are vegetable proteins and vitamins:

  • vitamin C,
  • a nicotinic acid,
  • carotene,
  • riboflavin.

Moreover, unlike other fruits, during storage, the amount of vitamin C in this onion is not reduced, but significantly increased. This happens as a result of the transition of juices from the leaves into the leg.

Assortment of leek varieties

There are varieties of leek with different ripening terms. In September and even August, early onions are harvested. The term of their maturation is 150 days from the moment of appearance of full shoots. By mid-season include varieties ripening for 180 days. Accordingly, they will be harvested in October, closer to its end. Late varieties ripen for more than 190 days, and in areas with a mild climate they can be left for winter in the soil for early spring use.

From the early varieties can be noted:

  • Jumper The Dutch hybrid of medium height (up to 60 centimeters) with a length of bleached part of 20-25 centimeters and a diameter of up to four centimeters. The weight of the edible part is in the range of 250-350 grams. The average yield is 2.5 kg / m 2.
  • Vesta. Domestic variety of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. The height of the plant is 1–1.4 meters, the diameter of the bleached part is 2.1–3 cm, its length is 26–50 cm, and the weight is 210–232 grams. The yield reaches 5.7 kg / m 2.
  • The trunk of an elephant is a variety from the well-known agrofirm Aelita. It has modest characteristics: the length of the bleached part is 15 cm, its diameter is 2.5 cm, and the mass is 150 grams. But the yield is almost twice as high as Jumper - 4.3 kg / m 2.

Popular mid-season varieties:

  • Casimir. Known since 1996 German productive variety. In the State Register attributed to mid-ripening, although the period of its maturation is 200 days from the emergence of shoots. It has a false stem with a length of 22–26 cm and a diameter of 3–3.5 cm. The yield for industrial cultivation is 399 centners per hectare, including the bleached part — 291 centners per hectare.
  • Gulliver. The variety was obtained by breeders of St. Petersburg in 2002. The plant is of medium height with a length of bleached part 25 cm, diameter 4.5 cm and an average weight of 230 grams. With one square meter receive 4.2 kg of edible stems.
  • Tango. Russian-Czech variety. The state registry refers to the middle ripening with a ripening period of 150 days. It has a small stem (12 cm) in length, but a rather large diameter — 5 cm. The average mass of the productive part is 200–250 grams.

And finally, late varieties:

  • Karantan. The height of the bow is medium, the leg has a length of 10 to 25 centimeters and a diameter of 4 centimeters. At the same time, the mass is 204–325 grams, the yield is 213–258 c / ha with a marketability of 98–100%.
  • Good fellow. Another variety from Aelita, which has a tall plant with a leg length of 28 centimeters and a diameter of 4.5 centimeters. The productive part has a mass of about 200 grams, yield - 3.9 kg / m 2.
  • Elephant MC. Czech selection. The ripening period is 180–200 days. The height of the plant is 65–85 cm, the foot length is 10–25 cm, there is no data on the diameter, it is indicated that it is average. Plant weight - 200 grams. The yield is 320–380 centners per hectare. According to the description of the originator, it has low moisture and frost resistance.

Rules for growing leeks

This process is not particularly complex and quite capable of even a novice gardener. And if he already has experience in growing ordinary onions from seeds, then it will be easy for him to cope with this crop.

Usually, leeks are planted with seedlings, since they have fairly long ripening periods. But there are also options for planting seeds or bulbs (as people call sighting bulbs) right on the garden bed.

Landing time

They, of course, depend on the growing region. In the middle zone, leek seedlings are usually planted in the ground by mid-May, like other garden crops. Given that its age should be about 60-70 days by the time of disembarkation, and the seeds, as a rule, germinate within 1.5-2 weeks, they should be sown for seedlings during the period from the beginning of February to the first days of March. For other regions, these dates are adjusted depending on their climatic conditions. The application of the seedling method is guaranteed to allow you to get the fruit in one season.

When growing a leek in a seedless way, it is necessary to start sowing seeds as soon as possible - immediately after the occurrence of suitable weather conditions. Using the seeds of early ripening varieties it is quite possible to get a harvest during one season. Well, if not, by the fall in any case, young plants will grow with a stem with a diameter of 1-2 centimeters, which, after overwintering, will yield a crop by the end of next spring. The same result can be achieved when sowing seeds in the summer until the end of June.

Preparation of beds, possible predecessors and neighbors

As with any crop, for a leek, the garden is better to cook in the fall. When choosing a site, you should give preference to even, well-lit places. Soil bow loves loose, fertile, with normal acidity. Loam and sandy loam are best suited. Good predecessors and neighbors are:

It is not necessary to plant onions where previously grown:

In October, 5–10 kilograms of humus (or 10–20 kilograms of manure), compost, or top peat are added to digging into each square meter. And also add superphosphate at the rate of 30-40 g / m 2 and wood ash in the amount of 1-2 l / m 2.

Growing seedlings

Perhaps this is the most time consuming and laborious stage. Onion seeds are very small, and its shoots are weak and thin. Not everyone has the patience and diligence to engage with them. But nothing is impossible. And, having received good results once, the gardener will repeat them again and again. First choose the seeds you need varieties. At the same time, preference should be given to well-known and reliable companies - Aelita, SeDek, Seeds of Altai, Plasmas, etc.

Photo gallery: leek seeds

When purchasing seeds, it is also necessary to pay attention to the term of their production. As mentioned above, they retain their fitness for not more than four years. If the seeds have not undergone presowing treatment during production (this can be determined by the presence of a brightly colored coating pan), then they should be prepared independently before sowing. For this:

  1. First of all they need to be calibrated. This is an easy process. Seeds are poured into a transparent container (glass jar, glass, etc.) filled with ordinary water. After 15-20 minutes, the light seeds will float to the surface - they are of poor quality and they are rejected. Those that have sunk to the bottom have a large specific mass - they are used for sowing.
  2. Selected seeds should be decontaminated. To do this, they are placed in a gauze bag and immersed in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate for 15-20 minutes. At this stage, the fungal spores die on the surface of the seeds.

Leek seeds are placed in a gauze bag and immersed in a low-grade solution of potassium permanganate for 15–20 minutes

Onion seeds soaked, spreading on a damp cloth or toilet paper

The most convenient way to grow seedlings in containers with a depth of at least 15 centimeters. The process of sowing seeds is as follows:

  1. At the bottom of the container lay a layer of sawdust with a thickness of 2-3 centimeters, on top of which the nutrient substrate is poured. It is prepared from turf land, humus, peat and garden soil, taken in approximately equal parts.
  2. The soil is abundantly watered, compacted and sown on its surface leek seeds in rows, the interval between which can withstand about five centimeters. The distance between the seeds in a row trying to observe about one centimeter.
  3. After sowing, the seeds are covered with a layer of sand 7–10 mm thick and moistened.
  4. To create a greenhouse effect and high humidity in the container, it is covered with film and transferred to a warm place. The optimum temperature for germinating seeds is 22-24 ° C.

When the first shoots begin to appear, the film needs to be removed and the container taken out to a room with a temperature of 18–20 ° C. At night, it is reduced to 10-12 ° C. At the same time, it is necessary to provide illumination of plants for 10–12 hours, for which, in the early stages, seedlings are illuminated with the help of fluorescent lamps. It is necessary to water the plants regularly, preventing the soil from drying out.. In order to avoid the appearance of fungi, watering is carried out under the root. When the crops are thickened, the seedlings are thinned out, keeping an interval of about 10–20 mm between the plants. The stretched seedlings are periodically sheared, not allowing it to grow above 10 centimeters.

With thickened crops, leek seedlings are thinned out, keeping an interval of about 10–20 mm between plants.

In the process of growing seedlings, it should be twice fed with nitroammophoska or azofoskoy. To do this, the fertilizer is dissolved in water at a rate of 2-3 grams per liter and watered at the rate of 1 l / m 2.

Planting seedlings in the ground, planting scheme

Young plants need hardening, wait, than they fall on the garden bed. For this purpose, 7–10 days before planting, they are taken out onto the street or veranda at the beginning by 2–3 hours, and then gradually increase this time. To make it easier for the plants to remove the roots from the soil and separate them, 1-2 days before planting, the seedlings are watered abundantly. In the garden, pre-grooves are prepared for planting 15–20 centimeters deep at a distance of 40–50 centimeters between them. Planted plants with an interval of 10-15 centimeters, taking into account the fact that later onions will thin out after one. As a result, the interval between the stems of an adult onion will be 20-30 centimeters. Before planting, the roots are cut by one third, and the leaves are half (but not shorter than 7-10 cm). The roots fall asleep with humus, deepening them by 2–3 cm.

Before planting seedlings of leeks, its roots are cut by one third, and the leaves are half (but not shorter than 7-10 cm)

Sowing leek seeds in open ground

For this, the bed is prepared according to the usual rules. The prepared seeds (the preparation process was described above) are laid out on the pre-compacted bottom of the groove with an interval of 8-12 cm and covered with a thin layer of humus (0.5-1 cm), then moistened and covered with black film. When the shoots appear, the film is removed and the agro-weed bed is covered (Spunbond, Lutrasil, etc.) with a density of 17-30 g / m 2. When using a more dense material need to apply the arc. With the onset of stable heat shelter is removed.

