For Russians, there is no tree more native than birch. The word itself appeared in the VII century from the verb "take care". For the ancient Slavs, the symbol of fertility, as well as the protector of the people, was the deity Bereginya, which they represented in the form of birch. In all likelihood, the name of the tree has come to us since those ancient times. Do you know how many and what types of birch trees grow in Russia? Today we have to find out.
Many types of birch trees are trees, reaching a height of 30 to 45 meters, in the girth of the trunk grows up to 150 centimeters, although there are large and small shrubs, including creeping, barely elevated above the ground. All members of the birch family are monoecious, dioecious, wind-pollinated plants.
The root system of trees of this kind is powerful, it can be both superficial and obliquely going deep (depending on growing conditions). The fading of the root root of a sprout occurs fairly quickly, but the lateral ones with a huge number of thin uriciform roots develop rapidly. In the early years, the birch grows very slowly, but over time it begins to quickly move upwards, triumphing over grassy vegetation.
The bark of most species is white, yellow, pinkish or reddish-brown, although there are varieties with gray, brown and even black outer parts of the trunk. The cork tissue cells are filled with easily peeled betulin (white resinous substance). In long-lived trees, a dark crust with many deep cracks is often seen in the lower part of the trunk.
The leaves of the representatives of the family of birch alternate, jagged at the edges, whole, ovate-rhombic or triangular-ovoid, smooth, monosymmetric, in length reach 7 centimeters, in width - 4.
As we have said, the symbol of Russia is birch. The types and varieties of the most common trees in our country will be discussed in the article. And let's start with hanging birch (warty). This tree in height can reach 30 meters with a diameter of 60-80 centimeters. It is characterized by openwork crown, with downward shoots hanging down, white or grayish-white bark with various cracks, the shape of which depends on the type of bark. In the lower part of the trunk, the formation of a coarse crust is possible. Birch trees with a rhombic-fissured form grow rapidly, respectively, with a rough crust - slowly. The main feature of this species is the presence of small growths, the so-called warts on young branches. The most valuable species of silver birch is Karelian.
Fluffy birch is a straight tree with sprawled branches, smooth bark of white or grayish color and young shoots hanging down. Kapovo birch is especially appreciated.
There is betula pubescens in almost all areas, with the exception of the extreme northern and southern areas where shrub birch species grow. Description of the growing area of trees: the most common types of birch trees often grow in the same forest parks, despite the fact that their ecological properties are different, dry places on a hill are preferable for hanging birch, and for fluffy they are very wet, sometimes they are found in swampy areas. These types of birch trees grow beautifully with deciduous and coniferous trees.
What are the types of birch trees, in addition to the above varieties in the open spaces of our country? In addition to the high white trees in the mountains of Russia dwarf birch trees grow. Some species are found in the Altai Mountains and the mountainous terrain of Central Asia. Botanists have about 12 species of stunted trees growing all over the world. So, for example, in Altai you can admire a small-leaved birch, in Pamir-Altai - Altai and Turkestan, and in Tien Shan - Sapozhnikov and Tien Shan birch.
Dwarf trees in our country are found in the Far North, mainly in the treeless landscape zone of the subarctic belt of the northern hemisphere with characteristic moss-lichen vegetation and the mountain tundra of the eastern part of Siberia. The most common stunted birches include dwarf, lean, Middendorf and Komarov's birch.
Some species are so small that they are inferior in height to boletus mushrooms. In certain areas, you can find dwarf trees, in appearance more reminiscent of shrubs: Kuzmischev birch, Gmelin, undersized, bushy, oval and Far Eastern. Grow mainly in forest-wise zones, in marshy areas in the forest.
Dark-skinned tree species are widespread in the Far East, although some of them can be admired in Eastern Siberia. These include Dahurian birch. A tree with an openwork crown grows up to 25 m in height. The main difference from other species is the original bark: in young birches it is pinkish in color, in old ones it is dark gray, less often black-brown, with cracks along the fibers. Birch bark can periodically flake off and partially fall off, the rest, which hangs in scraps, creates a curly effect. Dark green leaves of Daurian (black) oval-shaped birch become yellow-brown by autumn. Flowering begins immediately after blooming leaves. The growing season is shorter than other species.
