Due to the popularity of conifers, the number of cultivated varieties of thuja today is in the tens and hundreds. More often on sites they grow thuja western, however thuja east deserves not less attention.
More recently, plants with this name constituted a common genus with thujas, but because of a number of differences in structure, conditions of growth and reproduction, they were isolated into a new community consisting of one species of thuja, or rather, Eastern biota or Biota orientalis.
Organic biota or thuja: species description
The change in the official classification gave rise to another name, derived from the name of a subgenus of this culture, the flatbattle.
The plant’s homeland is China and other Asian regions, where biota grows in the form of large shrubs, and sometimes trees with a rather wide crown. Adult specimens, capable of living in the wild for several hundred years, reach a height of 18, and their diameter at the same time reaches 12 meters.
The peculiarity of the eastern thuja is flat with numerous branching shoots covered with needles. On the trunk of the branch are located radially and upwards, therefore from the side they give the impression of thin living plates.
Green, scaly needles in length does not exceed 1.5 millimeters, tightly covers shoots, the ends of which are topped with cones, unlike those that ripen on western Tue. As can be seen in the photo, the eastern thuja is decorated with green-bluish horned buds up to 15 mm in length, which at the time of ripening become brownish-red, dry out and open in the middle of autumn, freeing the seeds.
Green, with a matte bloom, biota needles turn brown-brown in winter, but do not die. Their life lasts from 3 to 5 years, after which the needles fall, baring light shoots.
In the culture most often find the use of thuja Oriental pyramidal shape. There are many varieties of this plant, differing in shade of needles and size of the bush.
Planting of biota, thuja oriental and care of the conifer
In comparison with the western thuja, its eastern congener, the flat moth, is more thermophilic. In central Russia, the culture seriously freezes or completely dies, and if it survives, it loses its crown density, it becomes dark.
In the southern regions, for example, on the Black Sea coast and in the Crimea, the plant feels great, reaches a considerable size, pleases with a fluffy crown and excellent decorative effect.
Fans of coniferous crops who wish to decorate the eastern thuja site can plant a shrub in a container. In this case, biota will grow under the open sky in summer, and for the winter the thermophilic beauty will have to be transported under the roof.
Like other cultures from the Cypress family, the flatworm is light-requiring, but it takes root in the shade. However, in this case, the crown is more rarefied, which impairs the perception of pyramidal varieties. And plants with decorative golden needles in the shade can become completely green.
Planting and caring for the eastern thuja will not burden even the beginning gardener. The culture has low soil composition and the presence of a large amount of organic matter in it. For the cultivation of biota cultivated sandy loam and loam. The soil should be loose enough for the active development of the root system and drained to avoid stagnant water and the rotting of the underground part of the plant.
Annual supplements are needed only for young individuals up to the age of five. At this time, a drought-resistant shrub is watered regularly, as the surface of the trunk circle dries. After 6 years, the eastern biota is watered only during hot dry periods.
Plants of this species are not afraid of transplantation. Deepening the root collar is not destructive for a thuja of the flat-vein, as for the western thuja. The shrub will respond to such a gardener's mistake by forming new roots and shoots, becoming more dense and receiving additional nourishment and support.
As follows from the description, the thuja east breeds both by seeds, and layers, and grafting. At the same time, seedlings retain the features of varietal parent plants.
Common varieties of eastern thuja, biota
There are not so many varieties of eastern biota as its western neighbor, the Tui. Existing species differ in size, shape of the crown and the color of the needles. As a result of the lecture, individual hybrid plants received greater winter-resistance than species specimens; therefore, they can grow to the north of the natural range.
The most popular varieties are the thuja Oriental Aurea Nana with a dense ovoid crown, by the 10-year-old shrub reaching a height of 70–80 cm. The Auraa Nana biota variety is golden needles, which in the autumn begins to cast all shades of bronze, and in spring it becomes bright, yellow again. .
Depending on the variety, in landscape design, thuja Oriental are used as large tapeworms, part of the group plantings or the basis for creating a living decorative fence.
In nature, this plant can be seen in mountainous regions, where stony soils with diverse and complex relief prevail. Biota can grow in groups or in a single specimen, sometimes in mixed forests with poor soil. Initially, eastern biota was found mainly in China, then migrated to neighboring regions. Currently, it can be seen in the Crimea, Central Asia and the Caucasus. The plant feels well in a warm, temperate climate. Another scientific name of the conifer is the flat moth plate. In the wild, there are thujas in the form of shrubs and trees that grow to 17 m in height.
The flat skeleton belongs to the cypress family; it is a spreading, monoecious tree or large shrub with standing, raised shoots. The main advantage of the eastern biota is its openwork, highly aesthetic crown. The branches are shaped like plates, are arranged tightly, stacking on each other. At the ends of scaly needles are formed cones, which are covered with blue patina. Over time, they become red-brown in color and dry out. In October, the bolls open and release the seeds. In winter, the needles become brown.
Of the evergreen representatives of the flora, the western and eastern flat-vein are better known. In some ways they are similar to each other, but each of them has its own characteristic features. Eastern western thuja is distinguished by the presence of resinous glands on the needles. Because of this feature, the plant is considered medicinal and extremely useful. Essential oil derived from aromatic gum is used in the development of homeopathic medicines.
There are many varieties of Eastern biota. Ornamental trees and shrubs are used in the design of household plots and urban landscapes, and some species are grown as greenhouse plants. You can grow Tui indoors. By varietal characteristics they are divided into spherical, golden and columnar. We offer the names of the most popular varieties:
- Compact-Ungeri. It has a spherical configuration, the edges of the needles are painted white.
- Siboyad Stunted plant with a spherical crown and bright green color needles.
- Aureo-variegenta. Thuja has a golden color, looks quite motley, the bush has the shape of a ball.
- Rosentalis compact. It grows in the form of a shrub, the crown is ovoid, the color of the needles is yellowed.