Podzimny sowing leeks

To accelerate the emergence of spring shoots, leeks can be sown before winter. With a favorable outcome, the seeds during the winter are hardened, in the spring they bite and give healthy early shoots. To this end, they are sown in November or even in December, when the air temperature drops to 0 ° C or slightly lower. If you sow earlier, then shoots may appear that do not tolerate frosts and will most likely die. The beds and grooves in them must be prepared in advance, and you also need to have a stock of loose humus for backfilling. Seeds are sown in the same way as in spring, sprinkled with humus and covered with film. With the onset of cold weather, the bed is covered with snow, and if it is not there, then dry leaves, straw, etc. can be used. With the onset of spring and the disappearance of the threat of frost, shelter is removed and replaced with an agro-weave. Further actions are the same as in the spring sowing.

Weeding, loosening and hilling

These operations are especially important at the first stage of onion life, when the stalks and its leaves are still thin and weak. Weeds at this time can negate all the efforts of the gardener, attached to the cultivation and planting of seedlings, so you need to remove them regularly. Loosening is also a necessary technique in the first weeks after planting. At the same time, the soil is gradually poured into the groove, and after filling it, they proceed to hilling for better growth of the stem and its bleaching. In the process of growing leek spend 2-3 hilling.

Рассаду лука-порея высаживают в канавки, которые впоследствии засыпаются, а затем растения дополнительно окучивают с целью отбеливания ножки

Watering and feeding

Лук-порей — влаголюбивое растение. Since it is a two-year crop and its growing season does not end in the first year of life, and its mass continues to increase until the onset of cold weather, the need for watering in the fall increases. Watering breaks and drying of the soil are unacceptable. The optimum for this crop is considered to be at the level of 70-75% of the FWV (extreme field moisture capacity).

Extreme field moisture capacity is the maximum amount of water that the soil can hold when filling all its pores. It is expressed as a percentage of absolutely dry soil.

Wikipedia

In practice, this means that the frequency of irrigation should be 1-2 times a week from the moment of planting to harvest or the onions go in the winter. Of course, this indicator is adjusted in accordance with real weather conditions. When the stems and leaves grow enough and get stronger, you can apply the mulching of the soil to avoid drying out and reducing the growth of weeds. To do this, you can use straw, hay, peat, humus, etc. After hilling, pour onions along the grooves between the rows.

Adult onions watered in the grooves between the rows

During the season you should feed the onions 4 times. 20 days after planting, seedlings add a mixture of urea in an amount of 20 grams and monophosphate or potassium sulfate in an amount of 10 grams, dissolved in ten liters of water. Consumption - 1 liter per 1 m 2. Regular feeding is carried out with an interval of 3-4 weeks, using mullein divorced in water (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20). And also at this time they sprinkle earth with wood ash.

Leeks feed with mullein diluted with water or bird droppings

Treatments for diseases and pests

This culture is rarely subject to disease or attack by pests. Occasionally, the disease is peronosporosis and rust. As a rule, this is the result of violation of the rules of agricultural engineering. For the purpose of prevention, you can use the biological drug Fitosporin, which is also a good fertilizer. Treatments begin on the 20th day after transplanting at the same time as fertilizing and repeat them at intervals of 2-3 weeks.

In order to prevent fungal diseases of leeks, you can use the biological drug Fitosporin, which is also a good fertilizer.

Of the pests the most likely is the onion fly, flying in the spring (April - May). As a preventive measure, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, pre-seed disinfection of seeds, sow onions as early as possible and even before winter. And also helps shelter beds agropolotnym during the flight of the fly. In the same period, it is possible to treat the leek with insecticides - Alatar, Iskra Double Effect, Fitoverm or use folk remedies. You can read more about this problem in the article “Onion processing from onion flies”.

Harvesting and storage

Early leek varieties begin to clean up in August, mid-season - in September. And also at this time it is possible to thin out the beds with onions of late varieties. This onion is poorly stored and is eaten immediately or used for canning. For long-term storage, only onions of late varieties are used - it is harvested in October - November, and in southern regions it is possible to do this in December. In general, the leek can be removed when the air temperature drops to -5 ° C. It is better to dig onions with forks, trying not to damage the underground part, and then lay them along the furrows to dry.

After digging leek it is laid along the furrows to dry

Dried leek shake off the ground, cut the roots, leaving 1-2 centimeters, remove damaged leaves. After that, put it in wooden or plastic boxes, tilting at an angle of 50-60 °. In addition, each row is poured with a layer of wet sand 5-6 centimeters thick. Boxes with onions are placed in the basement, where it can be stored for up to six months subject to the observance of the optimal heat and humidity regime: temperature from -1 to +1 ° C, humidity - 85%. Onions can be stored on the balcony until the temperature drops to -5 ° C. And also for quite a long time the leek is stored in the refrigerator, pre-wrapped in food film.

To store leek roots fall asleep with wet sand

Growing at home

Some grow leeks in an ordinary flat. To do this, take the white part of the leek root, purchased in the store, and put it in a container with water. When choosing, preference is given to specimens with the longest roots, and water is poured to a height of 1 centimeter. Water should be changed daily, and it should be non-chlorinated. On the 6th - 7th day young leaves usually appear from the center of the stem. At this time, onions can be planted in a pot with loose nutrient soil. The whole process should take place on a well-lit window sill. About a month later, the length of the leaves usually reaches 30 centimeters and can be eaten.

In about a month, leeks can be grown on the windowsill

Breeding leeks

As already noted, the leek is propagated mainly by seeds and less often by sighting bulbs, which are popularly called bulbous. In order to obtain seeds, they dig up the leek and store it in the basement, returning it to the soil in the spring, or leave it in the soil for overwintering. During the second year of the vegetation season, a high straight floral arrow is formed in it, which ends with a spherical umbrella formed by small flowers. Leek flowering usually occurs in the middle - second half of summer. Flowers are arranged in several tiers. The duration of flowering of each of them is about 7 days, and in general flowering lasts a month. In each seed box formed after flowering, there are 3-4 seeds, the size of which is smaller than that of a common onion. Usually the mass of 1000 leek seeds does not exceed 2-2.5 grams. They ripen in September. It is possible to get seeds only in warm areas - they do not have time to mature further to the north. Remove the seeds from the bolls after drying them by threshing in the same way as in a regular onion.

Remove the leek seeds from the bolls after drying them by threshing in the same way as regular onions

Features of cultivation in the regions

Leek is grown in almost all regions where agriculture is conducted. There are no restrictions in this regard, as well as special techniques and methods inherent in a particular area of ​​cultivation. Depending on the climatic conditions, only the timing of planting seedlings in open ground differ:

  • in Siberia and the Urals, this is done at the end of May - early June,
  • in the middle lane, including Moscow region, seedlings are planted in the first half of May,
  • in some years in Belarus and Ukraine, they start planting at the end of April or traditionally do it during the May holidays,
  • In the North Caucasus region and in the Crimea, seedlings are planted in the first half of April, or, in general, sown in seeds in open ground in mid-March.

In addition, there is a restriction on the cultivation of leek late varieties in regions with a cold climate - there he simply will not have time to ripen and therefore should be preferred to early and middle-ripening varieties.

I plant leek only seedlings. Be sure to spud - then the bleached part is more. As the stem thickens — it sometimes becomes quite solid in diameter — we choose to consume. I cook it mostly like this - lightly boil it (only the bleached part), then add some vinegar, sugar and vegetable oil. Very tasty salad is obtained. Likewise, prepare wild garlic. And I never grow up to the state of “head”. I want to try to arrange something like a “leek holiday”. I saw the plot, it seems, in France ... Roasting leeks on a barbecue and with young red wine they cheerfully eat ...

ArinaK, Dnepropetrovsk

http://dacha.wcb.ru/index.php?showtopic=5008&pid=92049&mode=threaded&start=#entry92049

Luda, if you grow tomatoes, then you can easily grow leek. I plant it in the garden with the celery root: I make a groove along the entire length of the garden and sow seedlings in it. And I put celery in rows across the beds (from the beginning of the beds to the grooves with leeks). In the summer, when celery starts to form a tuber, he shovel away the soil from it, filling it with a groove. Good for both.

Tosya, Murom

http://www.tomat-pomidor.com/newforum/index.php?topic=398.180

I dig up leek and put it in a vegetable box with a lump of earth, and then I put the box in the cellar and stand there. From time to time we take a few pieces from this box and clean the top faded wrappers and cut off the roots. The rest is all you can eat. And it is easy to grow it - now you can even start it - it is sown with seedlings, and in May it is planted and spud higher in the OG. And dig it out in the fall.

Ninulia, Nizhny Novgorod

http://www.tomat-pomidor.com/newforum/index.php/topic,398.140.html

Message from oldgrey

Without a drop of leek, of course, not the one - bitter, grassy - just awful.

Here is an offensive written. So do not let the bezkelekschikam not grow? I dig a ditch, soot there, water in this ditch, the water is well preserved, it does not spread. From the second half of summer I begin to pour earth there, now the ditch is almost filled up. Leek from good seeds - the plant is patient, thankful, it turns out gentle, tasty.

