Many summer residents with pleasure breed this tasty and generously providing us with glucose, which is so necessary for the body, on its plots. In this case, it often becomes necessary to transplant it. We will tell you how to transplant an adult bush of grapes, without causing harm to the plant - for this it is only necessary to remember a few simple rules.
First, we note that, for security reasons, relatively young vines are usually transplanted - no older than 5-6 years.
In order for a vine to be transplanted successfully, it is necessary to choose a space that is free, well lit and protected from wind gusts.
Grape transplantation in spring involves a certain preparation from the autumn: it is then that a rather deep hole must be dug for the vine bushes — the earth clods must fit comfortably in it. Then you need to fertilize the soil with the use of ash, complex minerals and humus (each well will need from six to eight kg).
With the onset of spring for the rhizome, next to the recess, a new fossa of a smaller size is excavated. If you are going to transplant several bushes, the dug holes should be approximately 2 meters apart.
Before transplanting grapes to a new area, the ground must be heated with a hot solution of potassium permanganate.
When to make a transplant?
It is recommended to transplant a grapevine to a new place before budding in the trees and the beginning of the active period of sap movement, when the shrub is still in hibernation.
The appropriate period is the first two spring months, some gardeners even call a specific time from April 25–28. In any case, by May, the transfer should be completed.
It is necessary to dig around the grapes around, without affecting the adjacent transplanted rhizomes. Earthen room should have a radius of about half a meter. After extracting the rhizomes, you should gently shake off the ground stuck to the roots.
The next step: in order to prevent rotting and protect it from drying out, we place the roots of the grapes into a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and clay, and after this we cut off the extra branches of the vine from the bushes, leaving only two. Do not forget to shorten the upper part of the branches and wax the sections. That's all - material for landing is ready! You can put it in a hole.
Now it is necessary to carry out the “soil impregnation” of the pit and properly water the plant: the groove is filled with water, and from above it is necessary to pile clay or sand mixed with the ground, and adding barley grains to the pit will contribute to better adhering of the bush.
In order to preserve the root system, plants that have not reached a three-year period are transplanted by the transshipment method — not cleared of earthy lumps, and 4–5 days earlier it is recommended not to water them so that the lumps have time to harden, making movement easier.
If you still ventured to transplant a middle-aged shrub, in the first year it should be freed from all the inflorescences, and on the second - only thirty percent should be left. Thus, the vine will be restored in the shortest possible time, providing the host with a stable and good harvest in the future.
Other ways to transplant grapes to a new place
When moving to a new area already enough adult bushes, there is a way in which you can not dig them out completely, using the method of reproduction using cuttings. Thus, the plants are “younger”, finding the strength to withstand all the difficulties during transportation and it is easy to take root in a new territory. The method is as follows: it is required to separate and bury the vine, helping it to acquire individual roots. Layers begin to receive the necessary nutrition from both the main plant and its own roots. When they take root, they should be separated from the parent plant and transferred “to a new residential address”. Usually, it is possible to do this two years later.
By the way: this method is also recommended when replacing a dead plant or when it is necessary to plant a new grape variety.
Another way of planting grapes in the spring, essentially also being vegetative propagation, is katavlak. It is used for bushes “already at the age”, but also “in the prime of life”: the age limits of plants range from ten to twenty years.
Cavalac called otvodok, which is a solid bush. This method allows comfortable transfer of a practically adult plant to a new habitat.
The necessary manipulations are carried out at the beginning of spring. Near the bush, a pit is digging in such a way as to free the root system and be able to view the heel roots.
Dumping a bush into a trench, it is necessary to place a vine there, having previously chosen one of the most strengthened and strengthened sleeves. At the same time for young shoots opens the way to the surface. The result is the growth of the vine at the same time in two places, and the plant is able to bear fruit in the first year.
How to care for grapes after transplanting?
Of course, after even the most successful transplant, the plant needs quality care: in order to restore the root system as quickly as possible, it is necessary to ensure the direct delivery of life-giving moisture to the heel roots of the grapes. For this purpose, the landing pit should be “equipped” with a fine-grained drainage layer, after which a plastic or asbestos pipe should be placed in it.
Important! The operation should be carried out so that the top of the pipe was raised 15 centimeters above the surface of the trench.
This is done in order to minimize the possible risk of rotting of the roots, while having a positive impact on fruiting - the berries are obtained at the sight of large!
For newly transplanted bushes the most optimal two-week irrigation schedule, and further irrigation can be carried out less often. In this case, of course, it is necessary to focus on weather conditions.
Feed the saplings a couple of times during the summer. It is also necessary from time to time to loosen the soil surrounding the bush, providing the opportunity for natural air exchange of the vegetative system of the plant.
When the sprouts reach a quarter of a meter in length, you should think about the prevention of "grape" diseases. The most effective is the treatment using a solution of copper sulfate mixed with lime milk. In dry weather, Bordeaux liquid gives the best result at a concentration of 0.75 percent.
With the onset of the rainy season, repeated spraying is necessary, increasing the dose to one percent.
That's the whole story about how you can easily and effectively transplant grapes in the spring to another place. Using our advice, you can a year or two after the transplant process to get abundant yields of delicious and exceptionally healthy berries.
Features depending on age
Let's start with the young shoots of grapes. One of the most common methods of reproduction of grapes - cuttings. They are placed in the same bed, called shkolka, and leave them until they reach the age of one year. At this age, the grape has the appearance of a small bush with several shoots and has such a property as the highest rate of survival.
Relatively easy to transfer to a new place and a two-year sapling. As a rule, at this age, the plant already has a formed root system, though not as strong as that of the old grapes, but already a solid above-ground part. After transplantation, it is best to leave a pair of eyes, from which new shoots can then be formed. Such a small amount of shoots is needed for easier formation of the subsequent shape and direction of grape growth.
An adult shrub, unlike a young grape, tolerates transplant quite hard. Its formed and strongly overgrown root system will require a long period for adaptation. Such is the three-year grapes. In this case, the minimum distance that the plant should be dug in order to avoid damage to the root system is half a meter. A three-year-old seedling needs to leave about 5 eyes so that in a new place it can better absorb moisture and useful substances from the soil.