- Elegantus. Numerous shoots of trees are very densely arranged, they are a magnificent pyramid. The plant is able to change color depending on the season - in spring it is more golden, and by summer it is dominated by a greenish tint.
- Nana. This branch is characterized by strong branching and small stature. Shoots from him noticeably diverge in hand.
Requirements for climatic conditions
In the description of the eastern biota it was mentioned that it is a southern culture. Based on the nature of its origin, it is necessary to create similar conditions for it. When growing a thuja, its individual characteristics should be taken into account:
- The plant is characterized by slow growth.
- Drought resistant.
- Negatively reacts to overwetted soils.
- Feels great in the shadows.
- Can grow in sunny areas.
- Not too demanding on the composition of the soil.
- In springtime, the needles are affected by burns of the first sun rays.
- Prefers a soil with a good alkaline reaction, clay and drained.
- The temperature that thuja can tolerate in winter varies from -17 to -23 o C (a plant variety is of great importance here).
Gardeners who grow flatwalker in regions with more severe climates should remember that this plant needs warming during the winter months. Otherwise, the twigs are frozen in it, and the tree may die. On the Black Sea coast and in other southern regions, eastern biota does not need shelter, grows faster and looks more luxurious.
If you liked this plant, but you live in cold areas, plant dwarf thuja varieties in containers for seasonal maintenance. In summer, it will grow in fresh air, and in winter it should be moved to a room.
Coniferous perennials are planted under the open sky in any season except winter. Experienced gardeners are advised to plant in late autumn, as it is associated with many risks. For example, if you carry out this process in November, the plant may not settle down. Therefore, we will talk about how to plant thuja in open ground in spring.
The platyllum must be placed in the penumbra. This should be considered immediately when you break the plot into sections. If the plant is planted in the shade, it will negatively affect the color of the needles - it will be faded and not too lush. It is better that the space provided is protected from the wind.
How your green pet will grow in the future depends largely on the state of the selected seedling. If the scales on the shoots are not firmly held, then it is not necessary to buy it. The substrate in which the young seedling is located must be sufficiently moist. Also important is the appearance of the shoots. They need to be checked for elasticity and the presence of unwanted spots.
Saplings with an open root system are planted in the spring, purchased in containers can be moved to the ground in the summer.
Before placing in the ground should carefully inspect the roots of thuja. Eastern biota will grow better if they are not dry, therefore, for a short time the seedling is immersed in water. Already in the first season, the plant can become an ornament to your manor. To make this happen, several phased actions should be implemented:
- The hole for planting should be deep - 1 m and about the same diameter. For dwarf plants, the size of the fossa is reduced.
- Tuyu set in the recess so that the earthy clod with the roots fit freely. If he does not have enough space, you should slightly expand the landing hole.
- The root collar is placed on the same level with the surface layer of the soil.
- The earth extracted from the well is mixed in equal proportions with peat and filled in its voids around the earthy coma.
- The soil should be poured tight.
The distances between tree varieties leave about 5 meters, between shrubs - 1 meter. Here, the design idea also plays a role, for example, in the alleys, flat slabs are seated more densely.
It cannot be said that after planting an evergreen perennial, the work of a gardener is over. There are Eastern biota and features in the care. The plant needs regular watering, dressing, pruning and timely loosening the soil.
In spring, the thuja does not need much moisture, just pour it once a week. The optimal amount of water for each plant is 10 liters. With the onset of hot weather, moisture is doubled.
The openwork crown also needs irrigation. Conducting abundant spraying of needles, you can significantly improve the decorative qualities of the plants, which will always be fresh, and their shoots more elastic.
Spring dressing is carried out with special complexes with the addition of a growth stimulator. Adult plants fertilize with phosphorus and potassium every 12-15 days. For them, suitable and organic with mineral additives. A good remedy in this regard is considered the drug "Fertika". Twice a year, rotted compost can be applied to the thistle area.
To reduce the multiplicity of loosening, the soil around the trunk can be mulched. For this purpose, apply straw, sawdust, nutshells.
It is produced mainly for sanitary purposes. Clean dry, diseased or damaged shoots. Home pruning is done in spring, in dry weather. Biota is also suitable for topiar. Adults Thuys adjust throughout the warm period. Pruning the rovok is a creative and very interesting process. What only do not come up with experienced designers, giving the plants certain configurations. After such manipulations, one can observe square, figured, stepped, and other forms of plants. To biota less sick, when pruning need to leave room for air circulation.
Tuya is multiplied in three ways: seed, by grafting and grafting. The latter is used extremely rarely. Growing the biota of the eastern seed is the best breeding method, which is most often practiced by amateur decorators. With the help of grafting, it is better to breed young cultures with needle-shaped needles.
Perennial seeds can be purchased at a specialty store or obtained from cones. This is done in the fall.
- Plucked cones are placed in a well-lit, ventilated room and wait for them to unfold.
- Before sowing, seeds are kept in a damp cloth for swelling.
- Then they are evenly sprinkled over the surface of a previously prepared mixture of humus with peat (1: 1) located in a common flowerpot.
- Above the planting material sprinkled with earth, it is not worth deepening it.
- It is necessary to keep a pot with seeds in the conditions of diffused lighting, regularly moistening the soil in it.
Scope of application
The durability of coniferous plants has always attracted connoisseurs of plant design. Most of them tolerate heat, drought, and disease resistance. This can be said about the eastern biota. The tree-like flat tree is great for a single landing or group compositions. It is used as a hedge. It looks especially beautiful when its tops are cut.
Dwarf varieties are widely used in landscape compositions. With them are rock gardens, rockeries and mixborders. The original lawns look, on which grow low varieties of conifers.
The plant belongs to the evergreen trees of the family Cypress.
Types of decorative thuja:
The homeland of western thuja is North America. This is the most common type of landscape design. Saplings after transplanting take root well in the new place. It tolerates a small shadow, but develops better in sunny areas. Under natural conditions, it grows on moist clay soils. The tree is unpretentious in leaving, decorative, frost-resistant.