Ocoka, Zhytomyr

http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=14650&page=2

A few years soot leek. Attracts beauty and relative trouble-free. Grows well in 5-liter plastic seedlings with a cut off tip. Not bad to thin it to be larger. Seedlings are always obtained in abundance. It grows well on loose fertile soil in the sun, be sure to water or wet soil. It is good to plant in a deep row, falling asleep as the onion grows. Once I put the cut plastic bottles on the bow and filled it with sawdust - the long leg is bleached. This year sadil Camus, Vesta, Lancelot, Elephant MC. Lancelot is now partly in the garden under the snow. It tastes great. Stored in a subfield well in the sand standing. Just peppered with chalk or sand rot from above. If enough watering is good in a salad too. Otherwise - in pies, in soups just like onions. Greens freeze annually. Got it - set it in the soup. Due to the fact that it is always overkill, this year it has boiled it like kimchi - with hot pepper, ginger, garlic. With boiled beef on a piece of bread - quite good. In warm regions, it seems to me, you can leave late varieties in the garden and dig in as needed.

Igor 78, Kurgan

http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=14650&page=4

We conclude that even a novice gardener in any region of our country can grow a wonderful and healthy leek. Of the variety of varieties available, you can always find one that is suitable for specific growing conditions and will satisfy the gardener with his taste. It is necessary to successfully grow this vegetable once and in the future it will forever take its rightful place on the site.

Getting seedlings

I sow the seeds of leeks for seedlings in March, fill the boxes with a size of 40 × 50 cm with light soil. I prepare the nutrient mixture for growing seedlings from turf or compost soil with the addition of equal parts of humus and bottom peat. Before sowing, I sow the seeds for a day in water at a temperature of 20 degrees, then dry them to a flowing state.

Leek seedlings grow without picks. In the box I mark the stripes every 3 cm and sow the seeds in rows. After sowing, the surface of the nutrient soil is slightly soaked with warm water through a spray bottle, tamped down, covered with a film and put in a warm place (temperature 20-22 degrees). Caring for seedlings consists mainly of airing and abundant watering every 3 days. As soon as the green loops appear, I take off the film.

When a positive temperature is established, I take the container with the leek seedlings onto the glazed balcony, while necessarily covering it from the direct rays of the bright sun and wind. As the seedlings grow, I pour the earth to them.

In open ground

In 60-70 days (approximately May 5-15, depending on the weather) I plant the seedlings in open ground. I cook a garden bed in the fall, add rotted manure and other organic fertilizers. I make furrows 15 cm deep on the surface, keep an interval of 30 cm between them. In the furrows I make holes every 15 cm into which I put leeks.

It turns out that the plants are initially located 15 cm below ground level. This is done so that, as it grows, it is possible to pour in the soil for the formation of a gentle bleached (the scientific name is etiolated) “legs”. After the bed surface becomes flat due to bedding, I begin to spud the plant 4-5 times in a season. It helps to develop a strong root system and increase the bleached part of the false stem.

The white part of leek is used for cooking vegetable salads, soups, as a side dish for meat, fish dishes and for fillings in pastries. The most common combination of lettuce with fresh apples, cabbage, carrots in a salad.

French leek salad

Required: 0.5 kg of leeks, 200 g of sweet pepper, 3 tbsp. l olive oil, juice of whole lemon, parsley, ground black pepper, salt - to taste.

Cut onion and pepper into thin straws, add finely chopped greens, salt, pepper, mix, season with lemon juice and oil. When serving salad can be decorated with slices of fresh tomatoes.

Potato casserole with leek

Required: 0.5 kg of potatoes, 1 egg, 30 g of butter, vegetable oil for lubricating the form, salt - to taste, for the filling: 2 bleached

leek stalks, 150 g sour cream, 2 eggs, 150 g cheese, 30 g butter, salt, ground allspice, nutmeg - to taste.

Peel the potatoes, boil in salted water, drain and mash by adding butter and half of the beaten egg. Spread about 1 cm mash evenly over the bottom and sides of the pre-oiled form. Lubricate the surface with the remaining half of the eggs and bake in the oven at 200 degrees for 15 minutes.

At this time we are preparing the filling. Cut the white part of the leek stem into slices about 0.5 cm thick. Fry in butter until onion is soft. Slightly beat the eggs, combine with sour cream and most of the grated cheese. Mix everything, season with salt and pepper.

Put the onion in the potato form, pour the dressing, sprinkle with the remaining cheese and bake at 180 degrees for 30-40 minutes, until a beautiful golden crust appears, and the filling does not thicken. If the top starts to burn, you should cover it with foil. Serve hot casserole.

Leek properties

Leek consists mainly of water, so it can be called low-calorie, while it quickly quenches hunger, has a pleasant taste. It has a fairly high content of vitamins B6 and C, as well as many useful minerals such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus, essential oils. Regular use of leeks contributes to increased immunity. This vegetable is good as a blood purifier, and it is also useful for the liver and respiratory system, used for medicinal purposes in acute diseases of the nasopharynx.

ONION FROM YOUR TABLE

No other vegetable crop possesses such a property as leek: during storage, the amount of ascorbic acid in its bleached part increases more than one and a half times. Growing this culture is easy: it is unpretentious, cold resistant, resistant to pests and diseases.

According to the morphological features (size and shape of the false stem) of plants, three leek biomorphotypes are distinguished: the European type with a short and thick false stem, the Turkish type with a long and thin false stem, and Currat - without a clearly defined false stem. By the way, it was the latter that became the indispensable ingredient of taamia, the famous Egyptian dish.

23 varieties and 4 hybrids of leeks are now included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements.

Leek

Early ripening leeks (summer and 1 early autumn varieties intended for harvesting in August - early September) makes sense to grow in regions with a short growing season and in the middle lane - for early harvest. Early ripening varieties, such as Vesta and F, Jumper, as well as the Columbus mid-runner are not resistant, they should be grown in an annual sowing culture.

The most numerous group of varieties is mid-season (or autumn). As practice has shown, many of them successfully hibernate in the Central region of Russia, they can be left in the ground for harvesting in the spring, as well as for obtaining seeds. Here I would like to highlight such varieties as Gulliver, Giraffe, Casimir, Camus F1, Krypton, Lancelot, Summer Breeze, Winner, Tango and Elephant's Trunk. A little later, they harvest crops of middle-late varieties, such as Alligator, Bandit F1, Piccolo, F1, Plouston, Porbella, Premier, Shogun.

Late-ripening (winter) varieties Asgeos, Good youth Autumn handsome, Premier, F, Piccolo, Karantansky and Elephant MC are characterized by slow development compared with varieties of the other two groups, as well as high cold resistance.

Leek grows well on fertile loamy and sandy soils with a soil solution reaction close to neutral. I want to note that organic fertilizers are best applied under the predecessor.

Leek is grown by sowing seeds in the soil and through seedlings. In the north and in central Russia, it is justified to grow this crop through seedlings. Семена высевают из расчета 8-10 г/кв. м в первой половине марта в ящики с почвенной смесью из торфа, перлита и песка (соотношение компонентов 3:1:1). Перед посевом семена лучше замочить и прорастить, это ускорит появление всходов на 5-7 суток.

Для рассады пригодны кассеты 8×8, в каждую ячейку высевают по 2-3 семени. Until the emergence of shoots, the temperature is maintained at a level of 20-22 °, then reduced to 18-20 °. Before planting in the soil, seedlings are watered regularly and fed with nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate at the rate of 15 g / 10 l of water).

In the open ground, seedlings are planted in the first half of May, at the age of 50-60 days, on ridges of 7-10 cm in depth. The planting patterns can be different: the ordinary 60 × 10 cm, two-row (70 + 20) x 8 cm.

In the southern regions, leeks can be sown immediately in the ground in late March - early April, depending on the variety and time of consumption of products. Seeding rate of 0.8-1 g / sq. m, sowing depth 1.5-2.5 cm. Ordinary sowing scheme with row spacing of 60-70 cm. When a leek is grown, planting seeds twice in the ground in the ground: in the phase of 1-2 leaves, then in the phase of 3-4 leaves, to in the end, 10-15 cm was left between the plants.

Leek care

Planting care consists in loosening the spacing with obligatory hilling of plants (2-3 times per season). This creates good conditions for obtaining a large, false stem with good taste. Weeding, feeding and watering are also required. Feed the leek 2-3 times in the first half of the growing season with nitrogen fertilizers.

Crop clean as needed until late autumn. Plants break in, shake off the ground and placed in boxes in an upright position or tied up in bunches. Previously, they remove damaged and contaminated leaves, the rest is shortened by about 1/3. If necessary, the plants are washed and dried, and then packaged in nets, plastic bags or boxes.

One of the best ways to store leeks in the refrigerator is in plastic wrap. Before storage, plants are cleaned, cooled to storage temperature, then packaged in plastic bags with perforations of 6-8 pcs. In such conditions, the development of rot is delayed, the processes of respiration and evaporation of moisture slowly proceed.

Leek is stored well (especially winter and autumn varieties) well: for 4-5 months the chemical composition of the false stem does not deteriorate due to the outflow of nutrients from the leaves. The optimal storage temperature is from minus 2 ° to 2 ° with air humidity of about 80%. The temperature is desirable to maintain at a constant level.

Another option for storing leeks is drying (and the false stem and leaves are also dried). Sometimes it marinated. But when you freeze the vitamin value of products is reduced.