In the mountains of the Black Sea coast to the south of Tuapse and the Rion Basin there are small forests of Medvedev birch. Due to the good rooting of the branches, this species often grows on the slopes; new affiliated trees are formed from the rooted shoots.
Unusual view of the grove formed by Radde birch with red-pink birch bark. The only representative of sharp trees in Russia is Maksimovich birch, found only on the southernmost island of Kunashir (the Kuril ridge).
In the Main Botanical Garden of the capital, only two varieties of North American dark-bark trees stand out from the entire collection. How they do not look like our white birch species! Only the presence of numerous earrings, typical of this plant, indicate that we have a sister of our birch tree. There are also trees with golden shiny bark. This is one of the North American species.
Now you know how many species of birch trees grow around the globe, and that Russia has become the richest country in birch species.
Birch is a tree no more than 25 m high. The trunk is smooth, white and straight, with black lines on the bark. Branches with resinous warts, thin, well developed and thick. In adult trees, branches hang.
The leaves are smooth on both sides, long-petiolate, pointed at the end and wide at the base, diamond-ovate or triangular3-4 cm long. Young birch leaves are fragrant and sticky. Kidneys are formed in March. They are elongated, reddish-brown, astringent and resinous.
Birch - monoecious culture. The tree has staminate (male) and pistillate (female) earrings. Stamen earrings are located 3-4 pieces at the ends of the branches, 6-7 cm long, drooping. Pistil earrings 2.3-3.5 cm long, erect, axillary, are one on the side short branches.
Begins to bloom in April and May. Male inflorescences develop from autumn and continue to remain in winter, female ones form when the leaves bloom. Pistillate inflorescences are connected by 3-4 pieces, have 3 lobed scales. The fruits begin to ripen in August-September. One earring contains about 600 seeds. The fruit itself is a flat, single-seeded nutlet of an elliptical oblong shape, with two wings, they are 3-4 times larger than the nutlet itself. Seeds are transferred by means of wind and perfectly take root, hitting on wet or dry, loamy, sandy, stony-gravelly or chernozem soil. The tree grows very quickly, it renews perfectly by self-sowing and overgrowth.
Where does birch grow
There are about 150 species of birch in the world. Of these, about 70 species grow in our country. These trees are not much different from each other and are used equally in medicine. The most common are drooping, fluffy and squat birch.
Birch light-requiringPerfectly tolerates any climate. It grows in the forest-steppe and forest zone. Quite common in gardens, parks, grows near roads. The lifetime of a tree is about 120-150 years.
Birch often creates derivative forests at the site of burnt or felled spruce, pine, deciduous and oak forests. It quickly begins to populate the vacated space, but is eventually supplanted by other tree species.
Variety of species
The exact number of species of birch due to polymorphism is not defined. But many scientists are inclined to think that there are about 150. There is no single classification, but the most successful is the division of all types into four groups:
- Costata - it is characterized by rough leaves because of protruding veins from below and ribbed stem.
- Albae - includes birch trees with bark white and close to a given shade.
- Nanae - includes all stunted species with shallow foliage.
- Acuminatae - large-leafed species, grow in subtropical conditions.
Here are the most common types of birch trees.
The most common species, the height of birch is up to 35 m and has a trunk diameter of 80-85 cm. Young birch trees have brown bark, it turns white by 10 years. In old trees, the lower part of the trunks blackens and begins to be covered with deep cracks. The branches are covered with a scattering of a large number of resinous formations that resemble warts, and from this the popular name - wart birch. The branches of young trees hang characteristically down, from which birch is often called hung. It grows in Asia, North Africa and Europe. The variety is demanding of the sun, easily tolerates drought, frost-resistant.
The tree has a height of 20-27 m, the diameter of the trunk is about 75 cm. Young trees have red-brown bark, which in time acquires a snow-white color. The crown of a young tree is slender, narrow, with upward-pointing branches, becoming sprawling and wide with age. This species grows in the European part of Russia, in Siberian forests, in the Caucasus and in Western Europe. The variety does not need much sun, shade-tolerant, winter-hardy. Feels very good on wetlands, prefers moist soil.