The second name of the plant is Standish. Under natural conditions, it grows in the highlands of Japan. It is very demanding to the purity of the surrounding air, therefore it practically does not take root in the cities. It tolerates low temperatures. The upper part of the branches has a green color, and the bottom - white.
Unlike other species, it refers to shrubs. Does not tolerate cold. This type of thuja differs sprawling wide crown. The needles are soft, bicolor. The outer side is green and the bottom is silver.
The highest of all species. It reaches a height of 70 m, while the diameter of the trunk can reach 2 m. The varieties of decorative thuja of this species are more miniature.
In the literature it is otherwise called thuja biota, flatworm, or platicladus. The plant grows in countries with a temperate warm climate and mild winters. Under natural conditions, it can be found on the elevations of China, so you can call it the Chinese thuja. Most often it grows singly or in small groups on rocky sites or stony soils. It can rightly be considered rock thuja.
The height of the tree usually reaches 10 m, although there are specimens up to 18 m high. Crown sizes - up to 11 m in diameter.
The bark of the tree has a light brown color. Bark of twigs - yellowish-red.
The shape of the shoots is flat, wide, with numerous branching, whence the name “flatwave” originated. The branches are arranged around the trunk and directed upwards.
Needles scale-like or needle, firmly pressed to the twigs. Live about 3-5 years. Their size in diameter reaches 3 mm. The color of the needles depends on the time of the year: in the summer - light yellow or light green, and closer to winter - reddish-brown.
Beautiful summer look Oriental thuja with blue or greenish cones, the size of which reaches 1.5 cm (male) and 2-3 cm (female). After maturation, they become dry and turn brown. Seeds in cones are similar in shape to the grain. В середине осени шишки раскрываются, и семена попадают на землю.
Основная масса корней располагается в поверхностных слоях, однако имеется несколько основных глубоких корней.
Туя относится к деревьям долгожителям. В Китае имеются экземпляры, которые были высажены около 1000 лет назад. В культурных посадках её возраст может достигать 200 лет.
The flatlanet is a shade-tolerant plant, but it develops better in sunny open areas. In the shade, the crown grows well on loamy and sandy soils. Can grow on not very fertile soils. Does not like dense and waterlogged soils. The soil can be either slightly acidic or strongly alkaline. Easy transfer transplant.
Planting should be done in the spring, at the very beginning of summer or in autumn. During this period, the highest percentage of survival rate of seedlings is observed. It is recommended during planting to deepen the root neck, as this will give an additional increase in the root system.
Attention! Eastern thuja does not like stagnant water. Therefore, if at the site groundwater is located close enough to the surface, it is necessary to arrange drainage.
After planting, it is necessary to conduct abundant watering. It is also recommended to water the seedling once a week periodically during the first two months.
Care in the warm season for the plant is in periodic watering. If the summer is hot enough, it is possible to carry out the sprinkling of the crown in the morning or evening.
In the warm season it is necessary to mulch the soil and remove weeds in the near-stem circle.
In springtime, you can feed with nitrogen fertilizers, in the summer - phosphate fertilizers, in the autumn - with potash fertilizers.
Note! It is advisable to warm the flat-vein for the winter, since it can die if it is cold below -30 ° C.
Propagated by seeds and cuttings.
In the process of growth, the ephedra releases phytoncides into the surrounding air; therefore, it is advantageous for the thuja to plant near the house.
Landscape design pushes thuja to a leading position among conifers in organizing hedges, decorating alleys, park paths, in rockeries, etc. She tolerates molding.
The nature of the wood plow vet allows it to be used in furniture production, as well as for the manufacture of windows, doors, stairs, etc. It is soft, beautiful, with a subtle pine aroma. In industry distinguish between dark and light.
Tuya eastern Aurea
This is a very beautiful decorative variety. It grows quite slowly. During the year its growth is only 0.08-0.1 m.
Thuja eastern Aurea Nana is a dwarf variety of Tui Aurea. The leaves of the thuja eastern Aurea Nana have a golden hue.
Interesting! The shape of the tree resembles an egg or a cone.
The composition and fertility of the soil is not demanding. It tolerates severe frosts, so young trees require shelter for the winter. For landing it is best to choose elevated, closed from drafts places.
The thuja eastern Aurea, in contrast to the western Aurea thuja, is less frost-resistant, has a denser crown and a smaller annual increase. Its branches create a special ribbing.
Thuja Oriental Justinka
Biota Polish selection. Her crown has a columnar shape. Like the Aurea thuja, Nana belongs to the dwarf varieties, however, unlike it, it has a slightly larger annual increase - 0.1-0.11 m.
Thuja Oriental Justinka
Forming branches are oriented vertically upwards. The remaining branches are fan-shaped and arranged in a vertical plane.
The color of the needles - dark green.
Thuja Justinka more frost-resistant variety than Aurea.
Thuja eastern Morgan
Variety bred by Australian breeders. In contrast to the previous varieties, the color of the needles in spring and summer is emerald green, lemon green or salad green. In winter, the color changes to bronze red with an orange tint.
The crown has a pyramidal shape, pointed up, it is dense, practically does not require molding.
Thuja eastern Morgan
It grows very slowly. The annual increase is only 0.05-0.07 m. In adulthood, it reaches a height of 140-150 cm. At the same time, the crown width is up to 0.9 m.
Poor tolerated low temperatures, so in winter needs shelter. It tolerates drought.
Thuja east Platikladus
The crown is cone-shaped. In rockeries can be grown as a large bright green bush. Grows slowly. For the year its growth reaches 15 cm.
Note: The height of adult biota reaches 10 m, crown width is 3-4 m, trunk diameter is up to 1 m.
Fan-shaped branches tightly pressed to the trunk, have a direction upwards. This variety of thuja is better developed in sunny areas or in light partial shade.
