Botanical name: European beech (Fagus sylvatica) or European beech, genus Beech, family Beech.
Homeland of beech forest: North hemisphere.
The soil: sod-podzolic, podzolic, acidic, calcareous.
Maximum tree height: 50 m.
Tree's average lifespan: up to 500 years.
Description of the wood beech tree and its photo
Large deciduous spreading tree with light gray bark. Reaches up to 50 m in height.
The stem is columnar, with a diameter of 1.5 m. Century-old trees have a trunk diameter of about 3 m. The crown is ovoid or broadly cylindrical, and is raised high above the ground.
The branches are thin, prostrate. The maximum area of the crown is 315 square meters. Beech forest begins to bear fruit in 20-40 years, in plantations from 60-80 years. Gives a gain of about 350 years. In good conditions, lives up to 500 years, sometimes longer. Young shoots are light brown, with whitish lentils. The bark on young beech trees is gray-brown, on adults - gray, smooth and thin, which is the hallmark of the tree throughout its life.
The root system is powerful, shallow. There is no clearly expressed taproot. The roots of neighboring trees in the forest often intertwine or grow together. In old individuals grow strongly, so they are called "root feet". Sprouts updated from the stump aged 30-60 years.
Buds long, pointed, 1.5 - 3 cm in length. The scales are red-brown or light brown, sharp, numerous, pubescent at the apex.
The leaves of beech are alternate, two-row, pubescent petioles. The shape of the leaves is elliptical, wide-pointed, 4-10 cm long, 2.5-7 cm wide. The color of the leaves is light green, in autumn they become yellow, later a brown color.
Dicate flowers. Bloom during the blooming of the leaves.
The fruit is a triangular nut with sharp ribs, 1-1.6 cm long, with a thin, brown, shiny coat. Each nut has 1-2 seeds. Ripens in August-September. They fall from October to November. The usual productivity of a tree a beech makes up to 8 kg of nuts from one tree. Abundant yield is repeated in 10-12 years. Fruits of beech trees are considered valuable food raw materials. Collect them in the period of full maturity. The nut kernel contains fatty oils, nitrogenous substances, vitamin tocopherol, organic acids, starch, sugar, fiber, guaiacol, cresols.
Wood beech: useful properties
Beech forest for a long time known for its unique properties. Fruits, leaves and tree bark are of great value.
Its nuts in taste are not inferior to cedar, serve as food for forest animals and birds, are a useful delicacy for humans. People use processed, roasted fruits as they contain a large amount of a potent phagin substance harmful to human health. Fresh can not be consumed. Oil from beech nuts in its value and properties is not inferior to olive and almond. It has a light yellow tint, is used in confectionery, canning, bakery production, as well as in medicine, perfumery and various technical industries. Oilcakes are rich in protein and serve as food for agricultural animals. Beech leaves contain vitamin K and tannins. For many years, used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.
Solid and dense beech wood is easy to sand and work. High-quality veneer is made from it. According to its properties, beech wood is superior to oak wood, therefore it is a rather demanded raw material, possessing strength, durability and aesthetic appearance. Her drying is fast enough, with almost no cracks. A dry board is easy to process, after which it acquires a perfectly smooth surface. It is used for exterior and interior decoration of rooms, making musical instruments, plywood, parquet, stairs, and more. In the wood-chemical industry, the wood of this tree serves to obtain methyl alcohol, acetone and furfural, which are part of the drugs. Also, xelite is obtained from it - a sugar substitute, tar and creosote, used in construction and medicine.
Pests and forest beech diseases
Beech wood under adverse conditions is subject to fungal diseases. White marble rot, stem cancer, seedling rot, white peripheral root rot are the most dangerous. Distinguish between eating, mining leaves, skeletal, damaging the fruit of pests that spoil the seedlings and young shoots of plants. The main pests are insects of bark beetles, beetles and mushrooms, as well as birds and mammals that absorb bark and leaves of beech.
Using beech wood
Beech wood serves as an excellent material for the manufacture of furniture, it is used in construction, car building and mechanical engineering. From the beech of the forest by distillation receive tar. Firewood from it is intended for fireplace stoking. Beech ash is used in the manufacture of glass. Receive from it the potash and lye, necessary in the economy for washing and cleaning. Beech wood along with birch is considered the most affordable raw material for paper production. In some countries, beech chips are needed for smoked sausages. In cosmetology, beech buds extract is used, which is part of anti-aging skin care products. Beech tar has found its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases and rheumatism. The composition of some drugs include cresol, extracted from the nuts of this plant.
Due to the beautiful shape and color of the beech tree, it is also used in landscape design to create large compositions in gardens, alleys and amusement parks. Spreading crown with a dense planting of trees forms a shadow in which you can relax on a hot summer day. Beech is amenable to pruning, so it is used to create hedges. In group planting combined with birch, fir, spruce, oak, maple, juniper, mountain ash and lilac. Beech forest in a large open area is a bright accent in a single landing.
Most of the forests dominated by beech are destroyed by man as a result of his economic activities. Many trees have been cut down for the use of valuable wood and the release of land for farmlands and pastures. Forests where the European beech (forest) is found today are protected by the natural heritage of UNESCO. Artificial stands with the participation of beech trees are protected in the territories of national parks and nature reserves. Photos of the beech tree can be viewed in the photo gallery below.
Useful properties of beech wood
Beech tree has many useful and unique properties. The content of significant nutrients in the beech nut is impressive.
In addition, beech bark and leaves have great value. An interesting fact is that, to taste, beech nuts differ little from pine. They are food for forest dwellers and a real delicacy for humans. However, in a raw form for people they are very harmful and cannot be eaten raw, it is necessary to subject them to roasting, as they contain bitter juice of phaginus, harmful to humans.
From beech nuts receive oil similar in their qualities and properties with almond and olive. It is used in many branches of human activity: cooking, medicine, cosmetology, and others. It has a light yellow color. Cake beech fruit is rich in protein and is actively used to feed livestock, which in turn is not averse to enjoy this useful in all respects product. European beech leaves contain vitamin K and tannins. For centuries, beech bark and leaves have been actively used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and intestinal ailments.
European beech is essentially a universal tree, it is easy and unpretentious in processing. Beech wood surpasses oak wood in its properties. Beech is widely and widely used in various industries, because the tree has proven itself to be strong, durable and beautiful in appearance, both before processing and after it. Drying the wood is fast, and after this process there are practically no cracks on the finished product, thanks to the dense structure of the tree. After processing, the dry board acquires absolute smoothness and can be used as a raw material for the manufacture of musical instruments, parquet and much more.
Beech is a very unpretentious tree. It gets along perfectly on the basis of any composition, loves heat and abundant moisture, it is frost-resistant, but it can suffer with very strong frosts.