Sweet (viscous, cherry)
The tree is of medium size, the trunk diameter is up to 65 cm, 22-27 m in height. The crown is pyramidal, with time it becomes transparent, rounded, with drooping branches. The variety is characterized by dark brown, uneven bark, which is covered with pronounced cracks. The bark of young stock has a fragrant spicy smell. This species is growing rapidly, preferring wet, light and well drained soilis long-lived. It has an average winter hardiness, it often freezes in severe frosts. Due to the high demands on growing conditions, it never becomes the dominant tree. It grows well in Belarus, the Baltic countries.
This tree was named in honor of the German traveler and physicist Adolf Georg Hermann. Among the birch is a long-lived, some trees can grow up to 500 years. With a small growth of 10–12 m, the tree usually has a diameter of a curved trunk up to 1 m. The bark is flaky, dark gray or brown, and begins to crack with age. The branches are erect, pubescent and warty in young, form a translucent, wide, very beautiful crown.
Kind unpretentious, shade-tolerant, cold-resistant, grows well on stony soils. On swampy soils, it is replaced by fluffy birch, it does not tolerate excessive moisture. It grows in Yakutia, Buryatia, China, the Far East, Korea and Japan.
Dwarf (dwarf, small)
This species is found on the plains, and also grows in the highlands and tundra. It resembles a bush with a powerful branching or is a low tree, whose trunk is surrounded by warty branches. The bark of this tree is of a dark-brown shade, the young growth has a densely pubescent trunk. For growth and development, it prefers slightly acidic or acidic soil; it tolerates overmoistened, heavy soil well.
The most thermophilic type of tree with a trunk diameter of more than 1 m and a height of up to 35 m. The openwork crown is formed by leaves of egg-shaped or oval shape, gray or whitish below, dark green top. The bark can be brown, gray or coarse, and in some cases there are even and smooth trees with creamy pink bark that exfoliates like paper. Widely distributed in America, a thermophilic look.
Birch leaves are:
- essential oil,
- vitamin C,
- vitamin C,
- a nicotinic acid,
- betulo retinic acid
- triterpene alcohols,
- betulbine resin,
Birch buds contain: ascorbic acid, essential oil and saponins, as well as bitterness, volatile production, grape sugar, tar, tannins.
Birch bark contains betulol (triterpene alcohol), which protects the tree from fungi and due to which the plant has a white color, saponins, glucosides (Gaulterin and beta-loside), acids (lilac, protocatechin, oxybenzoic, vanillin), bitter substance, leucoanthocyanins, catechols , a small amount of essential oil, resinous and tannins.
The tar, which is obtained from birch bark by dry distillation, contains cresols, phenol, guaiacol, dioxybenzenes.
In the composition of birch sap are sugars - glucose and fructose, protein, malic acid, aromatic and tannins, vitamins of groups B and C. In addition, birch sap is rich mineral trace elements and substances such as:
Healing properties of birch
Broths and infusions of birch buds produce a diaphoretic, choleretic, analgesic, blood-purifying, wound-healing and anti-inflammatory effects.
Alcoholic infusion of birch buds is taken at hiccups, pains in the intestines and stomach, as well as colds. In addition, the kidney tincture is used as compresses and rubbing for gout, rheumatism, lumbago, pain in the joints, abrasions, bedsores, non-healing wounds and cuts.
Birch bark is used during the treatment of ulcers and wounds, as well as diathesis. It prevents suppuration of the affected area of the skin. Broth bark used in uterine bleeding and malaria. Broth thin film, which grows from the bark, helps during coughing. A film is also applied to expel the pus to the boils. Birch root is used as an antifebrile and antirheumatic drug. In folk medicine, birch root ash is also used for hiccups, heartburn, ulcers and indigestion of the duodenum or stomach.
Tar, which is obtained from birch bark, has antimicrobial, bactericidal, locally irritating and insecticidal properties. It is contained in the ointments of Konkov, Vilkinson and Vishnevsky, which are used to treat pediculosis, wounds and skin diseases.