Transplantation of four-year grapes should be done with great care. In this case, there is a need to dig a large hole for a massive root system. The same applies to grapes aged about 5 years.
It is not recommended to replant bushes older than 5 years. At this age, the plant has a high probability that the grapes will not take root, and the main reason for this is that the overgrown root system cannot avoid damage during digging and transfer to a new place. Above all, you need to know that the bushes younger than this age begin to bear fruit only after several years of adaptation in a new place.
Despite these recommendations, there are known cases of successful grape transplantation at the age of 7 years and 10 years.
One of the most important features that applies to any old grape is that they are sensitive to the magnetic fields of the Earth. It is best to plant the old bush in a new place in the same location in relation to the cardinal points, which was in his place.
Spring transplantation is the most favorable, since in the subsequent warm time the chances of taking root in the new soil of the grapes increase significantly, and by winter the plant will already be finally ready for the cold period.
It is necessary to carry out a transplant within two weeks in the interval from the swelling of the cuttings to the blooming of the kidneys, as well as the appearance of the first leaves. The starting point of the process can be considered the beginning of sap flow. When several bushes are transplanted, some of them are transplanted in the autumn in order to clearly determine the survival rate of the first batch.
Autumn transplanting is permissible for hot southern regions. Too much heat, like cold, can have a detrimental effect on newly transplanted grapes. With a high probability of a hot summer, which is fraught with frequent droughts, a transplant in the autumn will help the plant to get used to the new place more easily.
It is best to start a transplant after the first buds appear on the vine.
As an alternative, another more visual way is used to check whether the grapes “woke up” after winter - to do this, it’s enough to cut the stem of the plant 1 or 2 cm deep, if the juice goes, it means that the plant has successfully overwinter and you can start transplanting. On average, such a period of grapes comes in the spring in April, less often - in May. Ideally, transplanting should be done as soon as the soil temperature reaches +8 degrees. It is important to bear in mind that The temperature of the air and the temperature of the soil in spring vary greatly, and in this case it is necessary to measure only the temperature of the soil to which grapes are to be transplanted.
In the summer of transplanting is not recommended, the likelihood that the vine will take root in the hot season during its flowering or fruiting, is significantly reduced. At this time of year, grapes can be transplanted only out of urgent need, and after that it is necessary to cover it from the sun for a while.
The autumn grape transplantation is also practiced. It is best to carry it out after complete abscission of the leaves, but before the first strong frosts. The roots will be able to settle down only in the warm ground due to the fact that the upper part of the plant has already stopped its activity. This practice occurs only in regions with a warm autumn. The best time for an autumn transplant in warm regions is mid-November.
In Moscow and the Moscow region, grapes are best transplanted in late April - early May.
Where to plant?
The need for transplantation is most often associated with the fact that grapes grow poorly in the old place. Grapes grow poorly in windy places, which can also cause transplantation. Sometimes a new, more sunny place in the same area has a beneficial effect not only on the plant itself, but also on the future harvest.
It is well known that grapes love heat and light, which most often distinguish the southern and southwestern slopes.
In addition to the need for a large amount of light, grapes need a vertical surface around which it could grow. As such a support, the same southern or south-western slopes and fences are best suited.
When transplanting grapes, it is recommended to locate along the magnetic line of the Earth, from north to south. Except when grapes are older than 5 years. As mentioned above, the old grapes should be located in relation to the cardinal points in the same way as it was located in the old place.
Considering the composition of the soil in a new place for grapes, it should be remembered that this culture will not exactly master the swampy areas and salt marshes.
The neighborhood with other plants is destructive for grapes, and both with other grapes, and, for example, with a tree. In the first case, the shoots will interfere with each other due to the fact that they will be intertwined, and in the second, the grapes will braid the tree and climb to the very top, where it will be difficult to harvest.
Unfortunately, there are situations when the grapes are planted in an old pit from a uprooted stump or another plant. This is strictly prohibited, since the soil in this place is no longer a nutrient medium, the soil simply begins to suffer from "fatigue." The second weighty reason for not doing this is the presence of inhibitors of another plant. These substances inhibit the root system of other seedlings. A sapling at best will grow poorly and often hurt in such an environment, or it may simply die.
Immediately it should be noted that the preparation of especially valuable varieties and ordinary varieties occurs in different ways. Ordinary varieties do not require special preparatory processes, while for valuable varieties the opposite is true. Ordinary varieties can simply be dug up and planted in a new place, after completing the process of watering them with water. For valuable varieties, things are a little different. We will talk about this below.
The preparatory phase begins a year or even two before the intended transplant. Approximately from this time they stop removing the dew roots, which we will discuss in more detail in the chapter below. As a rule, this is done in order to make the grapes better settled in a new place with the help of their superficial and deep roots.
The next step is a preliminary digging, the purpose of which is to adapt the plant to a new place. This stage is made after harvesting and at the same time the grape trunk is dug round in a narrow groove, the size of which should not exceed half a meter. These are medium sizes; for an old plant, a groove will be deeper - about 60-80 cm.
Then it is necessary to fill the fresh trench with fertile and loose soil, and then abundantly shed it to the full depth. As a rule, after a properly carried out process, many young roots will arise around the trunk.
In addition, it must be borne in mind that the more transplanting takes place in a colder time, the more intensively the roots must be pruned. As a rule, it is recommended to leave a pair of ocelli on the sleeve and the same on the shoots.
As for the size of the landing pit, it should be spacious for the rhizome. You should also know that the dimensions of the pit may also depend on the place where the grapes grow: in the southern regions it must be deeper, since the roots will grow down more intensively than in other directions because of their desire for groundwater, and in the northern regions The plant system is located on the surface layers of the soil, tending to heat, which implies a wider pit.
It is important to know that after such changes the grape harvest will be reduced at least twice.