Use of forest beech
European beech wood is very popular in various branches of human activity. From it produce various types of furniture and are actively used in the construction industry. European beech is a source of tar, which is widely used in traditional medicine and is one of the important elements in skin and hair care. Beech ash is one of the ingredients for making glass, and beech wood firewood is ideal for kindling a fireplace. Also interesting is the fact that European beech wood as well as birch is the most affordable raw material for paper production. If you take the food industry, beech chips are widely used for smoking sausages, beech buds are used in medicine and cosmetology for rejuvenating creams.
Beech is considered a unique ornamental plant due to its shape and color, looks amazing in parks and avenues, will make an excellent company in any composition of shrubs, flowers and trees. In addition, the crown of the tree provides a saving coolness on a hot day. The beech is surprisingly harmonious with such representatives of the plant world as fir, birch, maple, oak, spruce, as well as with lilac bushes and juniper. If the terrain is open, then the European beech will be a bright accent in such a single landing.
Because of its demand in many branches of human activity, beech forests have been destroyed by “homo sapiens”. At the moment, such forests are under the watchful guard of the famous UNESCO organization. Places where European beech is grown artificially are also supervised and carefully guarded.
Beech tree Properties, types.
Beech is a mighty, straight-barreled tree reaching a height of fifty meters, with a dense, almost impermeable crown of sunlight, with a smooth light gray bark of the trunk. Three species of beech grow in Russia: large-leaved, forest and eastern. Beech is a long-lived tree, meeting in its thickets with a five-hundred-year-old specimen is common. Huge operational and forestry value of this tree. Beech wood has a beautiful pattern, white with a yellowish-red tint, light, not much inferior in strength to oak.
When standing alone, the trees, thanks to wide open branches and dense foliage, form a sprawling thick tent through which even the rays of the southern sun do not make their way. Well amenable to shearing and shaping and can be used to create high hedges, walls and figured forms.
According to its appearance and biological features, it takes among deciduous species the same place as spruce among conifers. In crown density and shade tolerance, it is not inferior to spruce and fir. The genus includes 9 species distributed in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere.
Photo: Helen Simonsson
Photo: Gilles Douaire
The fruit of a beech tree is a triangular shiny brown nutlet, slightly larger than a sunflower seed (a hundred beech nuts weigh no more than 20 grams). With favorable growing conditions from one hectare of beechwood, you can get several million nuts containing a whole pantry of nutrients - vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, tannins, organic acids. Beech nuts are not inferior to the taste of cedar and are a real treat for wild animals and birds. People use beech nuts in food in pre-fried form, because of their content of a potent substance - fresh phage, it is not recommended to use them fresh.
Huge value is the oil from the fruits of beech, which is not inferior in quality to expensive almond and olive. Beech oil has a pleasant light yellow color, it is successfully used in the confectionery, canning industry, in breadmaking, in medicine and perfumery, in various branches of technology. Oilcake - waste oil production, rich in protein, fed to farm animals and poultry.
Beech leaves contain a large amount of tannins and vitamin K, they are successfully used by traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal diseases, to stop internal bleeding in the form of decoctions and infusions.
The role of beech in the history and mythology of various ethnic groups is noteworthy. Many traditions consider it a symbol of ancient knowledge, grandeur, prosperity, victory and perseverance. He was hanged by the supreme gods - Perun, Zeus, Jupiter. Planted near the house in two, he will keep the energy balance and good relations among the inhabitants. In a number of languages of the German group, the name of the tree coincides with the word book. Indeed, the ancient runes were written on wooden sticks, which were made of beech, and our ancestors learned to read and write on similar beech boards covered with wax.
Properties of beech wood
Beech wood from mountainous areas is considered to be of better quality. The density of beech wood is about 700 kg / m 3. The wood is rather hard and dense, but rotting, therefore it is not recommended to use it outdoors. The sapwood and kernel are almost indistinguishable in color. The sun darkens and gets a reddish tide. The texture of wood is particularly well seen on the radial and tangential cut. Materials from beech come in various shades: from light to reddish-yellow. Beech wood is amenable to processing, polished perfectly. A magnificent veneer is made of beech wood. But, since beech wood is sufficiently hygroscopic, large fluctuations in humidity and temperature in the room where beech lumber is stored cannot be allowed. Beech wood surpasses even oak wood in some parameters. After drying, the beech becomes stronger than oak. Currently, beech is one of the most popular and sought-after sawn timber, which has exceptional beauty and durability.
The drying process is much faster, and the cracks are much less. After drying, most indicators improve, the dry board made of beech wood becomes stronger than oak when bending, surpasses it in rigidity and shear resistance by 20% and significantly in strength under shock loads. Beech wood board is an excellent material for interior decorating. Usually dry board is processed without complications, gives a smooth surface. It is easily pricked, sawn and processed by hand tools. Easily glued, bent, etched with dyes. Used for the manufacture of musical instruments, plywood. Ladders and parquet are also made of beech planks. Beech gives excellent veneer.
The wood chemical industry uses beech wood to produce methyl alcohol, acetone, furfural - a substance that is a raw material for many medicines, xylitol - a sugar substitute, tar and creosote - a disinfectant that is used in medicine and in construction to protect wood from rotting. In pharmaceutical practice, creosote is used in the treatment of skin diseases, as a potent disinfectant, as well as against tapeworms, for putrid processes in the lungs and bronchi, for abnormal fermentation in the stomach and intestines - orally in the form of tablets, gelatin capsules and other forms that mask the unpleasant smell of creosote.
The main types of beech
European beech, or European beech. A large tree with a slender trunk and a powerful ovoid crown from 25 to 30 or 40 m high and up to 15 m wide. The branches of the forest beech are arcuate or horizontal. The leaves of the forest beech are large, elliptical, slightly wavy on the edge, shiny, leathery, dark green in the summer and very spectacularly colored in the autumn in yellow and copper tones. In nature, forest beech grows in Europe, including in Russia, in Western Ukraine and Belarus.
Oriental beech. Tree up to 40 (50) m tall with a wide rounded or ovate crown. Oriental beech is similar in appearance to the forest beech, but differs from it in a more rounded crown and larger, longer leaves. In nature, eastern beech grows in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, in the north of Asia Minor.
Large-leaved beech Tree up to 30-40 m tall with bluish-gray bark and pyramidal crown. Leaves of large-leaved beech bright, bluish-green, oval or oblong, pointed. Родина растений – Северная Америка.
Ценные породы древесины
Наибольший интерес в столярном деле имеют лиственные породы деревьев. Из всего многообразия лиственных пород в первую очередь следует выделить ценные породы древесины: дуб, бук, ясень, клён, вишня, акация, орех и др. Ценность этих пород заключается в их прочности, долговечности и неповторимости рисунка.