Thuja Eastern Pyramidalis
Shrub has a narrowly columnar shape. An adult plant reaches a height of 4 m, while the crown width can vary from 0.8 to 1.5 m. It grows quite slowly. In a year, shoots grow no more than 10 cm.
Shade-tolerant It tolerates low temperatures. However, in early spring sunburn is possible for young tuis. Therefore, during this period they are prune with agrofibre. Shelter is removed after the soil thaws around the bush.
Thuja Eastern Pyramidalis
In the species of Tui Pyramidalis Aurea, the needles are colored intensely yellow. And the color does not change, depending on the season.
Eastern Plovovechnik widely used in landscape design when creating hedges. There are about 60 varieties of Oriental thuja, but not all are suitable for cultivation in our climatic zone. Two types are most popular:
- Pyramidalis aurea - thuja with golden yellow needles. Often used to create a windbreak. In the summer, it tolerates drought well, in winter - frost to -25 degrees.
- The thuja eastern aurea nana is a dwarf. It grows up to 2 m, it is distinguished by thick needles. In the summer it has a golden hue, in winter it is bronze. It prefers well-lit areas, as the crown is incorrectly formed in the shade.
There are even varieties suitable for growing bonsai indoors. Of the western varieties of Thuja is extremely popular, which has bright green needles, white at the ends of the shoots.
Growing Eastern Thuja
The thuja east not bad gets accustomed in neutral, subacidic soils, artificial substrates and on stony areas. It withstands drought withstand, but at the same time is not afraid of the close flow of groundwater. The eastern tree does not differ in high frost resistance, therefore it is grown up in the southern regions or the enclosed space.
Tuyu is better to plant in the garden in spring, closer to the beginning of May. Allowed planting plants on the site until mid-September. But since spring, the Tui have more chances to adapt to frost. Choose a well-lit place without direct sunlight.
The optimal soil composition for thuja consists of 2 parts of leaf or sod land, 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. An adult plant is not demanding to the ground, but it is better to fill the well for the seedling with just such a mixture.
The depth of the fossa should correspond to the size of the root system, usually 60-80 cm is enough. Be sure to lay a drainage layer on the bottom. If ground water is near, the thickness of this layer should be at least 15 cm.
When planting a seedling, do not bury the root neck, leaving it flush with the soil. Maintain a distance between seedlings of 1-5 meters, depending on whether you are going to make a hedge. Keep in mind that thuja grow in width.
Thuja aurea nana sapling.
During the first month after disembarkation, young thujas should be watered once a week. At the same time, pour about 10 liters of water under each tree. In between waterings, you can arrange a tue sprinkling - irrigate the crown.
Although thuja endure drought, in the hot period requires additional watering. 15-20 liters of water are poured under the tree, and irrigation is done twice a week. The need for moisture depends on the soil.
Eastern thuja grows well in swampy, peaty, clayey soils. When grown in such soils, wood needs more sparse watering. But remember: for a thuja, drought is much worse than waterlogging.
After each watering, the soil should be loosened to a depth of 10 cm. It is no longer worth it, since the Tui has a shallow root system and can easily damage it. Punching circles peel, peat, sawdust or crushed bark so that the layer thickness reaches 5-7 cm.
Wood is not demanding on fertilizers. Comprehensive mineral supplements or special for conifers will do. They can be applied to the soil before planting the seedling or directly in the process. The next feeding of the Tui should be made in 2 years.
Crown formation is started when the seedling is 3 years old. This is done in the summer. Secateurs cut all the extra branches, forming a crown of the required size. Tui are often used for hedges. Since trees easily tolerate pruning, they form whimsical ornate shapes. Regardless of the age of the tree, dry and dead branches are constantly removed.
It is necessary to regularly remove dry branches.
Oriental thujas do not tolerate much lower temperatures too well. Mark "-25" on the thermometer may be critical for them. Some gardeners shelter a tree for the winter with spruce branches, fall asleep with a layer of snow, but plants do not always survive wintering.
All tui up to 5 years old should be highly spud, and the stem should be covered with a layer of peat. To prevent the snow and wind from breaking the branches, the crown of the thuja is tied up with a twine for the winter and covered with non-woven material (lutrasil, for example). For a tree, it is not so much the cold that is terrible as the strong spring sun and thaw. Therefore, you should remove the shelter with the installation of constant positive temperatures.
If there are cracks due to temperature drops on the bark, in the spring you need to cover them with garden pitch. And the cortex should be pulled tight so that the damaged areas healed. From the Eastern varieties, the Harmony and Biota thuja hibernate well.
Problems with growing thuja
Eastern thuja is attacked by pests and diseases. From this, its needles may turn yellow and fall off, the shoots become deformed and slow down in growth. It is important to timely detect the problem.
Thuja is susceptible to fungal diseases: brown shütte, fusarium, blight, dry shoots are observed.
- Late blight is the most dangerous disease for thuja. When it affects the upper layer of the root, because of what the thuja fades, becomes gray, the lower part of the trunk loses its hardness. Fabrics under the bark acquire a brown tint, a patina appears. The roots are brittle, have a putrid odor. The disease appears when growing tui on poorly drained areas where water often stagnates. The fungus is able to live in the soil for a long time, so it is better to burn the affected plant, replace the ground. For prevention helps spilling of soil phytoncides.
- Brown shyutte is a fungal disease affecting the thuja in early spring. Accompanied by yellowing scales, a gradual defeat of the entire escape. As a result, the branches turn brown and die. Having noticed the struck escape, it should be removed immediately. For prevention, thuja roots are regularly sprinkled with limestone. From July to October, the tree is sprayed with a 2% solution of "Fundazol".
- Fusarium root caused by soil fungi. Occurs due to excess moisture. The thuja yellows and turns brown top. To help the plant cope with the fungus, it is simultaneously treated with "Zircon" and a fungicide (0.2% solution "Fundazole, for example"). Spray the crown and spill the soil.