At home, the simplest method of transplantation is used - using cuttings. One of the obvious advantages of this method is simplicity. Cuttings are easy to plant and grow at home. Pots for them are often plastic cups. Cuttings are considered ready for transplanting only when the first leaves appear on them. During the whole process, two factors are important.
- The right time to start planting cuttings is the end of February or the beginning of March.
- You must choose those grapes that are easily mastered in a new place. The category of such varieties includes "Delight", "Annie", "Veles", "Laura" and others.
Preparation for transplantation can take place in different ways and almost always with a positive result, but it is important only in both ways to adhere to the correct dates for all stages.
Grape Transplant Rules
It is recommended to transplant young plants that are not even 5 years old. In this case, the chances for a favorable outcome — that the grapes will successfully take root in a new place — are very high.
Выкапывать саженцы нужно очень аккуратно, чтобы не повредить корневую систему винограда. После момента предыдущей пересадки должно пройти несколько лет и растение должно полностью восстановиться на новом месте.
Когда лучше пересадить виноград на другое место?
Лучшим моментом для перемещения саженцев является ранняя весна или поздняя осень, когда растения отдыхают.
Для обоих вариантов пересадки есть общие правила:
- Весной пересадку можно делать до появления на кусте первых почек.
- In autumn, the grapes should be transplanted after the leaves have completely dropped off.
Grape transplantation in the fall has its advantages:
- At this time of the year, the soil on the site is well moistened with rains, which will help the seedling to take root in a new place.
- If you plant a new plant, it will be much easier for you to find a suitable variety. It was in autumn that the owners of large vineyards carried out a massive digging and the plants appeared on sale.
- If you live in a mild climate, the soil will not freeze to the depth of the grape roots. Thus, the seedling will be able to strengthen its root system over the winter.
- In the south, after a spring transplant, a young plant may not have time to settle down before the onset of heat.
If you grow grapes in the southern regions, it is better to stop at the autumn transplant. Do it in the last two weeks of October.
In the middle zone of our country and in the north it is more correct to transplant grapes bushes in spring. In this case, the plants will have time before the onset of heat to settle down and get stronger. In order for the frosts not to “grab” the grapes during the period of adaptation to the new place in the spring, wait until the ground is completely thawed and the danger of frosts is gone.
For the regions of central Russia, these are the last weeks of April and the beginning of May.
What seedlings to be transplanted?
When choosing plants for transplanting, which one should be preferred - young or slightly older? Which of the seedlings will it be easier to move to a new place and what features will you have to face?
Older grape bushes older than 8-9 years old have an extended root system. To dig it out without risk of damaging the roots is very difficult. Grape roots are restored for a long time, so the time of engraftment can be long.
Experts advise choosing grapes for bushes that are more than 5 and less than 8 years old. During this period, the plant has the greatest chance of taking root in a new place without problems and illnesses.
The place for grapes saplings is better to prepare in the autumn. When choosing, pay special attention to the solar illumination - the grapes grow well in the heated area, and the lack of sun will negatively affect the quantity and quality of the berries.
It is equally important to take into account the type of soil - clay and salt marshes are not suitable, as well as excessively wet soil. Soil with a high content of sand does not hold water well in summer, and in winter it is prone to fast freezing. The best option for a vineyard is loamy chernozem, it creates the most favorable conditions for plants to grow and bear fruit.
Try to plan the garden plot in such a way that the vineyard is three meters or more away from other large plantings. Otherwise they will interfere with each other’s growth.
In order to protect the vine from damage when digging and to facilitate its adaptation to new growth conditions, always dig grapes in a coma of earth. If you did not manage to keep the earthen room while digging, then the next two years after transplanting need to remove the inflorescences on the grapes and not prune it.
Preliminary soil preparation will significantly increase the survival rate of plants in a new place. Loosen the soil to a great depth, pour abundantly and apply fertilizer to the bottom of the planting pit.
Grape Transplant Stages
- After selecting a suitable seedling, carefully dig it at a distance of half a meter, trying not to touch the roots of neighboring plants.
- Carefully remove the old parts of the roots, leaving only the young processes.
- Put grapevine in water with the addition of potassium permanganate and clay.
- Cut the vine, leaving no more than two shoots. Well, if each of them will be 1 or 2 vines.
- Shorten the tops of the branches, and freshly cut the sections with wax.
- Lower the seedling into a hole half a meter in diameter with a slight slope, having directed the roots of the grapes strictly down. Leave the young vines on the surface and fill the pit with a mixture of earth, clay, gravel and sand.
- If you are planting grapes in spring, put some barley grains in the hole.
- Liberally pour the seedling immediately after planting.
- The entire first year at the new site two thirds of the inflorescences of the bush must be removed. This will allow the grapes to recover faster and prepare for the next season.
To transplant an old plant, it is not necessary to dig it out of the ground. It is enough to take one cut and place it at a short distance from the main bush. The transplanting method of layering will not only avoid the risk of damaging the extensive root system of the grape bush, but also help to rejuvenate the vineyard.
For proper transplantation, follow the rules:
- Collect the vines of the desired length and carefully place them on the ground.
- Without separating from the main plant, gently prikopite vine with earth.
- Liberally pour new landing.
If the vine chosen for cutting is too long, wind it around the mother plant.
A big plus of this method is that the young grape seedling receives nutrition not only from its own roots, but also from the main bush.
Transplant transplants are used to restore the dead part of the vineyard or to increase it.
After layering take root, they can not be separated from the common root system. In this case, you get a total number of grapes with single roots.
A grape bush over 3 years old and under 20 years old can be transplanted using the katavlak method. This is a spring mode of transplantation, with his mother plant will be laid in the ground, and some of his vines are used to grow new ones.
Resort to the method in the following cases:
- when rejuvenation of the bushes is required,
- when you need to remove the thinning of plants,
- in order to organize the vineyard, giving it a more regular form.
Stages of work with this method:
- They dig a hole 50 cm wide and 80 cm deep around the main bush.
- The pit is connected by ditches of the desired shape and length with the site of planting new plants.