Valuable wood species are used to make beautiful furniture, parquet, doors, various interior items that are considered elite, given the high cost of raw materials and the effort expended on processing them. Furniture and furnishings made of precious woods bring to the house a favorable energy, special beauty and comfort.
In principle, any valuable wood species can be used to make a new RIFLIX finishing material: oak, beech, ash, maple, cherry, acacia, walnut, etc. Noble oak wood, classic beech wood, fine walnut wood, flexible maple wood, textured ash wood, durable acacia wood, decorative cherry wood ... Each of these valuable wood species has its own peculiarity ... And each of them looks different and peculiar in its own way in RIFLIX wooden panels.
Oak (botanical name - Quercus robur, beech family). It has about 450 species. It grows in the temperate, subtropical and tropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere and is a forest tree. A photo tree, often grows next to hornbeam, ash and beech. The most common oak species is the pedunculate (or ordinary) oak.
Oak - a powerful strong tree, has long been identified with strength, wisdom and health. The advantage of oak wood is its durability and moisture resistance. Due to these properties, oak has been used in construction for centuries. In places where high wear resistance is necessary, heavy and solid oak wood is best suited.
Oak wood is porous, but durable and resistant to decay and fungus. Oak has a light yellow sapwood. If the cross-section of oak wood has a yellowish-brown hue, then it is an oak with mature wood. Oak wood has a beautiful texture. The peculiar shade of noble antiquity peculiar to oak wood, is explained by the fact that it darkens with time.
Oak wood density: about 700 kg / m3.
Oak wood hardness: 3.7 - 3.9.
Oak wood dries slowly, if the drying process is artificially accelerated, the wood can crack. Oak wood is often subjected to pickling and staining, with the result that it acquires the best decorative qualities. Especially valued "bog oak" - tree trunks that have lain on the bottom of lakes or rivers for several years. Such oak wood acquires extraordinary strength and almost black color.
The oak is usually covered with transparent varnishes, it is not advisable to paint it: for this, cheaper wood is used.
Beech - long-lived among the trees - 15 photos
When choosing a method of finishing an oak product, it should be borne in mind that oak wood does not accept alcoholic varnishes and polish poorly.
Oak is used for the manufacture of veneer, carved products, parquet, in furniture production and for interior decoration. For the manufacture of new finishing material RIFLIX oak is also used.
Beech (botanical name - Fagus, beech family). Includes 10 species. It grows in the extratropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere: Crimea, the Caucasus, Western Ukraine. Forms mainly mountain forests.
Beech wood is very durable, hard, well bend, easy to cut and polished, well painted. It has a wide color palette - from white to pink and in order to hide this color and give the beech wood an even tone, they make steaming (the steaming procedure takes about three days). If this process is ignored, the variegation of the texture of a beech cannot be avoided. The texture of the beech is small but beautiful, and the structure is spotty. Beech wood lends itself well to a special heat treatment, leveling its color and shifting it towards more red tones (the so-called “smoky beech”).
Density of beech wood: 650 kg / km3.
Beech wood hardness: 3.8.
Beech is a sapwood breed. Beech wood is heavy, dense and polished perfectly. In the wet state and in water for a long time does not lose its strength, although the air is rapidly destroyed.
For ease of processing, beech has always been appreciated by furniture makers. The feeling of comfort and warmth in any interior causes a light pinkish hue of finishing materials made of beech wood.
Beech wood is widely used in the manufacture of parquet and wooden stairs, due to its high wear resistance. Beech will be used to finish furniture, planed veneer is made of it. Because of the excellent ability to bend, as well as the strength, beech wood is used to make bent parts in joinery. For the manufacture of new finishing material RIFLIX also used beech wood.
Deciduous tree can grow to develop in one place for several centuries.
On different continents, beech forests from different tree species are common. Beech forest can be found on the European continent, B. large-leaved is more common in North America. Beech trees are endemic to China and Japan, the Chinese variety of tree is B. Engler, in Japan there are two types - B. Japanese blue and B. dentate.
The beech tree often reaches a height of up to 30 m, the trunk girth can exceed 2 m. The adult growing beech is a giant tree, its trunks, having a gray coloration, are covered with smooth bark. Almost to the top with a powerful crown, beech stalks do not have branches. This tree has such a dense crown that the lower branches are never illuminated by the sun, and therefore, the process of photosynthesis is disturbed. That is why the lower branches gradually die off, leaving the trunk of the beech bare.
The leaves of beech have the shape of an oblong oval; on the edge they are often decorated with notches or frequent teeth. The length of the leaves is from 5 to 15 cm, the width often reaches up to 10 cm. In the winter the leaves fall off.
Beech giants bloom in spring, color - loose earrings that appear from the buds at the same time as the leaves. Pollination of flowers occurs with the help of the wind, while fruiting may occur late. Single strong specimens bear fruit in 20-40 years, in group plantings - by 60 years.
The beech tree is a long-lived, individuals reach a respectable age of 400 years and above.
What does beech fruit look like?
Vintage beech land ripening in boxes.
Fruits of beech are similar to a triangular acorn up to 15 mm in size. Beech nuts are covered with a tough wooden shell, the seeds ripen 2-4 pieces in a common nesting box. Fresh beech fruit suitable for breeding culture.
Cultivation of beech in open ground
When planting a beech tree in the garden, it is useful to remember that the plant is capable of living in the same place of the century, demanding every year more and more free space around the trunk. Buki can develop well in partial shade and in the open sun, but for favorable growth it is necessary to choose places protected from wind for planting.
In the southern regions, the culture feels unimportant in the summer heat, it is often useful to water the beeches and spray the crown.
The tree is undemanding to the soil, but it is necessary to allocate the most humid area with fertile soil for planting beech saplings. The culture reacts negatively to soil salinization, prefers fertile loam with the addition of lime.
Spring flowering of beechwood.
Beeches are sensitive to temperature changes, the tree feels depressed when the air temperature drops below -5 ° C. In the northern areas should not be planted this crop for cultivation in the open field. Considering that the tree reaches a considerable height, it is impossible to provide shelter for winter shelter, so in the middle lane beeches should not be grown.
After planting beech saplings in the open ground, it is necessary to ensure that young trees have regular watering and spraying. To reduce weed growth and evaporation of moisture from the tree circle, it is worthwhile to mulch the soil under the planted trees.
Fertilizer for hardwood trees is applied to tree trunks in early spring and late autumn.
Autumn beech forest.