- Drying of shoots and branches is accompanied by yellowing and dropping of needles, browning of young twigs. To combat the spring, thuyas are regularly sprayed with Zineb or copper-containing preparations.
Shrinking shoots east tui.
Tuyu is most often affected by aphids and false shields. With the defeat of the false shield on the needles, yellow spots appear. Gray-brown aphid settles on the needles and strikes her, because of which she turns yellow and falls. To fight use one of the drugs: "Aktellik", "Rogor", "Karbofos", "Antio".
Yellowing of the needles on the thuja is not necessarily caused by diseases. Sometimes this indicates an error in the care.
- Yellowing tops may indicate an excess of fertilizer in the soil.
- The life of each needle is 3-6 years, upon reaching this time it turns yellow and falls. Therefore, a slight yellowing in the fall is a natural process.
- In the spring of thuja can get sunburn, why the needles will become yellowish.
- Rooting of the roots and yellowing of the needles can be caused by excessive watering.
- The color change sometimes occurs when growing thuja in the wrong soil. In peat there is a high risk of rotting of the roots, in sandy water and top dressing quickly go to the lower layers, in clayey there is not enough oxygen.
- Drying and dropping of the needles can cause the thuja to sit too deep. Subsequently, the trunk may rot.
- Thickened planting of the thuja leads to yellowing of the needles at the points of contact with the neighboring tree.
- Whitening and yellowing of individual shoots caused by a lack of iron in the soil.
- Black needles and bark when in contact with the urine of animals. Thuis are often tagged with dogs and cats, this should be prevented.
Growing from seed
Fresh seeds of thuja are suitable for this method. They are collected in the fall, and then subjected to stratification - stored until spring under the snow or in the refrigerator. In the spring they are sown in the ground, choosing a place in the penumbra. In the soil, grooves are made with a depth of only 0.5 cm, seeds are laid and a little sprinkled with conifer sawdust.
The soil is kept loose and wet. Crops are covered with sun shields. When shoots appear, the site must be mulched with peat. Twice a month, the sprouts need to be fed with a mineral solution of fertilizers.
For the first season, young tui will grow by 7-8 cm. By the first winter, cover them with lapnik, then - with a film. Remove the shelter in the spring and continue to care for seedlings as well. On the permanent place of the tree can be planted in the third spring, when their height reaches 50 cm.
Growing thuja trees.
In June, lignified shoots aged 2-3 years, 10-20 cm long, break off a tree. Notice, they are not cut, namely break off, together with the heel. The place of breaking is treated with a solution of "Heteroauxin" and planted to a depth of 2.5 cm.
The mixture for planting is prepared from equal parts of turf land, sand and peat. It is shed with a warm solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection, and then the cuttings are buried. Cover them with a transparent film or container to maintain high humidity.
The soil is not watered, and sprayed. Airing hothouses begin after rooting cuttings. Gradually, the greenhouse is left open for a longer time - so the shoots are hardened. In the middle of autumn, cuttings are prepared for wintering: covered with dry leaves or sawdust, spruce branches. When the temperature drops below -5-7 degrees, additionally cover the film.
The method consists in the separation of a large parent plant. This is true when the thuja has several trunks. The division should occur so that each thuja has not only a separate trunk, but also its own roots.
The best time for this is spring. Separation will require a disinfected instrument. The mother plant does not necessarily completely dig out from the soil. Sometimes the separation can be done in such a way, and then the already separated part can be uprooted from the ground.
Places of cuts need to be powdered with crushed coal, after which the separated part should be landed in a permanent habitat. The removed allotment should be sprayed with a growth stimulator, regularly watered and sprinkled on it.
Having understood how to plant thuja in open ground in spring, you can grow it. It is advisable to follow the rules given in the article. In this case, the plant will be less exposed to external factors and hurt. During the summer, you will be able to observe how the young sapling will behave, adjusting its development.
Eastern biota - a natural plant of China, but for a long time, for several centuries, it has been widely bred in Central Asia and in the Crimea, where it has become wild in places and even entered into the Red Book. Eastern biota is also found in Ukraine, but, for a number of reasons, less popular than western thuja. In fact, Oriental biota and its forms, like original ornamental plants, can and should take a worthy place in our gardens. Eastern biota - it is a sprawling evergreen monoecious tree (up to 12–15 m tall) or a large shrub with an openwork crown formed by branches lifted upwards. The shape of the crown of natural specimens is pyramidal or ovoid, often strongly branched at the base and reaches 9–11 m in diameter. The branches of the biota are vertically directed and oriented in the crown edge to the trunk.
The branches of the biota are vertically directed and oriented in the crown edge to the trunk.
The bark is thin, reddish-brown or gray, lamellar. Scaly needles, dark green from the beginning of the growing season until the autumn, in the winter turns brown. Cones are large, unlike other types of thujas, before ripening are fleshy and bluish-green, later dry and hard, reddish-brown, ripen in the first year in the autumn, collect them at the very beginning of the disclosure. In each cone from 2 to 8 dull brown wingless walnut seeds. The seed resembles wheat grain. Eastern biota is a long-lived plant that Buddhist monks call the “tree of life” for a maximum life expectancy of 1000 years.
Thuja Eastern Golden Minaret
Another variety of flat yellow vein with a yellow color is Golden Minaret.
The height reaches 3-4 meters, the width of the crown - 1-1.5 m. If the plant is planted in partial shade, then the golden-yellow color of the needles changes to green. Морозостойкость нормальная, но требует защищённых от сквозняков мест.
Для создания комфортных условий приствольный круг желательно замульчировать. В качестве мульчи используют торф или кору деревьев.
The use of eastern thuja in the design of the house adjoining site will allow creating a unique design of the courtyard, as well as purify the surrounding air from microbes.