- Grape roots are cleaned from the ground to the heel roots. At the same time, the lateral processes are removed, leaving only strong young vines of the desired length.
- The main plant is carefully placed on the bottom of the pit, the vines are laid in trenches, covered with earth, and their endings are brought outside.
- Then the vines are tied up to supports and cut them 3-4 eyes above the ground.
With this method of transplanting grapes can bear fruit in the same season, but it requires a lot of work from the gardener.
Observing all the rules of grape transplantation and correctly choosing the terms of work, you will get healthy and fruitful vines of grapes in the shortest possible time.
How to transplant?
It is impossible to say in advance how correctly this or that stage will be passed during grape transplantation; a good result is not always guaranteed. Below is a simple step-by-step instruction.
- To transplant grapes to another place, choose a cool, cloudy day or twilight time. A few hours before the transplantation process begins, the grapes are watered abundantly with water, and it is important to choose the right temperature - it should be warm.
- The next step is digging a hole for seedlings. After a well-sized pit has been dug, it should be filled with two or three buckets of water. It is important to form a small slide at the bottom of the pit so that the air does not linger there later. Sometimes a pit dug for grapes is poured with hot water; after transplantation, the upper part of the plant is buried with earth. Taken together, this helps the roots to settle faster and slows the growth of the aerial portion of grapes. But this is only a recommendation, and such a process should be carried out with great care in order to avoid unpredictable results.
- The main stage is the transplanting of a plant to a new place. This step can be divided into several stages - first you need to dig a plant. As mentioned earlier, you need to dig a groove around the plant. Most often, this is done using an iron sheet, which is placed around the perimeter of the coma and fastened with wire. After the "boundary" is scheduled, begin digging. After the root system becomes visible, large or intolerable roots are cut. With the help of two shovels, the plant is pulled out of the pit, placed on a tarp or stand.
In addition to all of the above, there are some specific transplant methods:
- transplanting with a big lump of earth,
- transfer with a small (shortened) clod of earth,
- transplanting as a seedling.
A transplant with a big lump of earth is the best option for transplanting. With this method is the least damage to the root system.
Important in this process is the knowledge of the types of roots: root shtamb, heel roots, median roots and dew roots. The main absorption of nutrients occurs at a depth of 30 to 60 cm and is performed by heel roots. But the absorption also happens with other roots. You need to know this in order not to accidentally damage the heel roots. If the damage to the roots still happened, then the roots with a diameter of a couple of centimeters can be easily restored within a few months, but the likelihood of the restoration of roots thicker than 4 cm in diameter is practically excluded.
The older the grapes, the more he should have when transplanting.
Can I do without a transplant?
As mentioned earlier, seedlings over 5 years old are not recommended for replanting. Unfortunately, this is the case when it’s not that you cannot do without a transplant, but rather you cannot do it at all.
The need for grape transplantation occurs only when redevelopment of the site is required or when the plant lacks sunlight. In all other cases, it is better to refuse to transplant grapes. The very process of growing grapes is time consuming, since this crop is a rather capricious plant that requires regular maintenance. Therefore, the additional complication of the process of growing grapes by transplanting can lead to a not entirely successful result.
A good alternative to transplanting ordinary grapes is the so-called wild grape. It is unpretentious and can grow quite rapidly in a short time, and sometimes even behaves aggressively.
It does not require special care, but, unfortunately, is not very fertile and sits as a decorative “living” wall. Most often it is planted near the gazebos, walls or other vertical surfaces. This grape requires care only in the sense that it will be necessary to regularly prune some shoots, as they are capable of destroying brick and stone walls.
Grape transplantation is not a very complicated, but multi-step process. A good result is more likely to be likely than a negative one. We hope that this article will help you to transplant grapes and enjoy its fruits in a short time.
For details on how to transplant grapes, see the next video.
Viticulture does not tolerate haste. And the bush itself, and the pit in the future landing site is better to prepare in advance.
For a year or two before transplantation, they abandon the Qatar (removal of the top, so-called dew roots). By the way, in a number of winegrowing schools, katarovka is not practiced at all. As long as the vine is settled in a new place, all the roots, both deep and superficial, will be useful to it.
To minimize stress, the root system is adapted in advance. When the crop is removed, the trunk is digged along a radius of about half a meter by a narrow groove. The older the bush, the deeper you will have to dig. Usually 60–80 cm are enough. The trench is filled with loose fertile soil and shed to the full depth. Soon, close to the trunk will form a lot of young roots. Such a lump is easily withdrawn, and the transplanted vine is able to produce a crop, even if reduced by half.
Pre-digging takes a lot of time and effort, apply it only to particularly valuable varieties. Or if the hand is not full enough. Experienced are simpler: dug - moved - planted.
In the fall, more intensive pruning is needed: after wintering, this bush will lose a significant part of its roots. Leave no more than two eyes on each sleeve and the same number on the shoots of replacement.
The size of the landing pit depends on the size of the root ball. It is somewhat more spacious, both in width and in depth. Proceed from local conditions: in the south, the plant tends down to aquifers. Northern grapes more readily master the upper, warmed horizons.
Attention: If earlier grapes grew on this place and less than a year has passed since its removal, the ground should be selected to the maximum, replacing it with fresh.
This is done for two reasons:
- So that the vine does not inherit from the predecessor of the disease and pests.
- Every plant (and grapes) releases inhibitors to the soil, that is, substances that inhibit the roots of relatives. They persist for some time after uprooting.
Fertile soil is used as it is, scanty mixed with sod land (1: 1) and fertilizers. Approximate rate per plant:
- humus - 6 kg,
- superphosphate - 200 g,
- ammonium sulfate - 80 g,
- potassium salt - 35 g
If necessary, drainage is laid in the pit - crushed stone, gravel, expanded clay, then a small layer of sand. The soil is distributed in such a way that the most nutritious is at the bottom: the main share of top dressing will be within reach of the heel roots. The partially filled pit is covered on top with boards or roofing felt and left to "mature".
When to transplant?