The young leaves of leeks are notable for their special tenderness and low-sharp taste, they are used as salad greens. There is more protein in leek than in onion, there are a lot of mineral elements in it, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and also manganese, zinc, and selenium. Leek has excellent taste. In the use of young leaves, bleached false stem.

White tender legs (false stalk) and young leek leaves are characterized by a pleasant low-sharp taste (thinner than that of onions), give a peculiar flavor to culinary products.

© Author: T. SEREDIN, Senior Researcher, Onion Seed and Seed Breeding Laboratory, GNUVNIISSOK

BOW-CREAM SOUP-CREAM

We love this French cream soup very much. It will require 2 stalks of leek, 1 onion T of onions, 2 medium potatoes, 300 ml of water, 200 ml of cream, 10 g of butter, a few sprigs of parsley and cilantro, salt and pepper to taste.

And to the soup, I always make croutons, drying white and black bread in a small amount of vegetable oil with salt, crushed dry basil and dill.

Bleached stem washed and cut into thin rings, cut into onions and potatoes. In a saucepan with a thick bottom in butter, carcass of onion (both species) for 8-10 minutes, so that the pieces are soft, but not fried. I sprinkle potatoes there, pour boiling water over a couple of minutes and add salt. Cooked soup for 15-20 minutes, after which I add the cream and leave it on the fire for 5 minutes.

And then I crush all the pieces with a blender to a cream soup state. Serve such a dish can be cold and hot, decorated with greens.

MUSHROOM BREEDS

Leek goes well with mushrooms, and somehow I made such a dish for my family ... Since then it has become one of the most beloved ones.

I choose the largest stalk of leeks and cut rings with a thickness of 1.5 cm. Fry them in vegetable oil for 5 minutes, periodically turning it from one side to another. Then I sprinkle finely chopped mushrooms into the frying pan — honey mushrooms, chanterelles, boletus, whites, in short, about 0.5 kg. All together, it stews for another 5 minutes. Then pour dry white wine (1 cup), salt, pepper, Italian herbs and carcass for another 10 minutes on the pan. During this time, the liquid will evaporate by about 1/2. Then mix the cream (any fat) with 1 tbsp. with a spoon of starch, gently so that there are no lumps, and pour mushrooms with onions. I put the pan in a hot oven and bring to the point 40 minutes. By this time, the liquid is almost completely evaporated, and the remaining sauce is similar in texture to thick sour cream.

PORRY MARINEED

I carefully wash the onions, clean the white leg and cut into pieces 2-3 cm long. I carefully wash the 0.5-liter jars with soda and boiling water over them. Onion, salted, blanched in boiling water for 2-3 minutes, so that it remained crisp, and then lay out as tightly as possible on the banks. In each I sprinkle 0.5 hours spoonful of mustard seeds, 6 peas of allspice and 15 peas of black pepper.

Then cook the marinade. Having measured the necessary amount of water, for every 750 ml I add 2 tbsp. spoons of salt, 4 tbsp. spoons of sugar and 3-4 bay leaves. When boils, pour 9% vinegar - 4 tbsp. spoons. I pour the jars with boiling marinade and roll them up. Wrapped up, they cost a day upside down, and then remove them in the cold. This dish can be used as a side dish, as an addition to meat or fish, add to salads or sauces.

Useful about Leek

There are a lot of unknown facts about this amazing “biennial”:

  • Leek became the basis for the creation of the national symbol of Wales,
  • onion honey of rich emerald color, which can be made from a plant, has a truly unique taste and aroma,
  • if you cook the dishes with the addition of this onion correctly, they will have a light sweetness of a delicate shade and at the same time the necessary sharpness - an excellent taste mix.

But most importantly, the difference between this "green and white handsome" - its useful properties. By the way, he surpasses his "relatives" in these qualities, in particular, green onions.

So leek is capable of:

  • help in the treatment of joints, especially in inflammatory processes. This is achieved due to the fact that it contains a high content of sulfur compounds,
  • improve anemia Because it is rich in iron-containing substances,
  • minimize problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Due, first of all, to the presence in it of beneficial microorganisms that are able to “build” a healthy flora, “beat” on inflammation,
  • become reliable helpers in lowering cholesterol. Again, thanks to the beneficial substances it contains,
  • slightly alleviate lung disease. It is known that leek is a whole storehouse of essential oils. They can reduce the risks that arise from this disease,
  • to assist in the treatment of prostate and intestines. Such a plant is capable due to the quercetin contained in it.

Also, leeks are often used to treat liver, gallbladder, ophthalmologic diseases, influenza conditions.

True, it is important to take into account that in certain diseases, onions can, on the contrary, cause exacerbations. In order to avoid all possible risks, it is best to get expert expert advice. But in general, this beautiful "pearl" plant has no specific contraindications. And, on the contrary, pleases with its healing beneficial properties. These are the benefits and harms of leeks.

Planting Leek Leek in open ground

An amateur gardener who decides to plant a leek on his backyard will not regret the decision. Because it will always have on the table a delicious, beautiful plant that can not only give dishes an excellent taste, but also significantly improve the body.

Many, however, are not in a hurry to make a decision about planting this particular type of onion on their plot. The reason is that they do not know how and when to plant leeks. It is believed that the process of planting and care will be very time consuming. Indeed, to harvest a good leek crop is to try very hard. Especially with the fact that you have to deal with seedlings.

But to fear all the details and subtleties of this is not worth it. In order for everything to be successful and with minimal effort, you just need to follow certain recommendations:

1. For planting leeks in open ground, you should choose a soil such as loam. This has already been tested by time, so it is better to really do this.
2. When in the autumn time the beds will be prepared for the next season, it is good to bring compost to the place of the intended planting of the leek. Enough about 6 kg per 1 square. m of land.
3. When the long-awaited spring season has come, you need to re-fill the beds with the compost mixture, or, if you don’t have one at hand, the humus. This time it will take about 3 kg per 1 square meter.
4. Attention. The beds should not dig. And even more: this is not necessary.
5. By the way, it is better to form an area for planting leek where cucumbers, potatoes and tomatoes used to grow. Or cabbage, legumes.
6. If you do not know when to plant a leek, I will answer you, an excellent and most suitable month for planting is May.
7. Immediately before the process, the seedlings shorten both the roots and the leaves. Remove need about 1/3.

Followed by planting leek in open ground:

  • If the gardener has the time and the necessary tools available, it is better for him to coat the roots with the so-called talker - this is a mix of manure and clay (the latter are taken in equal proportions). If you apply this method, the harvest of onion lee will really please the tried gardener,
  • then corresponding grooves are formed in the ground. Note that they should not be small, but deep. This is about 16 cm.
  • when the grooves are formed, ash is poured. It should be a bit. After that, thoroughly soak the soil with water,
  • The next step is that the leek seedlings are laid out on the place prepared before - one piece in the groove, of course,
  • and then - everything is simple. It is only necessary to cover the roots with earth. Approximately half of the grooves and again carry out watering onions. True, this time it should be already minimal, since there is already water inside the grooves.

What else is important to know about planting leek? If you know for sure that the weather is still far from warm, it is better to protect the onion seedlings by using ordinary covering material.

Another useful information: if you planted a leek so that a lot of space remains in the aisle, you should not leave this "space". Because leek is a very peaceful plant, it means that he loves good neighbors in the form of strawberries, carrots, cabbage, celery, and even the most common “brother”. So feel free to plant these crops near. And save space, and will delight "sociable pearl."

There are additional recommendations on how to plant leeks. In this case, there are two main options. The first recommended leek planting scheme is a two-row one. It differs in the fact that it is necessary to plant the plants so that between them there are approximately 20 cm or a little less. And the width at the same time between the rows should be somewhere 33-34 cm.

The second scheme is multi-row. In this case, the distance separating the seedlings is quite a bit - 11-15 cm. As for the width, it should be at least 20 cm and, at the most, 30 cm.


Photo: Growing Leek

Growing onion Leek in open field

As already mentioned, many gardeners are in no hurry to make a choice in favor of planting this particular crop on their backyards. And the main fears and fears are connected with the fact that you will have to grow leek seedlings beforehand, so they drag out growing leek in open field.

But if you arm yourself with the advice of experienced gardeners, you can grow the onion in the open field without any problems and time, material, and strength.

First you need to prepare this very soil, and also to find a suitable container, where the culture will grow in the future, and ordinary polyethylene, or rather, polyethylene film.

All work on planting leek seeds in special seed boxes is important to begin in a certain season. For these activities is best suited to such an annual period as the end of February - the first of March. In this case, in the middle of April, it will be possible to carry out sowing in a greenhouse, only, of course, warmed. And at the end of this month - in open ground, under the film.

So, proceed to the process of growing onion leeks in open ground:

  • the seeds must first be placed literally for a couple of moments in hot water. Recommended temperature regime - plus 40-45 ° С. Immediately they are cooled through the room now in cold water,
  • we take the usual gauze and put there the seeds bathed in water of different temperatures. Give them time to spit and germinate. It should be noted that future plants placed in gauze should not be left in a cold room - they prefer a comfortable temperature of +25 ° C. Next, wait a few days. An interesting point: leek seeds can be stored without problems for a 3-year period,
  • when the required period of leek cultivation has come, several days have passed, we take pre-prepared containers - pots, for example. And fill them with soil. Only not dry, but moist. We sow the material in rows, the distance between which is about 4-5 cm. The grooves can be made to a depth of 1 or a little more than a centimeter,
  • then, to protect what is planted, sprinkle all the substrate. After that, in order to provide the greatest protection, we put polyethylene film on the pots,
  • we send the boxes with future leek seedlings back to the room with a comfortable temperature - somewhere + 23 ° C. And necessarily well-lit.