For breeding beech, you can use root growth, which is formed in the set near the stumps of felled trees for 2-3 years after felling. The growth is separated with a part of the roots, after which the young tree is planted in a permanent place in the hole with good fertile soil. The dimensions of the landing pit should match the size of the roots. After planting, the tree is abundantly watered. In the first years after planting, young beeches grow very difficult, reaching the greatest height by 50 years.
Beech nuts ripen on mature trees that have already reached the age of 60-80 years. They can be planted in greenhouses in a light fertile soil in the spring. Sometimes root growths are formed on nuts when stored in a damp room. It is very important to plant beech seeds in time before the root seedlings have dried. Germination of beech nuts can be accelerated by soaking them in stimulating solutions ("Appin", "Humate", "Zircon", aloe juice).
Young seedlings should be pritenyat from the burning summer sun, provide plants with uniform abundant watering, when grown in separate pots, strictly monitor the increase in capacity as the roots grow.
It is difficult to describe the magnificence of an adult beech tree, because such power and beauty of luxurious foliage distinguish a spectacular deciduous plant from other inhabitants of the park area, especially beeches in the fall, when the leaves turn to all colors of fiery yellow palette.
European tree description
Homeland European beech is the northern part of Europe. Due to the uniqueness and value of the properties, the plant is listed in the register of tree species protected by UNESCO and other international organizations whose task is to protect rare and valuable plant varieties from illegal logging and total destruction.
To understand what a beech looks like, it is necessary to consider a panorama of forest lands being on an elevation, because for hundreds of years forest giants can reach up to three meters in diameter and about 50 m in height. What immediately catches the eye is the spreading of the giant, which seems to be rushing skyward, tearing it with an egg-shaped crown.
Despite its gigantic size, the beech is a plant with thin branches, with a bark of light brown or gray color. The wide and spreading branches, despite their external fragility, diverge far to the sides, giving the impression that the plant wants to reach its neighbors.
Another feature of the plant is that it bears fruit, depending on some natural factors.
Some factors are:
- on a flat, well-lit and heated place, the tree begins to bear fruit at 20–25 years,
- in a more severe climate, the first fruit can be seen only at the age of 40,
- in places where beech grows densely, in planting with other trees, the plant begins to bear fruit at 60, or even 80 years,
- in ideal conditions, the European beech falls short of a half century, although the growth stops after a mark of 350 years,
- The trunk of young stock differs in the brown color of the bark, it is gray in mature trees, and the surface has no furrows or depressions. If you add to the age of the growth of European beech (40−50 m in height), the tree can safely magnify the king of forest land.
Another unique feature is the root system of the tree. Shallow, but powerful roots in adulthood crawl out onto the ground surface, while the core base is practically absent.
When you first hit the old beech forest, where powerful rhizomes tightly intertwined, you get the fantastic impression that the real world suddenly turned into a fairy tale where flying dragons, warring heroes, evil and cunning sorcerers can meet.
Features of growth, development and reproduction
The tree begins to germinate from the fruitwhich has the form of a triangular nut, which, falling into the ground, overwinters, and in the spring a sprout appears from it, breaking through the shell. The first buds of the tree release the following spring, from which leaves appear, narrow and long, arranged in two rows, resembling an ellipse in shape.
All spring and summer the leaves remain bright green and only with the onset of autumn they begin to turn yellow, then darken and turn black and fade just before the first frosts.
The tree blooms after the leaves fully open, immediately after selfing, the color crumbles, and in its place remains the germ of the future nut. All summer and part of the autumn is formed by the fruit of the tree, shiny, triangular nuts, very smooth and pleasant to the touch. When the season comes the ripening of fruits, they are harvested and dried, stored, later used as the most valuable raw materials.
Nuts and their use
The amount of minerals, trace elements and oils, which is available in the fruits of beech, is almost in no way inferior to olive and almond oil. The material that is found in nuts is widely used in various directions.
Use of nuts:
- in cosmetologists,
- in pharmacy,
- in cooking,
- when growing cattle,
- in the chemical industry,
- in traditional and traditional medicine.
But not only nuts found their direct purpose. Other parts of the tree also have useful properties.
The presence of tannins and vitamin K is used in medicine for the manufacture of medicines that cure various ailments.
Sheet-based drugs are prescribed for:
- diseases of the digestive tract,
- for localization of inflammatory processes,
- as an antiseptic substance.
Bark and wood
Wood is used not only as a building material. Beech is a very valuable raw material in the chemical industry, so there is almost no waste when processing wood on power-saw benches. Also, waste is used in medicine and food industry, for example, sawdust and beech chips are an excellent material for smokehouses.
Separately, beech wood as a material for the manufacture of musical instruments, furniture and as a cladding building material should be distinguished. Beech is considered a valuable and expensive raw material that is easy to process, withstanding an aggressive environment for a long period, not succumbing to aging and decay.
With proper drying and impregnation of special substances, furniture and other objects made of beech can serve for decades, perfectly preserving the original format. The use of special varnishes and dyes only enhances the beauty and uniqueness of the wood pattern.
European beech on the value of properties is in the same position with another most valuable industrial tree species - birch. From European beech wood, tar, unique in its medical properties, is extracted; wood ash is used in the glass industry as one of the special additives, oil pressed from nuts, used in the manufacture of anti-aging and firming creams.
Diseases and pests
Beech is often compared with other valuable species of wood: oak and larch, the material of which is considered a first-class raw material in the construction of low-rise and suburban buildings. Unlike larch and oak, beech is a softer breed that undergoes a number of diseases.
Ash (the botanical name is Fraxinus, an olive family). It has more than 60 species. It grows in Eurasia, North America and North Africa. Common autumn is the most common of the ten growing in Russia.
Ash wood is resilient, durable, viscous, has a beautiful texture, is easily processed and finished, and during drying it practically does not crack.
Ash wood density: on average about 700 kg / cubic meter.
Ash wood hardness: 4.0 - 4.1.
Ash has good flexibility and has a light shade with bright, clear fibers (in color and structure, ash wood resembles oak wood). Zabolone ash wood has a pinkish or yellow tint, and the core - light brown.
Ash wood is used for the same purposes as oak wood. It is used to make veneer veneer for the furniture industry, parquet and railings, frames, doors and other wooden structures in the joinery industry. For the manufacture of carved and bent furniture, many experts also advise the use of ash wood.
Nut walnut - (botanical name - Juglas regia, the nut family). The main regions of growth: Southern Europe, Asia, America. In Russia, this is the Caucasus.
Walnut sapwood is light, the mature walnut wood is brown-gray, with darker patches. Walnut wood is hard, resistant to deformation and cracking during drying.
Nut wood density: 600 - 650 kg / cubic meter.
Walnut hardness: about 5.0.