What is good is spring grape transplantation - because he has a lot of warm months ahead in order to settle down and get stronger.
Too early to take a shovel is not worth it, it is better to wait until the vine "wakes up". It is necessary to check whether it has successfully overwintered. A little, by 1-2 cm, cut it off. Drops of juice appeared - shoots are alive, can be transplanted.
Average time - the last decade of April, when the earth warms to slightly positive temperatures. For each region they have their own. It also depends on the year, it was early to come warm or too late. The gardener has, although not much time, within two weeks, phenologically, this is the period from the beginning of sap flow to the mass blooming of the kidneys. If you need to move a few dozen bushes, it is advisable to distribute the force, leaving part of the fall.
Choose cloudy weather or the time of evening coolness (in the morning, too, is possible if the days are not very hot). A few hours before work starts, the bush is watered. For spring transplant - with warm water. Not hot, but about the same as in the summer, standing in the sun. Pour a bucket or two, and in a prepared pit. It further depends on whether the two work together or have to act alone.
In the instructions for grape transplantation almost no one, very significant, detail. The older a tree or shrub, the stronger its binding to magnetic lines. When replanting an adult vine, mark the branch directed northward (or southward as convenient). And in the new location in the same way.
Transplant with a lump: four hands
The plant is dug, as described above, a groove. It is possible to wrap a bag of sacking or other available materials in advance, before excavation, to lift it and transport it much more conveniently.
Some do this: take a sheet of iron, roll it up into a tube and fix it with wire. "Put on" on top of a sapling and begin to dig around. As the groove deepens, the sheet goes down, a reliable container without a bottom is obtained.
Chop off the lower roots that can not be extracted. Then two shovels raise the seedling and put on a pre-prepared tarp or stretcher.
The bottom of the pit should be loose. In order to keep the air under the heel, a small hill is formed at the bottom. Trying that the soil does not fall down from the roots, establish a plant (remembering the orientation relative to the cardinal points). Not too deeply root root and in no case leaving it raised, that is, approximately as the vine grew in the same place. Soon it will settle slightly.
The remaining ground fall asleep voids around. Establish a vertical piece of pipe for irrigation, deepening by 30–35 cm (watering on top - wasting water and watering weeds). Pristvolny circle spill with warm water and mulch.
In the following months, care is not too different from normal. Is that watered more often and leave not all ovaries, but only a part.
Open root system: coping alone
The bush itself weighs a little. The bulk falls on whom. Do I have to save it? Practice shows: there is no need for this. Grapes perfectly take root and with an open root system. Saplings can be moved alone, without effort, including transport by public transport. And store long enough for up to two weeks. Watching only that the cloth, which wrapped the roots, remained wet.
A hardy vine will easily part with a portion of the roots, and then grow new ones. It is necessary (just for one season) to release it from the “duty” to produce a harvest.
Act at first the same way as when transplanting with a lump:
- refuse katarovka,
- they cut the vines in an intensive pattern
- prepare the pit and soil, make fertilizer,
- just before the transplant is watered,
- digging in the plant.
Then take a sharp wooden stake and gently bring down the earth around the trunk. How to "comb out" it, without breaking the large and medium roots. Small ones are not so valuable: in grapes they serve not for long, each spring grow back again. Осматривают и удаляют поврежденные, те, что загнили, укорачивают до здоровой древесины.
Из глины разводят сметанообразную болтушку. Без навоза и других компонентов, чистая глина – природный антисептик. Окунают туда корни и, обернув влажной тканью в несколько слоев, помещают в полиэтиленовый пакет. Лоза готова к транспортировке.
When planting grapes with open roots, it is necessary to ensure that these very roots are located naturally, without bends and creases. They pour an earthen cone (this is a favorite trick of all gardeners, not only winegrowers) and spread the roots along its slopes. From above - the remaining soil, then watering and a layer of mulch. As the latter, you can use straw, sawdust, agrotextiles. Even coal dust. Much, except the remnants of the grapes.
Transplanted vine give a year to rest, removing all flower buds.
Grape transplantation in spring
For example, you bought a house with a garden, the garden is magnificent, and the bushes of grapes do not grow where you would think. Maybe you have a gazebo or you want a live corridor around the yard. Redesign - one of the main reasons for transplanting plants to a new place:
Or, having bought a long-awaited sapling, you did not manage to settle it on appropriate place, and now I want to transfer for permanent residence.
If you still have the opportunity to redesign your new site, the question arises: how right transplant a grapevine in order not to disturb the vine and create suitable conditions for fruiting in subsequent seasons. It is not so difficult to make it as you can imagine: if you follow some rules for transplanting, grapes will quickly and safely take root in a new place.
Basic rules for transplantation
Bushes are more suitable for transplanting. no older than 5–6 years old and very young seedlings. They are not so anxious to react to changing the living conditions and minor damage to the root (after all, this can not be done).
Choosing a new place to house the vineyard, weigh the pros and cons, so that again you don’t have to transfer the plant and once again disturb and harm the vine, this can lead to the destruction of the bush. The older your bush, the more difficult the recovery process will be and may even die. But if you do everything right, the result will please you.
A very important point will be location selection for your future vineyard. Here are recommendations that cannot be ignored before grapes are transplanted to another place in spring:
- grapes is a sun-loving plant, if you plant it in the shade, you will lose productivity, and maybe the bush itself,
- the nearest neighboring plants should be no closer than 3-4 meters in order not to interfere with each other's growth.
In gardening there same plant transplant order. It does not depend on the season or type:
- Digging up a plant is important not to damage its root. In an adult plant, it is difficult to do, and therefore it is advised to transplant young seedlings.
- The pit prepared for transplantation is well moistened and fertilized.
- A grape pit is being prepared for a new place preferably a month and a half before transplanting, in order to settle the soil and subsequently did not deepen the roots.
- Immediately after transplanting a grape bush, rich watering and the same generous dressing will be required. This will help the seedling to take root quickly in a new place.
What time of year can you repot the bush?