As soon as you saw that the first “swallows” are ready to become the future harvest and boldly strive upwards, simply remove the film so that it does not interfere with such impulses of plants. And what is important: now it is necessary to change the temperature regime. That is to lower it. During the daytime, the temperature will be optimal at +15 ° C, at night - +12 ° C.

Next, we expect again. Now a little longer - about a week. And again interfere, becoming again the temperature regulator. Only now it will be necessary, on the contrary, to increase the indicators: in the daytime they should be about + 20 ° С, and at night - somewhere + 13 ° С.

By the way, after that you will not have to regulate the temperature. This level must be maintained until the very end of the leek growing process.

Many do not pay to issues related to temperature, increased attention, considering this factor is not so significant. This is a serious gardening mistake. Illiterate adjustments or the lack of them at all can lead to undesirable consequences.

When the cultivation of leeks will last 30 days, there comes a time that requires thinning. At the same time, young crops are processed as follows: between them there should be a space of 2 cm or, at the most, 3 cm - this is certainly in the same row. After this, another, equally important process is carried out - the leek swoops. "Kids" dive into small pot containers, their diameter can be 3 or 4 cm.

Care of onions Leek in open ground

Care for young shoots is also not so easy. But if you again resort to the necessary rules, everything will succeed.

One of the foundations of competent and effective care for leek is watering. He must be right and timely. One should not think that the provision of water to onions - an unpretentious, at first glance, plant - is an insignificant event. So, we water competently. To do this, always adhere to this principle: watering often and generously. Yes, leek is water lover. And this must be remembered by those who are waiting for a rich harvest from seedlings.

The second significant moment in the care of a leek is the loosening process. About the same principle is observed here: due attention should be paid to measures for loosening, everything should be done on time. Loosening with such frequency: once every seven days, or at least once every two weeks. The correct approach in this case will provide the main thing - such a necessary supply of oxygen and moisture to the plant.

The third factor that is well conducive to growth is undoubtedly hilling. These processes are carried out when it is already obvious that the leek has "pulled itself up", it is actively going up. Then you just need to gently and regularly spud - about once every fortnight. Gradually, however, slightly later than hilling, mulching processes are introduced. This is done using ordinary dry grass. Or - paper with a higher density, which is easy to wrap the stems.

Также нельзя забывать о таком важно мероприятии, как подкормки. Кстати, многие садоводы напрочь отказываются от этой процедуры. И, конечно, во вред себе и будущему урожаю. Уход за луком порей в открытом грунте важный прием агротехники и не стоит игнорировать необходимость подкармливания порея. И тогда лучок отблагодарит вас по-настоящему отменным вкусом, который присущ именно ему. As for the periodicity of these procedures, it is worth noting that they are not best implemented so often. Approximately 2 or 3 times during one season. Not so much, so be sure to follow this rule. And another thing that is important: fertilizers must be alternated: to alternate between organic and mineral fertilizers. Leek - a true "lover" of cow and bird droppings. The first should be prepared as follows: 8 parts of water and 1 part of fertilizer. Second: 20 parts of water and also 1 part of the litter itself.

Perhaps someone will consider the following advice banal, and yet it is worth it to voice. This is the need for timely weeding. This, too, can be ignored, according to many amateur gardeners. And, unfortunately, as a result, they receive a scanty “leuke table”.

When to harvest leek

The most pleasant thing about this whole process is certainly the harvesting of leeks, especially if the leek harvest was a great success. Someone believes that there is no special wisdom in this matter and he knows how and when to remove leeks. But you still need to adhere to certain standards for harvesting.

When the onion harvest is removed, it is best to perform all the procedures carefully and carefully. Haste is fraught with, for example, the fact that the earth can easily "penetrate" between the leaves.

The second point in the process of harvesting leeks - it is better to immediately clear the collected from the ground. The third is to shorten the roots slightly. Pruning should be done so as not to damage the onions.

But the leaves are much easier. Cutting them is not necessary. If this is done, the leek dries quickly. Now we proceed to another important event - the storage of leek.

How to store leek

Perhaps many believe that onion storage is limited to one or two ways. However, in the case of leek it is not. It provides real wealth of choice in this regard. And, I will tell you how to store leek.

Leek storage carried out in several ways:

1. The easiest is to keep the leek in its normal state, that is, fresh. So it will retain its properties and useful qualities for a long time. To do this, you can put onions, for example, in the refrigerator. Only it is necessary to remember the following in the necessary order: it is impossible to leave the collected onion stocks without proper supervision. Often it happens that the hostess who put the green crop in the refrigerator, simply because of the many troubles, forgets about it. And when she suddenly decides to surprise guests or loved ones with a tasty onion stored in a cold place, she gets a far from a disappointing result. Many stems withered or even began to fall into disrepair. The point, of course, is that this hostess should periodically check stocks. And sort out fading, deteriorating plants. If you do not carry out this simple but necessary work, as a result, healthy leaves become infected from those that are no longer suitable for consumption. It is better to remember this well and always conduct some kind of inventory of products stored in the refrigerator.

2. An interesting method of storing leeks - the so-called sand. Onions are placed in the sand immediately after the crop has been produced. The most suitable container for this is a simple box in which sand is poured. Layer it should be about 6 cm. Do not forget that onions should be stored in this case vertically. It is important to take care of the appropriate temperature. Well, if you manage to maintain the mode at 0 ° C. If you comply with all the conditions, the onion will quietly remain in the sand granules, while retaining all its properties, about six months.

3. Freeze leek - one of the options for storing leek in winter. In order to properly implement the "leuk freezing", you must first resort to the following procedures. Leek is cleaned very thoroughly, it is also well washed and dried. Next you need to cut it - the usual slices - and make blanching. It is not worth to blanch for a long time - only about 4 minutes. Then the mass is cooled and placed in ordinary bags. 4. You can also use food containers for greater convenience. Properly laid, the crop is sent to the refrigerator, or rather, to the freezer. It is important. The recommended temperature is 17–18 degrees with a minus sign. By the way, if all this seems too time-consuming, you can freeze leek and not using blanching.

4. Often popular is the storage of leeks like drying for the winter. What is dried onion for? Of course, as an excellent seasoning. The second question: where to dry leek? The answer is just as simple. It may be an ordinary oven. True, there is one important nuance. If the temperature in the oven is too high, there is a risk that the onion will lose most of its beneficial properties. To prevent this, dry the onion in the oven, preheated no more than up to +50 ° C. Those who do not have time for all these procedures can be advised to use the quick method of drying. To do this, you need to heat the oven to +150 ° C and keep the leek there for about 18-20 minutes. Hostesses using the method of drying, especially like the fact that in the resulting form onion no longer has its own specific bitterness, which, perhaps, to taste is not for everyone. And gives a very pleasant sweet-sweet taste. With this seasoning, any dishes made from meat or vegetables acquire a unique savory taste.
Also, without much hassle, you can store a bow on the balcony. He bravely tolerate slack frost. And even in this case, you will enjoy a pleasant taste. Moreover, in a slightly frozen form, the leek does not lose its taste. So the balcony is a suitable place to store. Here you need to return to such a method as cold storage. It has its own important details, which have not yet been mentioned ..

In order to competently preserve the harvest of leek in the fridge, it is best to select large and strong “representatives” of the leek. Then you need to thoroughly clean them and be sure to shorten the lower part - that is, prune the roots. Next, without resorting to packing, cool them. The temperature should be approximately as follows: 1-2 ° С with a “minus” sign or, as the upper limit, + 2 ° C. As soon as everything is sufficiently in the right condition, the onions are quickly packaged. Not just plastic bags are suitable for this process - they must be perforated. Optimally, if in one package 7-9 stalks are laid. If everything is done correctly, the onion without problems will remain in this state for almost half a year.

There are some more useful tips that no longer concern the process of storing a leek, but are also very important. It is not necessary to remove the harvest from the beds in full. Well, a couple of plants to leave for the winter. Then in the spring you will be able to taste the first harvest without the hassle and problems. And also - stock up on your own seeds for the future.

If you like these wintering tips for a leek, do not forget to do the following at the appropriate time. Be sure to provide plants with warmth before winter - using covering material. It can be peat, only in a dry form, and also branches of trees - the usual spruce branches. Plants, properly sheltered for the cold period, will “answer” you in May money with young green shoots.

Attention: a fact that is important for lovers of not only the taste of a leek, but also its healing qualities. Wintering is a great time to accumulate vitamins in a leek. Many people think that in the winter leek “gives away” its “advantages” to the mercy of this cold season. It turns out that the opposite is true. It does not lose what is useful, but generates and multiplies. It is no coincidence that he is so loved by fighters for a healthy lifestyle, which is based on the regular use of a large amount of greenery.