In the old days, tar from birch was used during the treatment of patients with scabies and leprosy.
A mixture of alcohol, castor oil and birch tar is used for severe skin itching, as well as during treatment of oily seborrhea of the skin. Birch tar in the form of liniment or 15-35% ointment is used to treat skin diseases. It is also used for purulent wounds and burns.
For the treatment of skin lesions with parasitic fungi, tar ointment and black tar soap are used. Tar is also used as a tool that helps restore hearing. For what in a cup of warm milk you need to add 1 tsp. birch clean tar and mix well. Use this tool three times a day in the intervals between meals for 50 days.
During the prolonged use of birch ointments and tar based on it, irritation of the skin may appear, and during eczema, an exacerbation of the disease may begin to develop.
Broths of birch leaves and buds facilitate menstruation, increase secretion glands, with roundworms produce anthelmintic effect, accelerate the onset of menstruation. Birch leaves and buds have a positive effect on the body's metabolism and contribute to the removal of harmful substances and toxins from it.
Infusions and extracts of birch leaves are used during various liver diseases, they improve the general condition of the patient, have anti-emetic and analgesic effect, increase bile secretion, reduce the size of the liver.
Fresh and dry steamed leavesя применяются в роли компрессов при потливости ног и ожогах, а также при ревматических заболеваниях.
Birch is a tree spread all over the world, it takes root well in a new place and is not whimsical for transplanting, however, its use in the industry is not very well developed. The only exceptions are certain varieties with great hardness.
Dahurian birch has exceptional demands on the soil, therefore the presence of this tree on the site is an indicator of the exceptional quality of the soil. Prefers for its growth loamy soil and sandy loam. The height of this plant varies from 6 to 18 m, and the trunk girth can reach up to 60 cm. The range of natural growth is quite wide and includes the southern part of Siberia, Mongolia, the Far East of Russia, some regions of China, Japan and Korea.
The trunk of the tree is straight, the specimens growing in the southern parts of the world have branches that rise at an acute angle. Trees that grow in northern latitudes have a more spreading crown.
Yellow birch has some peculiarities, the main of which is that two different species of this tree are called so at once, one of which is found in Asia, and the other mainly in North America. This section deals with the second. Plant height is about 18-24 m, trunk girth can reach up to 1 m. In the wild, it is found on the territory of North America, in the largest quantities in its southern parts.
This species is distinguished by high shade tolerance; it prefers river banks and wetlands for its growth. It has a brilliant bark of golden or yellowish-gray color, which lends itself very well to flaking, densely covered with longitudinal cracks of white color.
The root is quite superficial, widely branched. Young shoots are gray in color, on reaching the age of one year old they form white lentils on their surface.
This type of tree has a rather small leaf size, only 1.5-3 cm long, rhombic-ovoid or obovate. In addition, it is quite small in size compared with other members of its family, only 4-5 m. The trunk circumference rarely exceeds 35-40 cm. The habitat of the species is limited to Western Siberia and the northern part of Mongolia.
The bark is yellow-gray in color, sometimes with a pinkish sheen, speckled with a large number of longitudinal stripes of black or brown color. Young branches abundantly littered with resinous wart-like growths and heavily pubescent, brown-gray tint.
Downy birch was previously also called white, but since this name is often applied to hung birch, it is now proposed to move away from this name in order to avoid confusion. The height is about 30 m, and the diameter of the trunk reaches 80 cm.
This tree can be found throughout the western part of Russia, Eastern and Western Siberia, the Caucasus Mountains and almost the entire territory of Europe. The bark of the young representatives of the plant has a brown-brown color, which changes to white after eight years of age. Often young individuals are confused with different types of alder.
In adult trees, the bark has a white tint almost to the very base of the trunk; it has no cracks and irregularities, with the exception of small segments near the ground. Young shoots are densely covered with downy, smooth.
The branches are not prone to wilting. Crohn at a young age rather narrow, but with age becomes sprawling.