For most plants, the best time to plant and transplant is autumn and springwhen sap flow is stopped in the roots and branches. But there are cases when it is just necessary to urgently transplant in the summer. When an emergency transplant is needed in summer, it is necessary in any case to keep the root system covered, that is, with a lump of soil.
Autumn is the best time for grape transplantation after leaf fall. Before the onset of cold weather, the roots adapt and take root; the land in such regions with a warm climate does not freeze to the extent that it frosts the roots.
In areas where the climate is not so mild, it is better to proceed with a bush transplant. in the springbut before the appearance of the kidneys. The earth begins to thaw and frost does not harm the seedling, and over the summer it will take root and adapt completely.
Getting a transplant
To start transplanting, you will need:
- rotted manure,
- potassium permanganate (manganese),
An adult bush, around the earth begin to dig around in a radius of half a meter, trying not to disturb the roots of neighboring plants and bushes. The depth usually ranges from 90 to 180 centimeters, in which case you will have to chop off the root.
When the bush has already been dug, you need to clean the rhizome from the ground by tapping with a stick or a shovel shaft. Remove the old roots by cutting and leave only the young, not older than three or four years.
It is recommended to hold the root of the plant in a talker from clay and water (2 to 1) with the addition of potassium permanganate, so that no diseases stick to the wounded plant.
If there was no pruning before transplantation, then you can do it while the bush is dug out. It is necessary to cut everything, leaving 2 main vines, on which the lashes will remain no more than two years old, the tops of all the vines should also be shortened by a pair of holes and all sections should be waxed.
We put our bush in a wide trough and transfer it to the chosen place. There, we are waiting for a prepared pit, which previously had to be doused with hot water, near the bucket. Put small pieces of clay on the bottom of the pit and cover it with a mixture of hardwood, sand and rubble.
If you want to add compost, the best fit stalked grapes, but not the waste of parts of the grapes themselves, it is better to burn them and use the ashes for fertilizer. In a soil that contains little iron, add the appropriate fertilizer. For better rooting, you can put a half-liter jar of barley grains in the pit.
Everything is prepared, so you can start landing. We lower the roots and carefully straighten so that there are no bends and creases of the roots. Gradually we fall asleep with soil, we water, again a layer of soil and watering. We make sure that the vine is above the ground and not prikopana. In the autumn, warm the bush with a leafy pillow, and in the spring wrap it with a spanbond.
For good yield after transplanting all buds need to be removed, in the second bloom cut to half the inflorescences.
If your bush, which needs to be transplanted young, is up to three years old, then it can be transferred to a new place with a lump of soil, this is called - transshipment.
You should not water the plant for several days before digging and do not remove the roots so that the earth does not crumble and you will safely hand over the bush to a new place. Basic care will now be generous watering in the absence of regular precipitation and timely feeding.
And also it is necessary to remember about protection from pests and diseases, because after suffering stress, the plant is vulnerable. Timely spraying and monitoring the condition of the grape bush will bear fruit. Both literally and figuratively.
When can grapes be transplanted
Universal dates, when it is better to transplant grapes, does not exist. A gardener needs to be guided by his region and specific climatic conditions.
The best time for planting and transplanting is autumn and spring. In the fall, work begins after leaf fall and continues until frost. In the southern regions, where the soil does not freeze through in winter, it is permissible to plant during long thaws in January and February.
In the spring, they wait for the soil to thaw. It is important to have time to transplant before the budding eyes. In spring, the soil is well saturated with moisture, which plants use for their development.
Important! The earlier the bushes are planted (if there are favorable conditions), the better they will take root.
When deciding how to transplant grapes correctly without loss to the crop, the grower must take into account not only the time of the operation, but also the age of the plant.
Ways to transplant different age adult grape bushes
The first three years of life a young plant is considered a sapling. During this period, he is actively forming roots. With age, the old roots thicken, the life potential of the grapes and its ability to regenerate decreases. This means that the older the plant, the worse it takes root in a new place. Nevertheless, even adult bushes of 7-10 years old are capable of producing good yields after transplantation.
How can you transplant an adult vine bush:
- with a lump of earth,
- with an open root system.
For adult bushes, the first method is optimal - with a clod of earth and an intact root system. However, this is not always feasible without special equipment.
Thus, depending on the type of soil and climate, the root system of the grape bush penetrates the following depth:
- in humid cool climate - 20-40 cm,
- in the south - 40-120 cm
- on sandy soils - 1.5-3.5 m,
- on the rocks in the southern regions - 3-5 m and more.
Thus, the task of the grower in transplanting is to preserve the maximum of the roots. The older the plant, the more voluminous the earth will be.
Yearlings, dvuhletki, three-year
Young seedlings are planted from school to a permanent place at the age of 1-3 years. They can be either with a closed root system or with an open one.
In the specialized literature on viticulture advised to do this:
- Choose on the seedling 1-2 most developed escape, the rest to remove.
- Selected shoots pruned, leaving 2-3 eyes on each.
- Remove all roots located above the first-second node from the heel. This should stimulate the development of basic heel roots.
- Shorten heel roots to 20-25 cm when planting in the pits and up to 5-7 cm under the hydrodrill.
Transplanting seedlings in the fall
With the autumn transplant, a definite plus is that in the spring the bush starts to grow early and does not lag behind the rest. This means that in the first year after the operation a small crop can be obtained.
If you plan to transplant grapes with ZKS in the fall, be prepared that the plant will not have time to settle down in a new place and will not survive the winter. To avoid this, you need to carefully mulch the soil around the seedling and make a more thorough shelter.
As an option, in areas with little snow in the winter and possible frosts, it is recommended to dig up seedlings with PCL in the fall, and plant only in the spring, having organized a cool wintering in the basement or cellar. Bushes with ACS transplanted in the fall.
Differences in transplanting in spring and summer
With a spring transplant, it is likely that the bush will get used to new conditions for a long time, it will be late in growth and as a result the vine will not have time to mature. Harvest with this method of transplanting will have to wait longer.