Completely forgot to say about such an important point as lighting. And in the period of sowing, seed spitting, and in the process of growing of leek seedlings and, of course, at the stage of care, the plant should definitely create the best light conditions. Since the leek loves, as already noted, not only an abundance of water, but also an abundance of light. It is important to take care in advance that the seedlings have the opportunity to grow in a well-lit space. And the beds where they will be planted were also on the most lighted territory.

All the recommendations given in my note are the basis of a decent future harvest of leek. Of course, every gardener has his own secrets of growing favorite plants. And many are accustomed, given their experience, to ignore the wishes of other seasoned professionals. Of course, this approach is fraught with the corresponding consequences. So the best option is to follow the basic rules that lead the “gurus” of gardening, and reinforce them with your judgments about how best to plant leek, care for leeks and grow a good crop of leek. When you follow this, in fact, unwise strategy, you will receive the main thing - the joy of having been able to grow a tasty and healthy leek on your own.

If my note is about growing leek in open field, as well as landing, care and storage was useful to you, leave comments and share the article in social networks. All good harvests of onion leek.

Culture description

Leek - a plant originally from Asia, whose vegetative cycle is 2 years. It belongs to the subfamily of Onions of the genus Onions. Occurred from wild grape onions. The visible part of the stem in height reaches 100 cm or more. Distributed everywhere. It is consumed at any stage of development. Of particular culinary interest is a bleached stem, which is a false leg.

This root crop was actively used for gastronomic purposes in ancient states. In Europe, it began to be cultivated in the Middle Ages. He gained special popularity in France, where he was called asparagus for the poor.

Characteristics of the 24-month life cycle:

  1. The first 12 months. Formation of rhizomes, foliage, pseudobulb and stem.
  2. Second year. The development of the arrow-stalk with pink or white flowers. Thanks to cross-pollination, seeds form in an umbellate inflorescence.

Despite belonging to the onion subfamily, the bulb is poorly developed.

Leek is used in almost all dishes, ranging from salads and ending with soups and second courses

Leek Species

The classification is based on the maturity of the plant. All known species are divided into 3 groups:

  1. Early. The harvest time is the last days of August and the beginning of September. Vegetation period - from 18 to 21 weeks. The most productive varieties.
  2. Mid-season. Rush to October. Formed from 21 to 25 weeks. By yield lose the previous, but overshadowed by taste.
  3. Late. Mature about 26 weeks. Suitable for use in early spring. By yield close to mid-season varieties.

Due to the fact that leek perfectly tolerates cold winters, its cultivation is possible throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.

Among all varieties, early-ripening

Table 1. The most popular varieties

The largest supplier of pearl bow is France

Leek healing properties

Among the bulb, shallot and batun it is considered the most delicious and nutritious.

Useful qualities:

  1. Contains a large amount of carotene, vitamins B1, B2, C and E, protein elements.
  2. Suspends the development of malignant tumors.
  3. Helps in the treatment and prevention of arthritis, gout, asthma, scurvy, diarrhea, rheumatism, anthrax, obesity, insomnia, metabolism failures, staphylococcal infections, beriberi, tuberculosis and urolithiasis.
  4. Improves the functioning of the liver.
  5. Strengthens the appetite.
  6. Increases hemoglobin level.
  7. It accelerates wound healing.

A leek has a minimum calorie content, which makes it possible to rank it as a dietary product.

Pearl onions are often used in cream soups

Contraindications to the use:

  1. In its raw form, the culture is not recommended for diseases of the duodenum and stomach. This does not apply to heat-treated products.
  2. It is undesirable to use leek in case of pathologies of the bladder and kidney stones.

Overeating plants leads to headaches.

100 grams of onions contain 35 calories.

Sowing seeds for seedlings

Depending on the variety, the growing season ranges from 18 to 28 weeks. Seedlings method allows to approximate the period of ripening culture In addition, in areas with frosty winters, this method is the only possible one.

The plant is considered moisture-loving and cold-resistant. In the southern areas it is grown, sowing the seeds in the ground, in the rest - seedling method.

Seeding time depends on the climatic conditions of the area.

General rules:

  1. Landing period. At home - in the last days of February or early March, on a bed using film or in greenhouse conditions - after April 15.
  2. Capacity. Due to the fact that the plant has a developed root system, the depth of the mini-containers should be from 10 cm. Before use, the container should be rinsed in a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
  3. Seeds. It is preferable to take two or three-year kernels. Long shelf life helps to neutralize all viruses and parasites. Before seedlings they are placed for 2 hours in a thermos with water heated to a temperature of 45 ° C, cooled in a cold and dried. Planting seeds in consistency should be loose.
  4. Priming. Suitable sod-humus, pre-moistened and rammed.
  5. Sowing. Seeds are placed in the ground, sprinkled with a small layer of sand and covered with foil.
  6. Temperature mode. Before germination of seedlings - from 22 to 25 ° C.

In order not to miss the replanting dates, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the peculiarities of the growing cycle's growing cycle.

Seedling care

Leek is a delicate culture, so any care needs to be dosed and timely. Plant cultivation includes 2 integral procedures: fertilizer and watering.

Onions are 90% water, so he loves moisture.

Key recommendations:

  1. Place the seedlings away from wind and bright light.
  2. Ventilate the seedlings every day.
  3. Put drywall under the container with seedlings. This will give extra warmth to the root system.
  4. After 1.5 weeks, remove the film and put the pots on a diffused light.
  5. If the seedlings are close together, thin out.
  6. To adhere to the optimum temperature regime in the daytime - not less than 18 ° C, at night - from 12ºC.
  7. Spray the soil from the sprayer several times during the day.
  8. Water the seedlings as the soil dries.

It is recommended to take the seedlings to fresh air after 6 weeks after germination. This will prepare them for the transplant.

Due to the fact that sprouts have a very thin leek, care for them is quite time-consuming

Planting seedlings in open ground

In the first 2 weeks of May, sprouts are planted at the age of 7 weeks.

General rules:

  1. It is advisable to cultivate in the garden, located away from trees and buildings, preventing the penetration of direct sunlight.
  2. Preference is given to areas where potatoes, peas, tomatoes, beans, green manure are grown, soybeans and cabbage.
  3. They do not plant seedlings in the soil, where during the last 3 years any variety of onions has grown.
  4. Sour ground lime.
  5. Garden beds are prepared in the fall, fertilizing each m² 2 tablespoons. "Nitrofoski", 1 tsp. urea and 1 bucket of humus.
  6. In spring, the soil is fed with compost at the rate of 3 kg per 1 m².
  7. The soil is leveled and pits form a depth of about 15 cm at a distance of 20 cm from each other. To avoid getting the ground extracted from the depressions, it is firmly fixed around each furrow.
  8. 1 day before the seedlings are transferred to the soil, they are watered abundantly.
  9. Landing is carried out in the evening on a rainy day.
  10. Rhizomes moistened in clay and manure, diluted with water.
  11. In saplings 1/3 shorten the roots and leaves.

To remove air bubbles, seedlings are watered abundantly.

Leek is well grown in potato beds

Planting seeds in open ground

In the south, there is no rassadny method. Seeds are sown in open ground. This method is especially relevant for late leek varieties.

General rules:

  1. In the south, seeds are placed in the ground after the onset of the first long cold weather and after June 15 in the central zone of the Russian Federation.
  2. Planting should be dense, and rooting is deeper than with the seedling method.
  3. Planting frequency - 1 grain for every 2 cm.
  4. The recommended distance between rows is from 20 to 30 cm.
  5. In the first week - moderate watering.
  6. After 3 weeks, when the seedlings grow, they are thinned. The distance between plants is up to 15 cm.
  7. To prevent freezing of the culture, in spring time in the morning and in the evening the seedlings are covered with thin material.
  8. When winter planting seeds are planted only after the onset of cold weather. If the seedlings rise to frost, they will die during the subsequent cooling.

Winter beds are mulched with humus with peat and sprinkled with snow. The more white flakes, the later the leek will rise, bypassing the last frosts in early spring.

The recommended distance between the pits - from 10 cm

Features care in the open field

Чтобы вырастить качественный урожай, нужно осуществлять регулярный полив и пропалывать грядки, вносить подкормки, рыхлить землю между рядами и защищать от паразитов и болезней. Однако наиболее ответственной процедурой является окучивание. Именно оно дает возможность получить хороший отбеленный стебель.

Окучивание считается основной уходовой процедурой

Таблица 2. Уходовые процедуры

Лук-порей: описание

Представляет собой monocotyledonous flowering amaryllissic spargaceous plant without onion or with a small number. The bulb produces a powerful stem with large dark green leaves of linear-lanceolate form and a cover with a long spout. The leek blooms quite nicely, so it can be used to decorate garden beds from June to July.

The leek flower looks like a pinkish or whitish-colored globular umbrella. Fruit (seed) ripening takes place in August-September.