Ribbed (Far Eastern)
This species of birch is sometimes also mistakenly called yellow. This tree is found in mountain forests, where its number can reach up to 60% of the total number of plants. It can reach a height of 30 m with a girth of the trunk, reaching up to 1 m. The natural habitat for it is the Korean Peninsula, China and the Far East of Russia.
The bark has a light yellow, yellow-gray or yellow-brown shade, shiny, can be smooth or slightly flaky. On very old specimens you can see areas of strong detachment. Young shoots have a short down.
Branches are brown, often bare, and occasionally contain resin glands on their surface of small size.
This species of birch is named after the Russian botanist Fyodor Schmidt, who first discovered these trees. Iron birch has characteristic features, one of which is that this plant is a long-liver, capable of surviving up to the age of 300-350 years.
The height of the trees reaches about 35 m with a trunk diameter of 80 cm. In the wild, they can be found in Japan, China and in the south of Primorsky Krai Russia.
The bark of the tree has a tendency to flaking and flaking, color - beige or grayish-cream. Young trees are brown in color. The bark of young branches is dark cherry color, which eventually turns into purple-brown. Sometimes branches contain a small amount of resinous glands.
It grows throughout Europe, even in the British Isles and Spain. Typically observed in the Scandinavian countries, in northern Europe and in eastern Asia. Birch - the only species of deciduous trees that can grow in Lapland. Some species are found in North America and the Far East.
Birch - the most common tree species in Russia, we can say that it grows almost throughout the territory of Russia. And for this, this tree is considered a symbol of this country.
Botanical description of birch
Downy birch - deciduous monoecious tree up to 20 m in height, some specimens reach 27 meters. The average age of a birch is 60-120 years. A tree with a slender crown and trunk up to 70 cm (in exceptional cases up to 1 m) in diameter, with a smooth but dull gray-white bark, marked by thin, dark horizontal lentils.
A white colouration of the stem is given by a resinous substance - betulin, which is located in the cell cavity of the cork tissue. Shoots pubescent gray-brown. The outer part of the bark, easily exfoliated by long stripes, is called bark. Birch leaves are pointed ovate, with a heart-shaped base 2-5 cm long and 1.5-4.5 cm wide. They are attached to pubescent petioles 1-2.5 cm long. The edges of the leaf blade with a finely sawed, double-toothed edge. Nonsensical monoecious flowers, collected in hanging inflorescences earrings on a short petiole. Flowers are wind-pollinated, and therefore, both male and female earrings appear in early spring before the leaves bloom.
Hanging fruit, cylindrical from 1 to 4 cm long and from 5 to 7 mm in width. Due to the large number of seed scales, the fruit resembles an oval or oblong cylindrical cone, which disintegrates in autumn when fully ripe, releasing individual seeds-nuts. These seeds are 2 mm in length with two small wings along two sides.
It is a sapwood breed. The core and sapwood are disseminated vascular, white in color, with a slight yellowish or reddish tinge, not differing from each other in hue throughout the cross section. Annual layers are poorly noticeable on all cuts. The vessels are small, invisible in cross section and uniformly dispersed. Early wood is usually lighter. The fibers crossed along the longitudinal cuts create a thin streak characteristic of birch. The texture is uniform, fine-grained with an attractive satin sheen.
Technical characteristics of wood
Soft (Brinell coefficient - 3.0-3.2). Moderately viscous and moderately heavy (density 610-670 kg / m3). Easy to tint. Unstable to rotting, requires additional processing. Dries without defects, but dries significantly in volume. Easy to machinable.
Application of birch
The main application is the production of veneer and plywood. Also the manufacture of furniture, parquet, matches, barrels. It is widely used in folk art (weaving of birch bark, wood carving). It is also used in the medical industry: everyone knows birch tar, which is the basis of Vishnevsky ointment. Birch sap is popular in the food industry.
Mythology and symbolism
Back in Celtic mythology, birch symbolized renewal and purification. Bunches of birch twigs are now used to exorcise spirits. This is the use of birch brooms in the baths or brooms for cleaning the house. Birch is also used as a symbol of love and fertility. In Scottish folklore, a barren cow was grazed with a birch stick so that she would give offspring.