Walnut is a very dense and durable wood, but despite this, walnut wood is easy to cut and trim. Depending on the climate and the soil, the color and structure of the walnut wood varies considerably, but it is always very decorative.
The texture of walnut wood is also diverse: winding stripes, dashes, dots.
Walnut is widely used for interior decoration and furniture manufacturing. The characteristics of walnut wood allow it to be used for floors, stairs, as well as in marine business. Кроме этого, материалы из древесины ореха очень долговечны, что обеспечивается хорошей устойчивостью к различным воздействиям: грибок, гниение, а также механическим повреждениям.
Клён (ботаническое название — Acer, семейство кленовых). Произрастает в зонах с умеренным климатом по всей Европе, в Америке, на Кавказе и Дальнем Востоке.
Клен имеет твердую, плотную древесину с красивой текстурой, прочность древесины клёна несколько больше, чем у древесины дуба. The color of maple wood is almost white, sometimes with a slightly yellowish or pinkish tint over time.
Maple wood has a tendency to crack formation, so it requires very careful adherence to the drying regime.
Density of maple wood: 530 - 650 kg / m3.
The hardness of maple wood varies widely, the Canadian maple has the largest - up to 4.8.
Sapwood and mature maple wood are almost the same. Over time, maple wood is somewhat yellow. Maple is a nuclear free breed. Annual layers are noticeable on all cuts. The core rays are especially clearly visible on the radial section, creating the characteristic mapleishness of the maple wood.
Maple wood is an exquisite material for interior decoration, creating an overly contrasting backdrop for dark furniture. Maple wood is used in furniture production, for the manufacture of musical instrument cases, etc. Especially prized veneer with a crooked texture of wood trunk and caps is appreciated.
Cherry (the botanical name is Prunus avium, a family of Rosaceae). It grows throughout Europe, in Asia Minor, the United States and in southern Russia.
Cherry is a sound rock tree. The color of the core varies from reddish brown to intense red. Cherry wood sapwood is narrow, pinkish or yellowish. Ripe cherry wood is pinkish-brownish, sometimes pinkish-grayish.
The structure of cherry wood is smooth-fiber with a relatively uniform texture with annual layers that are clearly visible on all cuts. Radial section reveals banding. The characteristic feature of cherry wood is thin, narrow core repetitions and small resin pockets.
By hardness, cherry wood is substantially softer than oak wood, lends itself well to all types of processing and is highly polished. In terms of resistance to rotting, cherries are classified as medium resistant rocks.
Cherry wood density: about 580 kg / m3.
Cherry wood hardness: 3.0 - 3.3.
Cherry wood is very decorative. Under the influence of the sun color and as a result of finishing, the cherry wood acquires a beautiful warm golden reddish-brown color, resembling the color of mahogany. In old trees red color becomes predominant in the color of wood.
Due to the beautiful structure and color, this breed of wood is valued in the furniture and redwood industries and is used for the production of exclusive furniture. Cherry wood is very popular in the production of musical instruments and high-class joinery.
Acacia white (botanical name - Robinia pseudacacia, bean family). This breed grows in Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Crimea and in Central Asia. The white acacia is a core breed with a very narrow yellowish sap, sharply delimited from the greenish-gray or yellowish-gray core. Core rays are narrow, but noticeable.
Acacia wood has high hardness, strength and resistance to decay. In terms of physical and mechanical properties, acacia wood is significantly higher than oak and ash.
Acacia wood hardness: 7.1.
Acacia wood has a beautiful color and texture. Its color is yellow, annual layers are clearly distinguished on cuts. Acacia wood is processed well only in its raw form, while in the dry it can hardly be treated with cutting tools.
Acacia wood is very resilient and polished perfectly. In the air and under the influence of light, it darkens noticeably with time, which is why the texture becomes very beautiful.
One of the difficulties in working with acacia is due to the fact that it is initially prone to cracking, so it requires gentle drying regimes, which increases the drying time. Another difficulty is that acacia wood has a multidirectional texture - the fibers in it are arranged towards each other, like mahogany - which makes processing much more difficult. But the result is worth it!
Acacia wood is an excellent material for interior decoration. Strong and hard and at the same time viscous and elastic acacia wood is often used to make furniture, thanks to its pleasant texture and the fact that it lends itself well to mechanical processing, it is well polished and bends.
Acacia wood is an excellent material for flooring. Their lifespan is comparable to ash or larch parquet. In addition, it makes excellent doors that are stronger than doors made of oak wood. Acacia wood is also used for the manufacture of sliced veneer and is used for mosaic works.
It belongs to the genus of deciduous trees growing in Europe, Asia and North America.
1. The beech tree in height can reach up to 30 m, the maximum diameter of the trunk can be up to 2 m.
2. In Western and Central Europe, beech is the most common species of deciduous trees. In Germany alone, it occupies about 13.7% of the total forest area.
3. Through the roots, the beech tree releases various organic and inorganic substances into the soil, contributing to the increase of its fertility.
Eastern beech, Caucasian(Krasnodar)
(Fagus orieritalis Lipsky) - Oriental beech — Powerful deciduous tree up to 50 m high from the beech family.
Durable breed, living to 500 years, an increase of up to 350 years. Shoots first pubescent, and then naked. The bark on the branches and trunks of gray, smooth. The trunks in plantations are straight, well-cleaned and reach 1.5 m in diameter in old trees. The crown is ovate, wide-cylindrical and rounded at the top.
Oriental beech is one of the important forest-forming species of the Caucasus. The total area of beech forests is more than 30% of the entire forest area of the Caucasus. White beech wood with a yellowish tinge, with well-marked annual layers, a characteristic pattern, hard, resilient and dense. The physicomechanical properties of beech are characterized by the following indicators (Sokolov, 1951): density 0.65 g / cm 3, compressive strength nrl along the fibers 41 I kgf / cm 2, with static bend 938 kgf / cm 2, face hardness 571 kgf / cm 2. Beech wood is widely used for the manufacture of plywood, in furniture production, it is used for light parquet, musical instruments.
It grows mainly in the Caucasus and Crimea. Beech wood is light with a reddish-yellow tint.
Tree beech: description. Beech grove
Beech has more than 50 colors, each tree is unique in color and pattern. The texture of beech wood is distinguished by its beauty and high decorative qualities in tangential and radial sections. Beech for strength and hardness is inferior to oak, but a little more afraid of moisture due to the high hygroscopicity. Therefore, beech lumber can not be recommended to be kept in an environment with high humidity.