09.16.2018 admin Comments No Comments
Due to the popularity of conifers, the number of cultivated varieties of thuja today is in the tens and hundreds. More often on sites they grow thuja western, however thuja east deserves not less attention.
More recently, plants with this name constituted a common genus with thujas, but because of a number of differences in structure, conditions of growth and reproduction, they were isolated into a new community consisting of one species of thuja, or rather, biota or Biota orientalis.
Video about eastern tue
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Thuja in all its varieties has a special phytoncidity. The thuja east is capable alone to clear the room of average cubic capacity, to sate it with oxygen in sufficient quantity. “Tree of Life” - this name is deserved by thuja because of its unique qualities and healing properties.
In the northwestern region of China, in the provinces of Gansu, Henan, the eastern thuja was found in its wild form. Its other names are: Eastern flatfoot or eastern biota. Rocks and stony steep slopes of the highlands - the natural habitat of the plant. The cultural form of thuja is most common in Japan, China, and Korea. From these eastern countries, biota was brought to the territory of Central Asia and was used as a cult plant: it attracted the eye with its crown near the sacred purgatories and mosques. In the 18th century, the eastern thuja was introduced to European territory and became one of the best decorative coniferous crops. In the modern world it is successfully cultivated in Ukraine, in Russia, in European countries, as well as in the USA.
What attracts the attention of biota eastern? Its appearance is quite bright: the height of the tree is up to 10 meters, the crown is beautiful pyramidal or egg-shaped. The branches are raised upwards, the shoots are flat with scaly-shaped foliage. The plant loves a well-lit place, unpretentious in the care, easily tolerates heat, dry soil. Particularly decorative are the cultural forms of the thuja with golden variegated and silvery leaves. Since the plant is slowly growing, it is easy to grow in domestic, indoor environments.
On the tops of the shoots, bluish-green bumps form in spring, as they mature, their shade changes to a brownish-red color. The plant blooms from the beginning of spring for about 2 months. Egg-shaped seeds, wingless, up to 5 mm long.
Cones biota eastern
Thuja east - not only decorative, but also a medicinal plant. It has long been known about its beneficial properties. Representatives of the American Indian tribes used healing drugs from the bark and foliage of thuja for the treatment of various inflammatory processes, a disease of an infectious nature, for rheumatism, for prevention from the same diseases. No wonder biota found in those days an eloquent name - “the tree of life”.
In the 19th century, American homeopaths used infusions of the oriental rovolpus to treat common diseases. Hemorrhages (uterine and intestinal), hemoptysis, venereal diseases, bronchial asthma responded well to healing. Especially useful is considered to be thuja oil, which contains karyofillen, cedrol, aromadendren, seen. Essential oil found in the leaves and seeds of the plant.
Tannins, pectin, resins are also present in the composition of the thuja. Chinictiol is also particularly appreciated for its antifungal effects. The use of the seeds of the seeds of the eastern thuja has a tonic and firming effect on the body. Well the remedy of thuja is also for the treatment of colds, as an expectorant for pneumonia and bronchitis. Lupus, skin rash cauterizes powder from biota leaves.
Curative drink from Eastern thuja
Thuja eastern is used in alternative medicine in the form of powder, water and alcohol infusion for the prevention and treatment of common ailments. The powder is made from well-dried biota leaves. It should be consumed no more than 3 grams at a time.
Alcohol 10% tincture of leaves and young shoots is also easy to prepare if you take half a liter of vodka and 100 g of crushed leaves. Infuse the contents in a glass container in a dark place for at least a week. Then the infusion can be filtered through cheesecloth. Alcohol drug from biota is used for skin diseases, with congestion in the bronchi three times a day, 25-30 drops to improve the condition.
If there is no time to wait, you can cook a decoction of young twigs with leaves of thuja. Take 20 g of raw materials, pour 1 liter of boiling water. Insist about 5-10 minutes, later strain. Take with the above diseases, as well as with cystitis, prostatitis, rheumatism, uterine, intestinal bleeding, asthma in a glass three times a day. The course of treatment is at least 2 weeks.
Thuja oil is effective in heart failure, cystitis, pelvic congestion, enuresis, rheumatism, helminthic invasion, in the treatment of warts, condylomas and papillomas. Oil is applied to problem areas of the skin with cotton swabs twice a day.
Baths with the addition of thuja oil increase frigidity, ether is used for massage rubbing.
Before you begin to self-medicate, be sure to consult with your doctor. Also remember that a thuja-based healing remedy is contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women and those who suffer from epileptic seizures.
The material is published solely for informational purposes and under no circumstances can be considered a substitute for medical consultation with a specialist in a medical institution. The administration of the site is not responsible for the results of the use of the posted information. For diagnosis and treatment, as well as the appointment of medicines and determine the regimen of their admission, we recommend that you contact your doctor.
Ploskovetochnik in landscape design
The flat-moth, also known as biota, thuja oriental and tree of life, came to the gardens of the middle lane from China.
Under natural conditions, a tree can grow for more than a thousand years, in culture - 150–200 years. It forms an egg-shaped crown, consisting of thick flat shoots that resemble openwork plates. The leaves are green, scale-like, and the cones have pretty hook-like scales.
Due to its compliance with topiary, the plant is often used to create hedges and original compositions.
The number of decorative varieties that adorn the landscaping of the garden is increasing every year. Tall tree, capable of reaching 10-18 m, is often used in the creation of alleys and various landscape gardening groups.
The undersized form is perfect for curbs, hedges, dwarf looks great in mini-gardens and rockeries.
Cultivation and care
The flat tusk is more enduring than the common thuja, but it is better to plant it in an open, sunny place, because in the shade it will not be able to form a normal decorative crown. He prefers light calcareous soils and does not feel well on dense and too wet.
An adult flat vein is fairly drought tolerant, but after planting it must be watered weekly for the first two months. Dwarf species should be watered regularly, and others will occasionally benefit from sprinkling.