The birch root system is developed and very powerful. It is pivotal and superficial. A seedling usually has a taproot, but it quickly stops growing and dies off. Then, lateral root shoots begin to develop, giving many branches. They are located obliquely at an angle of 30-40º and go into the ground shallowly. This position of adventitious roots allows the birch to have increased stability and strength. Very much in the structure of the roots depends on where the plant grows.
The first few years of its life, birch grows very slowly. But when the main root dies and the peripheral part grows, the tree begins to grow much faster. The roots that are fairly close to the surface take all the moisture and nutrients from the ground. Where birch grows, other plants are extremely difficult to survive.
An adult tree usually has a bark of white, whitish-yellow, brown-reddish, sometimes brown, grayish and even almost black in color, based on the variety. The white color is due to the presence in the cells of the tissue of the bark of beguulin - a white coloring resinous substance. The outer layer is called birch bark and is usually easily removed by layers or tapes. In fairly old birch trees, the lower sections of the trunk become dark gray in color and are riddled with deep cracks. In the circumference of the trunk is up to 1.5 m.
The leaves of the tree are smooth, with small notches on the edges, rounded or triangular in shape with an elongated sharp tip, sit alternately on a short petiole. On the leaf blade, feathery veins are clearly visible, which end in teeth. Young fresh leaves are covered with adhesive resin and have a soft green color. In autumn, before falling off, the foliage turns yellow.
Birches belong to dicotyledonous, dioecious and pollinated by wind plants. Male earrings appear in summer, bloom in spring and then immediately fall off. Women, on the other hand, are blooming along with leaves, and after pollination, the fruits, which are a small, flattened nutlet, equipped with "wings", ripen in them. Thanks to these membranes, birch fruits are able to be carried away by the wind at a distance of over 100 m.
The classification of birch trees is quite complicated, botanists cannot agree on this. Their description is complicated due to polymorphism. Usually there are 4 groups:
Albae - this includes trees with bark of white, yellowish, pinkish and other light shades.
Costata - trees with dense wood having different shades (cherry, white, black, yellow). The barrel is ribbed, and the leaves are interesting voluminous streaks.
Acuminatae - large-sized trees with large leaves growing in a subtropical climate.
Nanae - dwarf trees with small leaves.
Birch Herman (stone)
A birch is a tree in which there is a clear change of leaf cover, and it belongs to the Birch genus. Botanists found that this plant has about a hundred species, most of which stretched to 30−35, and sometimes 45 meters. In the midst of such a variety there are bushes that are found as very large and altogether tiny, expelled. Life expectancy on average 200-250 years. To soil the tree is undemanding. Sandy, clayey or barren lands are suitable for it. Loves water and mostly grows near seas, rivers and marshes.
The roots of ordinary birch are quite formed and strong. They are central and superficial. The sprout has a tap root, but it eventually stops growing and dries out. After this, the lateral root processes develop, giving a lot of shoots. They grow obliquely, at an angle of 30−40 degrees, at a small depth. Such a position of auxiliary sprouts allows the tree to have sufficient stability and durability.
Young birch grows rather slowly, but when the main root falls off and its distant parts expand, the tree begins to grow much faster, extracts all the water and useful substances from the soil. An adult tree has a white bark, brown-red, sometimes brownish, gray and even almost black, depending on the species. The snow color is predetermined by the fact that a gobulin is present in the cells of the bark tissue - a white, coloring resinous substance.
The leaves of the birch are whole, rhombic or triangular in shape, with a wide wedge-shaped base, along the edges they have notches, smooth, turn yellow before falling. Young leaves sticky. The outer layer of the bark is called "bark" and is easily torn off with tape.
A memorable image of a tree
The appearance of a birch tree is familiar to everyone, a large number of songs, poems, and legends have been written about it, many wonderful pictures have been painted. This is the most famous tree, a symbol and pride of the Russian people. Very often, the description of a birch leaf becomes the main theme of many literary works.
Birch is always beautiful. Each season of the year makes it amazing and unusual. Everyone knows how beautiful she is with green earrings, soft pigtails, silvery dew, white bark. Very often there is a brief description of birch in school literature.