Important! Planting vegetative grapes in cold land is more likely to lead to the death of the root system, and hence the entire bush.
The undoubted advantage of spring planting is that the plant well is harvested well in advance, even in summer or autumn. During the winter months, all the fillers in the pit are compacted and create a more uniform soil.
In the summer of transplanting adult bushes is undesirable. During the growing season, the plant will spend a lot of effort to restore the roots to the detriment of the development of the ground part and may wither. Young vegetative seedlings with a closed root system, which can be transplanted without damaging the roots, are moved to a new location in the summer.
How to dig up bushes
The older the plant, the harder it is to dig it out with the entire root system. Procedure:
- Dig a bush at a distance of about 50 cm from the trunk, while trying not to damage the roots of neighboring plants.
- Carefully expose the roots. If they go deep into the ground, cut them off. At this stage, the main thing is to keep the heel and the main roots coming from it.
- If there is a physical opportunity, grab a bush with a clod of earth and roll it over onto a sheet of metal, tarpaulin, or into a wheelbarrow, with which they drag the plant to a new landing site.
- In order not to fall apart, you can wrap it with a cloth and tie it up.
- If the bush is transplanted from the open root, gently shake the ground on the roots with his hands or stake, completely exposing them.
Beginning gardeners doubt whether to water the plant before transplanting. Watering contributes to the fact that the earth does not crumble and keeps one. If you want to clean the roots, you do not need to pre-water the bush.
An interesting way to dig a bush using a hydroborer:
- The soil around the bush is well worked out with a hydraulic drill to the state of slurry.
- Then the whole muck is scooped out, leaving the roots intact.
- If there is no hydroborer, the bush is digged and watered until the soil is saturated.
Planting grapes at a new place
A new place for the bush is prepared in advance, at least for a month, and even better for six months. The depth of planting and its method depend on:
- the type of soil on the plot
- the possibility of shelter for the winter,
- snow depth and other factors.
Traditionally, in industrial vineyards, bushes are planted in pits or under hydroborer. The latter method is only suitable for young seedlings with a shortened root system.
Recommended for industrial cultivation planting depth:
- in the European part - 45-50 cm,
- on irrigated fertile soils of Central Asia - 55-60 cm,
- on sandy soils - 60-65 cm.
However, in the amateur viticulture of Russia in different regions established their own methods:
- in the south, where the soil warms up well and dries quickly, they plant in large, pre-fertilized pits to a depth of 40-50 cm,
- in the suburbs is gaining popularity way of landing in the raised ridge to a depth of 30-40 cm,
- in areas of northern viticulture, for example, in the Urals, grapes are planted in trenches to provide the bushes with good shelter in winter and fast warming in summer.
In areas with poor soil (sand, stone) for planting make deep holes 1x1x1 m, which are filled with plant debris, rotted manure or humus, mineral fertilizers. On chernozem there is no such need. It is enough to dig a hole to the size of the root system and plant a sapling to a depth of no more than 40-45 cm.
Thus, a universal landing pattern suitable for all regions does not exist. Each grower chooses for himself the one that meets the conditions of his plot. When transplanting an adult bush, the same rules apply as for normal planting, which will be considered further.
With a lump of earth and a conqueror
The sequence of operations:
- The landing pit is prepared in proportion to the earthen coma.
- Pour a couple of buckets of water into it.
- Lower the bush into the pit and remove the wrapping fabric.
- The gaps between the earthy clod and the walls of the pit are gradually covered with earth, periodically watering.
- When the pit is completely covered with earth, they form a stem circle and once again plentifully water the bush with the addition of a root growth stimulator.
With open root system
- A pit is prepared in advance by a depth of 15–20 cm longer than the length of the underground stemming of a seedling and watered with water.
- 10-25 cm of fertile soil mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers are poured on the bottom.
- Before planting, the roots of the seedling are pruned to 25-30 cm and dipped in a creamy mash (2 parts of clay per 1 part of cow dung).
- In the center of the pit they make a mound on which a sapling is installed.
- The roots spread on the slopes of the hill.
- Pit with a seedling covered with earth to half and watered.
- Fill up with earth to the surface level.
- Form pristvolny circle and watered abundantly.
Important! In the area of covering viticulture, the base of the shoots after planting should be 1-2 cm below the soil level.
Errors during grape transplantation
If the sapling does not take root and does not grow well, the features of transplanting adult grapes may not have been taken into account.
- Late landing in spring. The plant needs time to adapt to new conditions and restore roots. In addition, in spring the soil dries quickly and the soil with ACS may not have enough soil moisture to start growing.
- Early landing in the spring. In the cold ground, vegetative seedlings with PCL may die off the roots.
- Too much pruning of the roots. Having lost the heel roots, an adult bush can not restore them and receive good nutrition.
- Landing in a dry pit. A dry layer between the roots and soil moisture prevents the beginning of root growth.
- An attempt to collect a full harvest in the year of transplantation. Excessive load of the bush leads to the fact that the plant spends its own resources, not getting enough nutrition.
Grape transplant care
We must be prepared that the plant does not immediately recover and will give full yields. The inflorescences formed in the first year are completely cut off, so that the bush directs all its forces to restore the roots.
Water the bush like the rest of the vineyard: by land or through a pipe. When choosing the second method, gardeners should take into account the depth of the root layer. For example, if the roots do not penetrate further than 40 cm, and the pipe is dug into the ground deeper, the bush does not receive water during watering.
Depending on the soil moisture, 3-5 irrigations are carried out for the season, every 2 weeks in dry weather and 3-4 weeks in wet weather. In early varieties, watering is completed in mid-July, in the latter - in mid-August.
Every 15–20 days after rain or watering, loosen the soil around the bush. This protects the soil from drying out and promotes air flow to the roots.
Fertilizers tucked in the pit when planting, enough for the first 2 years. During this period, additional feeding is carried out if signs of a shortage of elements are visible.
For winter, the bushes are prepared in different ways, depending on the growing region:
- cover the ground with a mulch layer
- protect bushes with non-woven material
- saplings fall asleep ground.