The process of drying beech wood is a little faster than other hardwoods, and drying defects are much less. After drying, most of the indicators improve, and the beech becomes stronger than oak, and when bending it even surpasses it in resistance to shear and rigidity by approximately 20%, and significantly - in durability under shock loads. Steam-treated beech wood bends easily (this feature allows it to be used in the manufacture of Viennese chairs in the furniture industry). Density - 650 kg / m3, hardness - 3.8. Caucasian beech is in the same category with oak and teak and belongs to the valuable hardwood species. This elite group belongs to category A, luxury. In terms of its structure of wood, beech is considered less friable than oak and more flexible than tick, while not inferior in strength to these two magnificent breeds, and even surpasses its neighbors in beauty. Such indicators allow you to make smooth, pleasant to the touch products of the furniture and door industry, so beech perfectly amenable to grinding and polishing. In the Caucasus, beech has another name: Chinara.
Thanks to all these qualities, beech has become the basis for the production of sawn timber from the Cabinetmaker Apsheronsk.
Beech wood contains a number of valuable chemicals and by dry distillation it produces vinegar, tar, potash, lye, and creosote.
Beech nuts, which contain up to 30% fatty edible oil, are of great economic importance. Beech oil is light yellow, odorless, pleasant to taste. Apply oil in the food industry and technology. With an average yield of 1 ha, the yield of beech nuts is 400 kg or more. Beech nuts are of great importance as a food base for bears, wild boars and many other wild animals found in the forests of the Caucasus. The local population uses roasted beech nuts as a delicacy. No less popular is the use of beech wood chips for smoking food.
A special role is played by beech forests as a water regulating factor. No less important is their importance in protecting the soil from erosion, as well as in preserving the climatic parameters of the Caucasus and the adjacent territories.
Oriental beech possesses a high decorative effect due to light columnar trunks and a powerful crown and is a very promising breed for greening works when creating parks and especially forest parks in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus. Good cut and can be used to create high green trellis.
In the Caucasus, Eastern beech grows mainly in mountainous areas and is found in the forests of the western and eastern parts of the North Caucasus, Inner Dagestan, Novorossiysk region, West, Central and South Transcaucasia, Upper Kartalinia, Zangezur-Karabakh region. and Talysh.
The most highly productive forest stands are located in the mountain zone at an altitude of 600 to 1600 m above sea level. m. On the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, beech forests descend almost to sea level, and in certain regions of eastern Georgians (Kakheti) rise to mountains up to 2,200 m above sea level. m. In the high-mountain zone form bush plants. In the zone of the most widespread beech, it forms high-grade pure stands with a reserve of wood in the most high-growing stands up to 900 m 3 and more. Falling below the main distribution zone or rising above, it is part of other tree species and forms mixed stands with them.
Outside the Caucasus, eastern beech grows in the Crimea, in the eastern part of the Balkan silt peninsula north of Asia Minor.
Beech refers to shade-tolerant breeds. Especially shade-tolerant at a young age.
Beech wood has been used by people since ancient times and is valued by people for its rich texture and good processability. Among the ancient Greeks and Romans, beech went to groove dishes, wine goblets, jugs for sacrificial libations, crests, and accessories for looms. The ancient Slavs studied reading and writing on wax-covered beech tablets and the Romans wrote business and love messages on them. In the latter case, they even made a gold frame for the plates. And in the modern world of pilomaterials, a furniture shield made of this type of wood is popular.
Elegant beech parquet gives the room a restrained and noble atmosphere. A light pinkish tint that appears after steaming causes a feeling of warmth. The simple and noble structure of products made of beech is a wonderful decoration of any interior. That is why it is recommended to use beech for elements of stairs.
The reasons for the increased interest in beechwood are clear: even the arms of the most expensive weapons are made mainly from oriental beech. The extract is made from beech seeds, which is successfully used in medicine and cosmetology. And the furniture is very durable due to its high strength and beautiful and noble in appearance.
The beech grows rather slowly, but where it reigns, it becomes a protector of the surrounding space, forms its own microcosm. That is why beech forests are carefully guarded.
Now in fashion to equip the house in accordance with the ideas of "correct", "healthy" energy. Professionals, who have been working with beech wood for a long time, knowingly say that only beech furniture should be in the bedroom, since this is one of the most energy-friendly wood species for humans.
For this reason, we advise you to use this type of wood in the kitchen, as you will get the best cutting boards. The beech as if feeds the person, allocates it with additional force. This can be confirmed by anyone who has ever visited the Caucasian beech forest. By the way, this does not contradict the esoteric meaning, which is endowed with beech from different nations. In Greek mythology, the book was dedicated to Zeus and was a symbol of prosperity and renewal. In the Druids, the beech symbolizes ancient knowledge stored for descendants in ancient temples, spells, manuscripts, and in a broad sense serves to combine knowledge of the past and the future.
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Wildly grows in Western Europe, Western Ukraine and Belarus. Available in a number of reserves in the European part of Russia. Forms clear forests on slopes up to 1450 m above sea level. seas and other broadleaf species on rich soils. Very shady-tolerant mesophyte.
Tall tree up to 30 m tall, with a slender trunk and powerful egg-shaped crown. The bark of young branches is reddish-brown; the trunks are light gray and smooth. The leaves are large, up to 10 cm long, elliptical, slightly wavy along the edge, shiny, as if leathery, dark green in summer and very effectively colored in autumn, from yellow to copper tones. Male and female flowers are located on the shoots separately. The fruit is a triangular nutlet up to 1.5 cm long, dressed as a ply, covered with styloid processes.
It grows slowly, very shade-tolerant, heat-loving (especially decorative forms), it is demanding of air humidity, it does not tolerate drought, it develops well on calcareous soils. Lives up to 500 years, but old trees are usually sick. Propagated by seeds, layering, summer cuttings. One of the most valuable breeds for green building. It is used to create powerful groups and arrays in parks and forest parks, in single landings in glades.
Forms fine trimmed hedges and walls.
European (Fágus sylvática)
It is also called beech forest. This is the most common representative of the family of Beech, which is often found in western, central and eastern regions of Europe (Denmark, Norway, United Kingdom, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Greece, France, Spain, Portugal). In Ukraine, these trees grow in the Carpathians, as well as in Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Ternopil, Rivne, Khmelnytsky and Vinnitsa regions.
In addition, the species was introduced on the North American continent. In these regions, beech plantings form entire forest subzones, although often the plant is cultivated in botanical gardens, parks and arboreta.
Many gardeners prefer it in landscape design, using different selection forms of the species. A feature of European beech wood is its wood, which is widely used in furniture construction, and the fruits that are used in food.
Distinctive characteristics of European beech is the ovate or wide cylindrical shape of the crown with a rounded top and thin branches. Its maximum area often reaches 315 m2.