Young trees are recommended to feed in the spring when the snow melts. Top dressing for the winter is prohibited, since young shoots that grow, may freeze. Adult specimens do not need additional feeding.
For greater comfort, the tree is useful to mulch a layer of sawdust or peat. If the ground is too dense, it is necessary to systematically loosen it, but do not fall deeper than 8-10 cm.
Among all the conifers, the flatwave tree is distinguished by sufficient resistance to parasites and diseases. Occasionally, aphids and various fungal diseases can be dangerous. Having noticed signs of a fungal infection, the bush should be treated with a foundation of 10 g per 10 l and repeat the procedure after two weeks.
To thuja had an attractive appearance, especially as a living fencing, it is recommended to give it shape. You should constantly remove dry, diseased, broken off branches of the crown, and also pruning in the spring to a third of the shoot.
Buy thuja seedlings in the nursery is very simple. It is enough to come to the specified address and choose from the variety of your favorite copy. Payment for the selected product, as a rule, is possible both in cash and by card.
The price of thuja seedlings in different nurseries may vary, so it needs to be clarified on the spot, or by calling the phone first. Also, the cost of seedlings is usually listed on the official website of the nursery. In the same place you can see photos of various tui, with characteristics and slowly choose the option you want.
Almost all nurseries in which you can buy thuya, provide services for the delivery of seedlings: courier to the place, pickup, sending by mail or transport company. Please check the shipping information in advance.
We hope that we have helped you find the suitable nursery for tui in which you will acquire the planting material you need.
Thuja - a universal plant that is in great demand among gardeners and landscape designers. And all because this plant is able to transform any area. And this tree can grow in almost any conditions. And despite the fact that in nature, western thuja grows in marshland with fairly fertile soils, it also grows well in conditions of poor soil and insufficient moisture.
An additional advantage is the excellent adaptability of the thuja to almost any lighting conditions. Of course, it grows best on well-lit places, but it also feels quite well in full shadow under the canopy of tall trees, although in this case it will not please the view with the dense texture of the needles.
Also, the advantages of the western thuja rightly include its high gas and smoke resistance, which is a major factor when choosing plants for landscaping large cities and industrial zones.
Breeders brought a huge number of varieties of this culture with a diverse form of crown, color and texture of needles.
How to choose thuja seedlings
Container option. In Russia, planting material brought from European nurseries is often suggested. These are plants grown in plastic containers that are transplanted annually into new larger containers. These seedlings, apart from their merits, have a number of disadvantages.
Advantages of container thuis: a high percentage of rooting and the possibility of landing in the ground during the warm season (from April to October). The disadvantages are associated with a high percentage of plant deaths in the event of improper winter storage. This remains on the conscience of the trading organizations.
If you decide to purchase a tui sapling in a container, then do it not earlier than the second half of May, but preferably from June. Due to the fact that you do not know how the tree was stored in winter, it could start to die if special conditions were not met. And just at this time (and not earlier) it will be impossible to give the dead thuya alive.
A vegetative plant outwardly has juicy needles with no signs of drying (for varieties with green needles it is saturated green, and not a light brown-green-yellow color).
And if you take out the root ball from a living container saplings of thuja (which is in the stage of intensive growth), then you should see bright tips of the roots, almost white - this is good. The thickness of the roots should be from 1 to 3 mm thick.
If you buy seedlings in a container after a hot and dry period, then even more so check the roots of the plant.
Thuja eastern or flatbranch: description, fit and care
The fact is that the root ball during such periods in container plants dries out very quickly. However, only stationary nurseries and large garden centers can afford the normal moistening of seedlings. That is, it is likely that the roots of the plant have already dried up, that is, they have died, although this has not yet been reflected on the needles.
Sapling of soil. Often nurseries offer tui planting material grown directly in the soil of your climate zone. A good domestic nursery has large areas occupied by the cultivation of their seedlings. According to this technology, annual cuttings are planted in rows, which for several years grow in them like in a permanent place. And when they reach the right size, they are dug up and sold.
At the same time, the root ball of seedlings is wrapped with sacking and additionally reinforced with a metal net. The disadvantages of this type of planting material are its large weight (the root ball is in the soil, and not in the substrate, so it is heavier) and the limited time for planting such plants to a permanent place. Suitable for planting early spring before the growing season or the second half of autumn. The positive qualities include the full adaptation of the Tui to the climate of the region, where it will continue to grow and a shorter survival period.
Another positive point - planting material (in many nurseries), you can see in real growing conditions.
The third option is proposed tui seedlings - mixed. It consists of a combination of container and excavated planting material. This is when in the spring the nursery specialists dig up a sapling, pack a root ball into the net and then plant it in a larger container and put it up for sale. That is, he grew up in open ground, and is sold in a container.
Even in a specialized nursery you should not completely trust the opinion of the seller. You need to inspect the plant, its root system and shoots, and buy a seedling only if it meets certain quality standards.
Description of the eastern thuja
The thuja east (flatfoot) belongs to the cypress family, its natural habitat is the territory of Northern China. The plant belongs to the champions among the long-liversand is able to live a whole millennium. On average, an adult tree grows to 15–20 m, and some members of the family up to 35 m, and the diameter of the crown - up to 14 m.
A feature of the eastern thuja is its slow growth.that has both positives and negatives. The plant can be used in areas with low buildings, it will not cover the sun. Allows for rare pruning.
The young tree has a pyramidal crown shape, which over several years becomes more rounded, closer to the columnar form. The bumps of such a Tui look interesting - at the beginning (in September) they are light green, plump, with hook-like growths, ripening occurs next year: March, April - pollination, October - ripening of seeds. By that time, the cones become brown, and the seeds look like wheat grains.
Types of Eastern Thuja
Eastern thuja has about 60 varieties. Not all of them are suitable for the harsh Russian climate, The following varieties are most popular:
- Pyramidalis Aureya - a plant with yellow-golden needles. It is used for the manufacture of hedges that protect the site from wind and prying eyes. Thuja - drought-resistant in summer and frost-resistant - in winter (up to minus 25 degrees).