Since this type of onion has a rather long growing season (approximately 6 months), it is better to grow it through seedlings. Sowing of seeds is done in spring (March-April) in a greenhouse or greenhouse. There are the following landing rules:

  • Seed material spread out in a seedling cassette, sprinkle with a thin layer of soil, a little compressed and cover with a film before germination. Do not thicken the planting - sow 1-2 seeds in each cell, which will allow you to do without diving seedlings in the future. During this period, the light day for plants should last at least 10–12 hours, so early shoots are recommended to light up.
  • In the open ground, seedlings are planted in the second decade of May (leek is not afraid of frost). However, in order for the plant to stick better, it is necessary to carry out hardening activities before planting in the ground: take out the container with the seedlings to the garden for several days and place it in partial shade, in a windless section.
  • It is recommended to plant pearl onions in rows, the distance between which should be about 40 cm.
  • The soil should be sufficiently loose and enriched with humus.
  • In order for the legs of the plant to be white and long, seedlings should be planted in pits or grooves 12–15 cm deep. When watering the onions, try to wash the soil to the plants with a stream of water so that the soil gradually closes the stems.
  • As the leek grows, it is necessary to pile up about 3-4 times / season.

Leek has a rather slow growth: the stem increases in diameter only 2–3 months after sowing.

This type of onion needs a lot of fertilizing, so before planting the seedlings in open ground it is necessary to fill the bed with compost at the rate of 3-4 kg / m2. After planting, the plants are watered abundantly, and the same is done in the dry season. To obtain a good harvest, leek can be watered every 2−4 weeks with diluted mash from a comfrey or nettle.

Next to leek tomatoes, celery, carrots, cabbage grow well.

The most valuable part of the plant is the stem or the false stem, which has a rather spicy taste. To make it even more tender and pleasant, the plant is recommended to periodically spud, pouring the soil to the level of leaves. Onions are harvested in the fall (the third decade of September - early October).

In the southern regions leek grown in a seedless way. This is done as follows:

  • At the end of June, onions are sown directly on the ridge. In this case, before the onset of winter, the young leek will have time to get stronger.
  • In October, plants spud and harbor.

As you understand, with this method of growing the crop you will receive only next season.

In the south, autumn leek planting is widely practiced. Seeds are sown in October, after which the bed mulch with peat. With the onset of spring, the first shoots will appear.

The plant is two years old.. In the first year, only leaves and legs appear. In the second year, flowering begins with the formation of an arrow, whose height reaches 1.5 m. At the same time, the stem becomes dense, rigid and unsuitable for human consumption. Sometimes plants bloom in the first year, however, in such cases, the seeds are unable to ripen well.

In order to obtain high-quality seed material, it is necessary to perform the following actions:

  • Select 2–3 healthy strong specimens and place them in a cool place (for example, in the basement), and with the onset of spring, land again on the ridge.
  • As soon as the upper boxes begin cracking (by autumn), the inflorescences should be cut and dried in a well-ventilated dry place.
  • Collect the ready seed and put it in a paper bag. Seeds remain viable for three years.

We grow leek

The plant is demanding of soil fertility and moisture.. It responds well to fertilization, especially organic. Since pearl onions do not have a rest period, and the growth of the vegetative mass occurs until late autumn, it needs a lot of moisture, especially in the autumn. The optimum soil moisture should be at least 70−75%. When growing a leek, soil drying and irregular irrigation are not allowed.

Before planting the plant in the ground it is necessary to prepare the site. For this, 40–50 tons of humus or 100–120 tons of manure per 1 hectare are introduced for digging (plowing), that is, about 4–5 kg of humus or 10–12 kg of manure per 1 m2. In addition, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers: for 1 hectare 1.5 centners. nitrogen, 2−3 c. potash and 3-4 C. phosphorus compounds.

When making mineral dressings should be considered The fact that increased doses of nitrogen contribute to higher yields, but worsens the quality of onion during storage - plants tolerate the winter in open ground worse.

Care is regular weeding, watering and loosening between the rows. Since the leek is characterized by slow growth in the first year after sowing, it can be planted next to more precocious vegetables and herbs (lettuce, radish, watercress, etc.). A good harvest is obtained when planting a seed mixture consisting of onion seeds and leek.

How to grow onions on the windowsill?

In winter it can be grown in the apartment, placing the boxes on the windowsill. To do this, take the white most powerful part of the spine and put in water for 7 days. Water should be no more than 1 cm, you need to change it every day. As soon as young leaves appear, onions can be transplanted into a container with fertile soil. In less than a month you will receive fresh greens with a stem length of 30 cm!

Beneficial features

Pearl onions have long been used not only as a dietary supplement, but also as a medicine for all kinds of pathologies. For example, in ancient Greece and Rome, leek was used to cleanse the blood, cure throat and quickly heal wounds. Nowadays, cooks often try to remove dark green leaves because of their fibrous properties. But it is precisely in them that a large amount of useful substances is contained.

It has been established that daily use of leeks helps to improve the condition of bones and joints, and sulfur compounds contained in the plant can stop the development of inflammatory processes in the body. ANDIt is used in the treatment of the following diseases:

  • Anemia. The composition of pearl onions include a large amount of iron involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin. In addition, recovery is promoted by the leukable vitamin C.
  • Low libido. Recipes using such powerful aphrodisiacs as celery, garlic and onions have long been known. Daily use of these products will make you forget about the existing problem.
  • Disruption of the digestive system. Due to the fibrousness of the leaves with daily use of the leek, an increase in the growth and development of the desired microorganisms in the human intestine is observed, which helps to reduce bloating.
  • High cholesterol. Regular consumption of pearl onions helps reduce cholesterol absorption. In addition, leek can prevent the appearance of cholesterol plaques.
  • Cancer of the prostate and intestines. Due to quercetin contained in the leek, it is possible to suspend the growth and development of the tumor.
  • Airways. The plant contains essential oils that have a calming effect on the body. If you suffer from hay fever, flu, or have received hypothermia, then pearl onions will help you ease breathing.
  • Eye disease. In poor vision, it is recommended to eat leek, which consists of various substances that can improve or support the work of the visual organs.

As such, contraindications pearl bow has not. However, it is still not recommended to be used fresh to people suffering from diseases. gastrointestinal tract, as well as people with low sugar levelsbecause leek contributes to its reduction. Essential oils can cause excessive sweating, which also causes certain inconveniences, especially for people who are constantly in public places.

How to store?

The largest and most powerful plants that determine the very beginning of the growing season are selected for storage: you need to pre-select the onion which you will use for everyday cutting, as well as plants intended for storage - their leaves cannot be cut during the season.

Store pearl onions in dried, cooled and frozen form. With the onset of the first cold weather, onions are cut and prepared for winter.

It can be cut into strips or rings, wait until the liquid is drained and put into bags for subsequent freezing. Also, the leek can be finely chopped, dried and in this form stored throughout the winter in a dry place. For cooling, you need to select good stems, peel the roots, cut the leaves to intact areas and cool in the refrigerator for a day. After that, the whole stalks should be packed in perforated bags (in each - no more than 8 pcs.) And stored in this form for up to five months.

Storing fresh leeks

If you want to keep the plants fresh, you can use the following method:

  • Choose long succulent stems and carefully cut off the yellowed leaves,
  • carefully examine the plant for the detection of land and dirt (they should not be),
  • fill the boxes with sand by 5 cm., install the leek vertically in rows and fill the sand with a layer of 10−15 cm. It is recommended to take sand river, wet.
  • Boxes placed in a cool place where the air temperature will be from -1 to +1 degrees.

In this way, you can store the product up to 6 months. Periodically it is necessary to inspect onions and remove diseased or dried up specimens.

To maintain health must be regularly consumed greens. Leek, containing a huge amount of nutrients, is ideal for this purpose. Moreover, to grow such a product is quite simple, and the benefits of it are incredible. By following the simple rules of sowing and growing leeks, you will provide yourself and your family with vitamins and minerals for almost the entire year.

Origin of culture

Where did this vegetable come from is unknown for certain. Selectors are inclined that his birthplace is Mesopotamia, the so-called region in Iraq and Iran. Egyptian manuscripts found by archaeologists contain information that pyramid builders included a leek-like vegetable in their diet. Onions introduced in the Mediterranean from Asia, used in Rome, Greece, Europe. The ancestor of the modern leek bulb was more pronounced. Now culture is grown everywhere.

Characteristics and description of a leek:

  • biennial herb,
  • belongs to the onion family,
  • propagated by seeds
  • height is 0.4-0.9 m,
  • in the first year of growth, the root system develops, the white leg grows to 12 cm in diameter, 2-8 cm,
  • in the second year, the plant produces an arrow with seeds.

What does a leek look like?

Another name is Pearl Prince. In Russia, due to the characteristics of growing and care, leeks are cultivated mainly in the southern regions, but there are ways to get a good harvest in other regions. In terms of frequency of use in nutrition, it is inferior only to bulb onions and garlic. In food use fresh, boiled, stewed, baked, pickled. The taste of fresh vegetable is a bit spicy, but not hot.

Plant height from the ground is 0.4-0.9 m. Leaves are green or bluish.

The flowers are white or pinkish, the inflorescence forms an umbrella, like a large ball, does not form a bulb. Can separate a few onion-kids.

The stem is thick, white. The leaves are long, grow bundle. For clarity on the photo leek:

Variety variety

Early, mid-ripening and late varieties of leek are known. The earliest include the trunk of an elephant, Vesta, Goliath. They ripen in August, are used fresh or canned. Mid season are Bastion, Winner, Tango, Elephant. Stored up to 3 months. Late varieties are left to winter in the ground, harvested in early spring. Late-ripe onion Karantansky, Elephant, Autumn giant.