Large Leaf (Fagus grandifolia)
These flowering trees of the Beech family are well known in the eastern zones of North America and Western Europe. The extreme extent of their prevalence extends from Nova Scotia along the St. Marys River to the southern shore of Lake Superior, covering the states of Indiana, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, reaching the Atlantic Ocean itself. Separate areas of large-leaved beech botany are isolated on the territory of Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas, as well as on the Mexican coasts.
On European lands, the species came only at the end of the 18th century as a decorative culture for the landscape gardening landscape. Over time, wood quality was evaluated. The plant can be found in mixed deciduous forests, where there are maples, birch and linden.
Feature of the form is large elongated sheet plates. Each kidney extends to a length of 2.5 centimeters. Foliage is low pubescent, broadly lanceolate form. The average length of the leaves is 6-12 cm, and width - 3-6 cm.
The tree looks spectacular in any season: in spring, young silky leaves attract the eye, in the summer they are transformed into a thick dark blue-green cover of the crowns, and in the fall they are filled with reddish-burgundy shades.
Eastern (Fagus orientalis)
The species is very common in the coastal zones of the Black Sea and in the Caucasus. It has a very slow growth and increased shade tolerance. Именно поэтому молодые восточные буки дают обильную поросль под лесным покровом, но когда подрастают до зрелого возраста, плотно смыкают ветви, не давая шансов расти даже траве.
Характерно, что эти растения занимают более четверти всех лесов Кавказа. Лучше они развиваются на высоте до тысячи метров над уровнем моря.
Яркими признаками этого вида является волнистая цельнокрайная листва, а также свисающие ворсистые молодые ростки. Древесина отличается бело-желтым окрасом и высокими физико-механическими свойствами. The only drawback of the beech board is its poor resistance to rotting, which does not in the best way affect the durability of the material.
Experts advise that before using it is obligatory to process lumber with special solutions that improve its endurance.
Japanese (Fagus japonica)
This species of beech trees is common on the Japanese islands of Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, as well as on the Korean Peninsula. They prefer the highlands and can rise to 2 thousand meters above sea level. Domestic specimens can be seen in European gardens, but not often.
A characteristic difference in Japanese beech is its moderate height. Compared with other counterparts, representatives of this species do not grow above 20 meters and are often multi-barreled. Their foliage in length reaches 6-8 centimeters and is distinguished by a slightly heart-shaped base, as well as a hairy central vein. The fruits of Japanese beech always have a more pointed end.
Taiwanese (Fagus hayatae)
It is a tree with a twenty-meter trunk and a neat thick crown. The prevalence of the species is limited to Taiwan. But even in the homeland, culture is rarely found in deciduous forests, as it is gradually being supplanted by an actively growing alpine beech. Moreover, the Taiwanese variety practically does not give young shoots.
Gorodchaty (Fagus crenata)
This type of beeches is distinguished by the slimness of its trunks, which extend up to 35 meters. The spherical dense crown is also typical of the mind, which consists of thin densely closed branches and leaves that are 10 centimeters in length.
Engler (Fagus engleriana)
The view is characterized by a 20-meter high trunk and a very large crown that develops in the shape of an oval. This is due to strong branching. The plant differs from other beeches in an elongated-oval form of leaves.
Breed is considered rare. It is found only in some areas of the People’s Republic of China. Cultivated varieties can be seen in the landscape landscape of other countries.
Long-petiole (Fagus longipetiolata)
This variety of beeches in everyday life is often called South China, due to the place of distribution of the tree. Most often, their wild forest thickets are found in the tropical forests of Vietnam, as well as in the south-east of China. The smooth grayish trunk of a long-beech beech above 25 meters does not grow. The rounded crown is slightly flat on top.
Shining (Fagus lucida)
This species, like the previous one, is more known to the inhabitants of China. It also develops upwards of not more than 25 meters and is characterized by a neat, rounded crown with edible small nuts. A distinctive feature of the species is a specific reflection on the bark.
Where is growing
Beech planting has long inhabited our planet. It has been scientifically proven that 85 million years before our era, these plants occupied a vast territory on most continents. In those days, the extreme feature of their range passed from Canada through Alaska, Greenland, Kamchatka and the Urals. But already 62 million years later, the beeches occupied the southern territories of Eurasia and North America, displacing typical subtropical vegetation.
After the onset of the Ice Age, beech trees were supplanted by conifers in northern Europe. This is indicated by fossil wood residues found in Scotland.
Today, botanists are crediting beech to the most common representatives of the flora. In any corner of the world: even in the lowlands, even in the mountains, you can find them. Moreover, these trees will be dominant in mixed or deciduous forests.
If you look closely at the modern map of the world, then the beeks can safely give all the temperate and subtropical climatic zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Trees do not climb above 2.5 thousand meters above sea level, they prefer fertile loamy substrates with alkaline and slightly acidic pH, they are distinguished by increased endurance, and are not demanding.
For a long time, mankind has been practicing beech herbal medicine using foliage, bark and oil of a magnificent plant for this purpose. Healing broths, teas, baths, lotions, compresses are prepared from its raw materials.
The healing properties of the culture are very extensive. Bioenergy treats it as an additional source of vitality, knowledge and inner peace. Not for nothing is the furniture of beechwood very much appreciated today.
According to experts, beech has the following healing effects:
- calms the nervous system
- helps with insomnia,
- improves blood circulation
- heals wounds
- has an antiseptic effect,
- beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract,
- normalizes blood sugar levels
- relieves pain and relieves swelling,
- improves appetite
- raises vitality,
- normalizes the liver,
- improves skin, nails and hair,
- helps with rheumatism (massages with beech oil are shown),
- improves metabolism
- prevents the development of anemia and vitamin deficiency,
- cleanses the body of cholesterol, free radicals and slag,
- It helps with diseases of the upper respiratory tract, bronchi and lungs.
Video: beech nuts
Beech is valued in the household not only as an energy amulet and medicinal raw materials. Many cultivated species of this breed are widely used in landscape gardening. In this embodiment, the trees can be located in single and group plantings. Very often, they personify the piece green zones in the forest parks, and are also an excellent material for creating hedges.
In many countries, the most important resort-aesthetic value is given to beech forests. As a rule, it is in these arrays that prestigious recreational facilities for children and adults are located.
At the expense of it uniform replenishment of natural reservoirs by an atmospheric precipitation is provided and their silting is prevented. Studies have shown that in such forests there is never a large soil erosion. Meanwhile, tree roots secrete substances that increase the fertility of substrates.
Old trees are carved for valuable wood. It is widely used in the joinery, for the manufacture of furniture, musical instruments (guitars, violins), parquet, weaving parts, measuring equipment, rifle butts, wooden packaging.
- white or yellowish-red tonality, which over time turns into a pinkish-brown,
- satisfactory moisture resistance
- propensity to deform at elevated moisture,
- ease of processing and polishing
- fragility in operating conditions in the open air.