Fight against diseases and pests
During the season, spend several sprays Bordeaux mildew liquid. In general, the transplanted shrub is treated the same way as the rest of the vineyard.
Important! It is advisable to apply reduced doses of drugs on a weakened bush.
Взрослые кусты винограда способны прижиться на новом месте практически в любом возрасте. Садовод должен сам определиться с целесообразностью пересадки ввиду больших трудозатрат операции. If it is necessary to preserve a valuable variety, it is recommended to prepare cuttings from a bush or propagating it with branches before a transplant.
When is it best to transplant grapes?
Before holding such an important event as a grape transplant, a gardener must find out at what time it can be done. It is best to do this in the fall after the leaves fall, until the first frosts come. At this time, the growth of the vines stops, they begin get ready by the winter, so any manipulations with them at this time will cause them minimal harm. But sometimes grapes can be transplanted in the spring. But this should be done before the buds bloom, while the plants have not yet departed from hibernation and they have not started active sap flow.
In the spring, it is best to repot the vine from April 25 to April 28. However, weather conditions must also be taken into account, which may interfere with the planned event. So that in the new place a grape bush was comfortableIt is recommended during spring transplantation before moving the plant into the prepared pit to shed it in advance with hot water.
Sometimes gardeners have to urgently change, for example, during the sale of the site. In this case, the grapes can be transplanted in the summer. But note that it is necessary to remove the plant with an earthy ball. It is necessary to transfer it to a new place very carefully. But still, it is advisable to transplant the vines in autumn or spring, since it is during these periods that the plants are injured to the least extent.
How to transplant grapes: step by step instructions
If you are going to repot the vine, the gardener should already find a suitable place for it. Since grapes are a perennial crop, it is necessary to carefully choose the place, so that after a while it’s not necessary procedure.
- For grapes, it is recommended to choose a spacious, free area with good illumination. It is desirable that trees and shrubs grow along the edges to help protect the vine from the wind. Also, good protection of the vineyard will provide currant bushes and gooseberries.
- Before transplanting grapes in the spring should take care of the inventory and fertilizer. To perform this event, the gardener must have the following tools - a shovel, pruner for pruning. Manure and a solution of potassium permanganate are also required.
- It is best to take for transplanting vines aged 5-7 years. To carry out a similar operation with older plants is undesirable because of the risk that they do not take root and die.
The main stages of the transplant process
- The transfer begins with the preparation of the landing pit. It must be dimensioned taking into account the dimensions of the grape bush, as well as the earthy coma with which the vine will be transferred to a new place. Before transplanting to the bottom of the pit need to pour fertilizer. If a site is chosen for a grape bush that does not have high fertility, then 6-8 kg of humus and complex mineral fertilizer should be poured into the prepared pit.
- After that, you must dig a plant round. This should be done very carefully, trying not to hurt the rhizomes of neighboring vines. Consider that the earthen room has a radius of about 50 cm. In most cases, the root cannot be completely pulled out of the hole, since the grape bushes have a rather long root system and can reach 1.5 m. shake the ground carefully.
- Now the roots of the bush must be placed in a mixture of clay and a solution of potassium permanganate. Such a composition will help protect the plant from drying out and avoid rotting.
- All excess bush vines must be removed. You must leave only two sleeves. When the planting material is prepared, it is transferred to the pit. Be sure to straighten the root system, but it must be done very carefully so as not to injure the plant.
- After that, carefully poured into the pit nutritious soil, and then carefully water the plant.
The transplant of young plants under the age of three years is usually carried out by the method of transshipment. It involves the transfer of the plant along with the earth mound. This procedure helps to preserve the root system. However, in order to use this method, it is necessary to prepare the plant - a few days before the operation, it is transferred to "dry mode". Due to this, the gardener will be able to transfer the plant with a solid earthy clod to a new place without any problems.
Transplantation of old vines has its own nuances. In the first year after transplantation from a plant, all inflorescences should be removed. In the second year, the inflorescences are also removed, but only one third of them. This operation will help the vine to recover faster and increase yields in the coming years.
Reproduction by layering
One vine is selected, neatly separated and buried in the ground. After some time, it forms its own roots. Thus, the layers will be fed not only at the expense of their own abilities, but also of the mother plant, before the first fruiting.
When young layering take root, it is separated from the main plant. This usually happens after about two years. Now it can be transferred to a new place. And there is no doubt that he will take root in a new place. The method of propagation by layering is resorted not only when it is necessary to transfer part of the bush. It can also help when you need to replace a dead plant or plant a new variety.
Some gardeners who need to move grapes, use the katavlak method. It is suitable for old bushes aged 10 to 20 years. Cavalry called otvodok, having the form of a bush. With the help of this method of rapid reproduction, almost adult plants can be transferred to a new place. Spend transplant This method is necessary in early spring.
- Next to the bush it is necessary to dig a hole, and then clean the root system from the ground, so that you can see the adventitious roots. After that, the bush is dumped into a trench and choose the most powerful and sturdy sleeve.
- Next, the vine is transferred into a trench, while young shoots must be brought to the surface.
- After completion of such manipulations, the vine will begin to grow on both the old and the new place.
The main advantage of this method of transplantation is that the vine transplanted in a similar way enters fruiting in the first year.
This method will certainly interest the owners, whose vineyard has been growing haphazardly on the site all this time. Using the katavlak method, you can create ordinary plantings and achieve greater illumination for each individual grape bush.
From experience we can say that transplanting in the spring is quite effective, because after two years the transplanted bushes begin to bear fruit.
The grapes are loved by many domestic growers. Therefore, they always make sure that on their site was present and this plant. But sometimes it is necessary to carry out forced redevelopment and transplant grape bushes to a new place. This is not so difficult to do, because all you need to do is pick the right time for the transplant and ensure proper care after transferring the bush.
Do not forget about fertilizing after transplanting grapes. The vine needs it especially. If you carry out top dressing in combination with watering, then this will help not only ensure that the plant takes root in a new place, but also begin to bear fruit faster.