- Thuja eastern Aurea Nana. Beautiful and compact plant with a crown diameter of 0.7 m at a height of 2 m. The needles are lush, in summer with a predominance in the palette of colors of golden tones, in winter - bronze. Aurea Nana grows better in bright, sunny places, and in shadow areas - the crown thins and loses its shape. The plant is called the "tree of life" for slow growth (up to 5 cm per year) and longevity - 1 thousand years. Although the western thuja is widespread in Europe, the thuja Aurea Nana also occupies a worthy place in the landscape design of many countries of the continent.
- Eastern biota. Under natural conditions, it grows on elevations (300–3300 m) and reaches 12–15 m in height. The biota is of a rich green color, undemanding to soils, but very light-requiring and thermophilic. In the Buddhist philosophy of China, Oriental Biota is associated with long life and energy. It is assumed that some plants that decorate the plots of ancient Buddhist temples, including in Beijing, are more than 1,000 years old. Eastern biota is resistant to short-term frosts, drought tolerant, but grows very slowly in cold climates.
Growing Oriental Thuja
Thuja comfortably feels on neutral or slightly acidic soils, in rocky terrain. The plant is not afraid of drought, not a hindrance for him and the close occurrence of groundwater. But not all varieties of the family possess frost resistance.
The optimal time for planting oriental thuja is the time interval from late April to early May. It is possible to extend this period until mid-September, but the plant planted in the spring gets much more time to adapt in anticipation of the winter cold.
Adults of a thuja are undemanding to the composition of the soil, but for seedlings it is necessary to prepare a nutrient mixture in the following proportions:
- 2 части дернового грунта,
- 1 часть торфа,
- 1 часть песка.
Яму надо подготовить исходя из размера саженца, обычно, глубиной 80 см и по 60 см в длину и ширину. На дне ямы нужно уложить слой дренажа толщиной 15–20 см. При посадке следует следить, чтобы корневая шейка осталась вровень с поверхностью земли. Дистанция между туями зависит от цели посадки: живая изгородь — 1 м, аллея — до 5 м.
At first (4–5 weeks), seedlings should be watered at least once a week, with a water volume of at least 10 liters under each thuja. In between watering sprinkling is applied (irrigation with water of the crown of the plant). The frequency of irrigation and the volume of water required for it depend on the type of soil: the drier the soil, the more often. Eastern thuja tolerates excess water better than its lack.
In the hot dry period, adult plants require at least 20 liters under the root.
So that the soil is not compacted, after irrigation, the ground should be gouged to a depth of no more than 10 cm, since deeper the root system can be damaged. Mulching of a tree trunk with a thickness of 4–6 cm will help to preserve the moisture and friability of the soil until the next watering. As mulch can be used sawdust, peat, crushed bark, etc.
The thuja east does not apply for frequent use of fertilizers. To the nutrient mixture prepared for planting, you can add fertilizer for coniferous crops. The following feeding may be needed after 2 years.
Pruning of dry and dying branches are subject to all plants, regardless of ageand formative trimming is recommended for thujs that are at least 3 years old. To do this, cut the unnecessary branches with garden scissors, giving the plant the desired shape. Thuja is easily cropped, so the options for determining the appearance of the thuja are enough: from strict geometric shapes to intricate, ornate patterns.
Preparing for the winter
The thuja east, with some exceptions, is not frost-resistant and the temperature of minus 25 degrees and lower can become critical for the plant. Therefore, preparation for winter is essential for the cultivation of these varieties of thuja.
Until reaching the age of five, any eastern thuja should be protected from the cold of winter.. For this highly spud plant, mulch layer of peat. The crown of the tree is tightened with a rope and wrapped with a nonwoven material, protecting it from wind, snow and cold. It is important to remember that after surviving the winter, the plant can be endangered in the bright spring sun, having received devastating burns. Therefore, it is necessary to remove covering material after the establishment of stable positive temperatures.
Some cover the plant for the winter with a spruce later to sprinkle it with snow.
Thuja are dangerous for thawing during the winter, temperature fluctuations can damage the bark of the tree in which cracks form. In this case, it is necessary to coat the damaged areas with garden pitch, and in order to heal the bark more quickly, pull its edges together with a string.
Some species of eastern thuja are better tolerated by Russian winters, among them: “Aurea Nana”, “Harmony”, “Biota”.
Diseases and pests
Various diseases and pests can slow the growth of the thuja, adversely affect its appearance, and in some cases lead to the death of the plant. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the onset of signs of the disease, correctly diagnose and carry out timely treatment.
- Late blight - a very dangerous disease. It affects the upper part of the roots, which leads to a change in the color of the crown to gray and its withering. It occurs in places where water may stagnate, and there is no drainage or it is not properly installed. For prevention, you can shed the soil under the plant phytoncides.
- Brown shutte - caused by fungus. Manifestations of the disease begin in early spring, at first the scales begin to turn yellow, gradually this process covers the whole shoot (s), which turns brown and dies. It is necessary to remove and burn the affected branches in time. For the prevention of the disease, limestone is added to the roots of the thuja, and the tree itself is sprayed with “Fundazol” from July to October.
- Root fusarium. The culprit of the disease are soil fungi. Usually caused by excess moisture. The signs of the disease are yellowing or browning of the crown of the thuja. Comprehensive treatment helps to cure the plant. It is necessary to spray the crown and shed the ground with "Zircon" and 2% solution of "Fundazol".
Some pests are dangerous for the eastern thuja, to a greater extent this applies to aphid and false shielding. The appearance of yellow spots on the needles indicates the defeat of the plant with a flap shield. Grayish-brown aphid can be seen, it settles on the needles and also leads to its yellowing and abscission.
To combat these pests, the crown of the tree should be carefully sprayed with “Karbofos” or “Rogor”.