There are 2 ways to grow leek: from seed and seedling. Under bad climatic conditions, they are grown from seedlings in order to mature. In the southern areas, the soil warms quickly, so it is permissible to immediately grow from seed.

Preparation and seeding

Leek requires pre-planting of seeds and care for seedlings. Seeds can be used 3-4 years after they are harvested. To obtain a large crop, it is desirable to take young seeds. But for the prevention of viral diseases, on the contrary, they lain - only after 2 years of storage.

Soak leek seeds in warm water for 25 minutes, then dip in cool water, take out. Sometimes it is used rinsing with boiling water through a sieve, followed by spraying with cold water. Next, wrap in a damp cloth, leave for several days, occasionally moistening. This will accelerate the emergence of seedlings. Before planting, dry the seeds a little.

Further actions with planting materials depend on climatic conditions, vegetable varieties. In the southern regions, early-ripening varieties can be planted immediately into the ground. In the remaining areas, sow the seeds in prepared containers. They should be a depth of 12 cm, decontaminated, treated with a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. It is important that the planting material was a place for the development of the root system.

Tanks should be filled with light humus soil, a little rammed, well watered. Sow the seeds after 5 cm apart, cover with sand by 5 mm, do not immediately water, cover with foil. Keep at 22-25 ° C until seedlings appear.

Features care for seedlings

Growing leek seedlings before germination will take 2–3 weeks. Then the containers should be moved to a cooler place for 1 week (temperature from 10 0 C at night, to 17 0 C during the day). Then grow at night temperatures from 13 0 C and daytime to 20 0 C. It is important to ensure that the seedlings have a 12-hour light day. For these purposes, you can use LED or fitolampy.

Caring for a leek seedling involves regular and sufficient watering. Drying of the soil is not allowed. After 1 month after emergence, thin the onion, leaving 3-4 cm between sprouts. After the leek grows 10 cm, prune the seedlings every 2 weeks, leaving this height. It is necessary to make 2 feeding: 2 weeks after the emergence of shoots and 1 week before transplanting.

Attention! A pick when growing a leek is undesirable. It can damage the small roots.

Planting seedlings on the beds

Growing leeks requires constant care: when growing seedlings, after planting in the ground. If you follow all the rules, seedlings give strong seedlings with formed leaves. After planting the seedlings also need to take care, following the rules of watering, hilling, feeding. It is necessary to ensure that viral, bacterial, fungal diseases do not develop, pests do not appear.

When to plant leek

The plant must be strong, the root system is well developed. Lees should be planted in open ground when 3-4 leaves are formed. This usually occurs 2 months after sowing the seeds. Plant height is about 15 cm. When planting seedlings, the temperature should not fall below 0 0 C even at night.

It must be remembered that frosts are disastrous for young onions. Therefore, the main condition for landing is warmed land. On average - the middle of May, 55-60 days after sowing.

It is necessary to care for the leek seedlings grown and planted in the ground. There are varieties that remain in the ground for the whole winter, and the crop is harvested in spring. They should be planted in the summer, and in the fall you can eat young onions. The main crop remains until spring, while over the winter, the nutrients from the leaves pass into the stem, the onions become even better.

Landing technology

It is important to know how to plant leeks. In order for the harvest to be good, a bright, open place is selected, and the soil is prepared. It is necessary to plant seedlings in the middle-end of May, in some regions weather conditions allow it to be done in late April, early May.

On a note! Before planting seedlings, the roots of seedlings are useful for growing and dipping in a mash: clay and mullein (1: 1) with water.

When transplanting, seedlings should be from 3 leaves. Pre-pour heavily, trim the roots and leaves on 1 /3. Land in long V-shaped grooves. Can be planted from individual tanks in the wells. It is good to loosen the bottom of the furrow in advance, apply fertilizer (for example, manure, ash). Between future plants should be 10-15 cm, and between rows 35-50 cm. After planting leeks require care.

Direct sowing

Another method of growing leeks - immediately from seed to soil. The dates of sowing are the same, depending on the region of cultivation. It is necessary that the soil has time to warm up, frost is very undesirable, can destroy the harvest. Семена перед посадкой обработать: обеззаразить, также можно использовать раствор марганца. Замочить сначала в теплой воде, затем окунуть в холодную. Или сначала промыть горячей, а потом холодной водой. Подержать несколько дней в мокрой ткани, чтобы проросли.

При посадке лука-порея в грунт почву необходимо предварительно подготовить (полить, удобрить, взрыхлить). Можно сделать V-образные борозды. Leave about 10 cm between rows. Sow at a depth of 1 cm. Sow leeks only when the seeds swell. When shoots appear, they need a little priteen from the sun's rays.

In the suburbs planted leeks first in greenhouses. Then the grown strong plants are grown in the open field, providing care. You can plant onions, followed by wintering. In Siberia, growing and caring for leeks is somewhat different. Seeds in the ground do not sow. It is imperative to grow seedlings, but they should be planted in the ground not in the middle of May, but in June, when there is no danger of prolonged frost. For an adult plant frost is not terrible. In the autumn you can not rush to harvest. Used early ripe varieties.

In the Urals, planting and caring for leeks on open ground vary considerably in its different regions: in the Urals, you can follow the rules of onion planting, as in the Moscow region. and the Trans-Urals is similar in climatic conditions to Siberia, there the method of cultivation is the same.

Watering and hilling

After planting seedlings in the ground or sowing seeds should monitor the irrigation, to prevent stagnation of water and overdrying of the soil. The first 3 days after planting the seedlings do not need to be moistened, then watered 1 time in 4-5 days. It is better to irrigate the furrows, the plants themselves do not wet. Sprinkle the soil with straw, hay, dried manure or peat. This will keep the moisture, will protect from the growth of weeds.

It is necessary to grow leeks with regular hilling - 4-5 times per season. Due to this, the onion stalk (leg) acquires a white color. Loosen the soil every 14 days, the weeds must be cleaned.

Diseases and pests

Leek grow in the country is easy, you just need to observe some of the nuances of sowing, cultivation, care. But all efforts may be in vain when a plant is infected with viruses, fungi, or infected by pests. The main threats to leeks are:

  • root tick,
  • covertly
  • onion moth, fly,
  • hotshot
  • nematode,
  • peronosporosis,
  • neck and bacterial rot,
  • green moldy rot.

When a leek becomes infected with viruses, fungal diseases, or infected by pests, in most cases it will be necessary to remove the affected plants. To protect landings should observe the following rules:

  • use of healthy seeds, better after 2 years of storage,
  • alternate plant cultures, sow the bow to its place only after 3 years,
  • plant after potatoes, celery, turnips, cabbage, cucumbers,
  • scald the seeds with boiling water before sowing,
  • Before planting or feeding, make Zemlin, Basudin or other means into the soil,
  • follow the rules of watering, feeding, loosening, hilling,
  • spray insecticide if necessary,
  • in the neighborhood you can plant carrots or celery,
  • alternate between celery and leek beds,
  • to harvest ripe crops in time,
  • observe the rules of storage,
  • remove all plant residues from the beds.

Harvesting and storage

It is advisable not to pick leaves from a leek intended for long storage during growth. It is necessary to collect ripe onions before the temperature drops to -5 0 C. Dig up the plants, dry them a little, remove the lumps of earth with your hands, while trying to prevent the ground from polluting the green part.

Roots cut off, leaving 1 /3. Leaves can also be cut, but for long storage it is better to leave them long. Next, remove the onions for the winter, sorting out all the damaged and affected specimens or pests.

There are several ways to store leeks:

  1. Storage in a box (bucket) with sand. Pre 30-40 minutes Calcify the sand in the oven at a temperature of 200 ° C. Before putting the vegetable in the sand, slightly moisten the sand, but do not allow it to become wet. Put 5-7 cm of sand in the box, put the leek stalks vertically. Dissolve more sand, covering the entire white part of the stem. Cover with a lid, place in a cool (about 0 0 C) and damp (80-85%) place - basement, cellar. If the leek is stored on the balcony, cover with a cotton blanket on top.
  2. In a trench on a high place. Dig a trench 6-7 cm wide, lay leeks in it, sprinkle with earth, cover with boards, leaving small holes. Cover with film in the rain and frost.
  3. In the pit. Dig a hole in which the whole onion will fit in an upright position. Download leek, sprinkle with earth. In the cold, close the top with dry leaves. It is advisable to put coniferous branches in a hole to scare off rodents.
  4. Greenhouse. You can put the structure directly above the leek beds. It is better to pre-dig and shorten the roots, it will stop growth, preserve the taste. It is necessary to dig a bow in the ground by half, from above collect a greenhouse. The temperature inside should not be below 0 0 C.
  5. Chilled or frozen. Wash whole leek heads, dry them, cut them into a bag, fill them with air, close them. Shelf life - 1 month. To freeze the leek for the winter, it also needs to be washed and dried, cut, put into portions and freeze.
  6. Dry onions. Vegetable wash, dry, chop, leave for several days at room temperature. From above it is desirable to cover with gauze. It can be dried in the oven for 15 minutes. at 100 0 C. Store such a bow tightly closed in a dry, cool place.

If you follow all the rules for growing and caring leek gives high yields. A variety of varieties and many ways to preserve the harvest can enrich the diet with tasty and healthy vegetables throughout the year. When using it is necessary to remember about the presence of contraindications to its use.

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