Beech trees have found their use in cooking. For example, acetic acid is made from their wood, and nuts are used for desserts and pastries. Also, this raw material is the basis in the process of obtaining tar, methyl alcohol and creosote oils.
Note that, based on the rich vitamin and mineral composition of beech fruits, in places where there are a lot of these trees, the locals traditionally cook pancakes, pancakes and shortbread from nut flour. And in the Caucasus and Carpathian regions, this ingredient is used for all bakery products.
From beech fruits they get the most valuable oil, which is widely used for food purposes (in its taste is not much worse than Provençal), as well as in cosmetology. It is added to various masks as a nutritional ingredient for hair, face and skin. Depending on the manufacturing technology, beech oil of technical types is used for feeding livestock and coffee surrogates.
Chaririks (beech nuts) act as raw materials for beech oil
In addition, beech raw materials are widely used in traditional medicine. From a variety of diseases, the universal medicine is ordinary tea, made from a teaspoon of dry, crushed leaves and a glass of boiling water. On the day of such a drink is shown to 1 liter.
And for those who love forest walks, bioenergetics are advised to find a young and strong tree, lean back on it and mentally “merge” with it into a single whole. Such practices give a charge of strength and health.
History of beech selection
In the print registers of the botanical garden of St. Petersburg, the beech is practically not mentioned, there are only brief notes dated 1796, which say that the tree is being examined and attempts are being made to breed it. In 1824, it is mentioned that some of its species are grown in pot arboretum and greenhouses. First reliable growing experiment trees of this species in open soil belongs to F. Fischer, who has been studying beech since 1833.
In his further notes it is noted that the forest beech died in 1834, its red-leaved species is also noted in the records - after 1835. Later they were grown only in pottery arboretum (after 1873). At the beginning of the 20th century until 1917, beech was already planted in medicinal plants and in permanent parks in parks. Especially successful was their secondary introduction to the culture in open soil in the early 30s. XX century. The trees were under the scrutiny of breeders until 1935-2005.
Another beech species was imported from Achishkho from the Caucasus (specifically from Krasnaya Polyana) in 1930, had been engaged in its selection for eight years, in 1938 it was planted in the park, however, apparently, until 1942 it Unfortunately, he died. It was reintroduced into collectible landing in 1949-1976, and then again in 1980-2006.
General characteristics of beech trees
All of these species reproduce by layering and grafting. Of the total variety of trees are distinguished by a group of certain features. Below they are presented in detail.
- By crown configuration: pyramidal, weeping, with very long (up to 5-6 m) central branches that fall.
- By crown configuration and leaf plate silhouettes: comb type nfrom oversized, with small, curved, deeply toothed leaves, tortuous type of dwarf growth, has twisting sprawling branches, drooping at the corners, with small leaves, snail-like type - dwarf growth, leaves spoon-like concave.
- By the size of the leaves and their outline: oak-leaved, coarse-toothed, round-leaved, split-leaf, fern-leaved, broad-leaved.
- According to the configuration of the crown and the color of the leaves: purple-weeping, golden-weeping.
- The shape and color of the leaves: Rogan with pinnate-lobed, purple leaves, Ansorga - with purple, incised leaves, large-leaved purple - with large, glossy, dark-purple leaves, very beautiful.
- Leaf colors: white-motley, golden, marble, with spotty white-green leaves, golden-edged, pink-edged, striped (yellow and green stripes), tricolor (white, green, pink streaks), dark purple (color lasts all summer).
It inhabits vast territories in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the northern part of Asia Minor. It grows in various reserves of the European part of the Russian Federation, the Caucasus and the Crimea. It forms pure forests and grows alongside broad-leaved trees on fertile lands. It is extremely shade-tolerant mesophyte.
Tree up to 50 m tall, with extensive round or oval crown. It is very close to the beech of the forest, but with a more even crown, mostly large, elongated leaves up to 20 cm in length and a slightly different structure of the perianth. Sometimes it can produce root shoots and a rich first growth. Regarding environmental factors, they are also similar, except for one thing: the eastern beech is more thermophilic. Lives 300-500 years. In culture, celebrated since 1904. Successfully combined in compositions with the following plants:
- chestnut seed,
- Eastern spruce,
- Maymouth pine,
- oaks and other species.
In GBS introduced in 1956 one sample (4 copies) with the mark "unknown origin". It has the following description:
- It is a shrub, at the age of 22 years, having a height of 7.5 m, with a crown diameter of 300 cm.
- Vegetation is celebrated for 169 days.
- The first three years of life is characterized by an average growth rate.
- Does not bloom.
Frost resistance is average. Rooted cuttings of only 12%. Possesses decorative properties. The need to continue testing.
It can also be noted that the fruits of this type of beech are stored for spring sowing in half-baked sand, for autumn - in woven bags in an uncooked and unheated room. Germination is stored until the spring of the following year. Ground germination rates of 76-86%. The seeding depth is 5-7 cm.
European beech, or forest
Grows wildly in Western Ukraine, Western Europe and Belarus. There is a number of reserves in the European part of the Russian Federation. Forms clean forests on natural slopes up to 1.4 km above sea level, as well as with other broad-leaved species on fertile lands. Extremely shade-tolerant plant.
Tall tree up to 30 m in height, characterized by a stately trunk and a powerful egg-shaped crown. The bark of young branches is red-brown, at the trunks - bright gray, monophonic. The leaves are large - up to 10 cm in length, oval, slightly undulating along the edge, glossy, one can say leathery, dark green in color in the summer and very effectively colored in autumn from yellow to reddish-yellow tones. Male and female flowers are placed on the shoots separately. The fruit is a triangular nutlet about 1.5 cm in length, covered with a ply, enveloped in styloid processes.
This plant rises slowly, it is very shade-tolerant and thermophilic (mostly ornamental species), demanding to the level of air humidity, it hardly withstands drought, it matures well on soils rich in lime. It can live up to 500 years, however, adult trees are almost always sick and almost never can be used to create household items, furniture and other products.
It reproduces with the help of seeds, cuttings, summer cuttings. This breed is the most valuable for construction. It is used for the formation of massive groups and areas in gardens and forest parks, parks, in single plantings. It creates magnificent living fences and walls. In the culture is already a long time. Mixes well with trees such as:
- white fir,
- pine hooked,
- yew berry,
- Canadian hemlock,
- Birch tree,
- rose rugoza and others
Beech can grow both in the sun and in partial shade. Resistance is low. In the conditions of the Moscow region can freeze, it needs a warm, impenetrable place.
There are many decorative species that differ from the original type of beechwood by such indicators as:
- the form,
- leaf color and size
- overall look,
- bark structure.