Numerous tales, poems, riddles that are passed on from generation to generation, can show all the beauty and inimitability of a slender tree. Probably, therefore, the description of birch for children, including in artistic mastery, is very important for their spiritual development and upbringing of patriotic feelings, disclosure of humanity, as well as the formation of love for all living things.
Features of growing
If you want to plant a birch tree near your home, you need to remember that large sprouts with an open rhizome, even planted at the right time, do not always take root - some of them die, or their crown dries. Therefore, it is better to purchase seedlings with an earthball or in a container. Main rules for tree care:
- Top dressing - in early spring and with the onset of summer it is necessary to feed with fertilizers that have nitrogen in their content.
- Watering is required during planting and for the next 3-4 days. In dry weather, especially in summer, it is necessary to water well - 1 bucket / 1 square. m. crown projection.
- Loosening is permitted to a depth of 3 centimeters for the destruction of weeds.
- Trimming and cutting - for the recovery and the formation of the crown are carried out in early spring, before the onset of sap flow.
- Diseases and pests - for preventive purposes, it is necessary to spray trees with pesticides and herbicides every year.
The genus Birch is numerous and is found throughout the world. The habitat extends from hot subtropics to regions with very cold air. In central Russia and in areas with moderate weather conditions, these trees create light groves, possessing quite a large variety of species:
- Hanging is the most common type, which can grow up to 25-30 meters and has a trunk with a diameter of 75-80 cm. Young sprouts have dark-colored bark, which usually turns white after 10 years. The lower part of the trunk of an old tree becomes black and deep cracks appear on it. The branches are covered with a variety of resin formations that resemble a wart, because in common people this birch was called warty. Young branches specifically hang down, which is why it is often called hung. The variety is resistant to severe frosts, remarkably tolerates dry weather, but needs sun very much.
- Karelian - in height reaches 5−8 m, but in form often happens as a small bush. The barrel is covered with multiple flaws (bumps or bumps), stands out with interesting patterns resembling marble veins. Wood of this type of birch is valued in the elite furniture industry, and cabinetmakers produce expensive products from it.
- Fluffy - grows up to 15-25 m with a trunk circumference of 80 cm. Young saplings that can be confused with alder have dark brown bark, but as the tree grows older it becomes light in color. The top of a young birch is thin, small, but over time it becomes wide and lush, with the branches turned upwards. The variety is frost-resistant, shade-tolerant, can easily do without the sun. Loves a well-moistened soil, feels great on wetlands.
- Yellow - has a bark with a tint, orange, amber or brown, smooth or slightly flaky, exfoliating into thin leaves. It can be described as the most shade-tolerant view.
- Daurian - also called black Far East, was bred in East Asia, with dark birch bark and strong wood. Dark brown bark is separated by small scales, a “fur coat” is formed around the trunk.
- Hermann - the most long-lived, some trees for 400 years. При довольно маленьком росте 12−15 м обладает диаметром, как правило, кривого ствола до 90 см. Кора бурая или серая, со временем покрывается большими бороздками. Молодые деревца имеют прямостоящие ветки с бородавками и пушком, образующие восхитительную, просвечивающуюся крону. Вид устойчив к холоду, неприхотлив, хорошо растёт берёза, где тень и каменистый грунт.Poor tolerates excess moisture in the marshes replaced fluffy birch.
- Black - a kind that loves heat very much, stretches up to 30 m, the diameter of the trunk exceeds 1 meter. The lace crown of a wild-growing tree is created by oval or egg-shaped leaves, having a green color on top and a white or gray bottom. The bark of the tree is rough, gray or brown, but you can find a smooth and even birch with cream birch bark. Loves a warm climate.
- Dwarf - grows in the tundra, on the hills, but sometimes can be found on the plains. It resembles a bush with abundant branching, a small tree, the trunk of which is surrounded by warty branches. The bark of a brown shade, young shoots covered with fluff. It prefers slightly acidic land, tolerates heavy, over-wetted soil.
- Cherry is a tree that grows to 20–25 m, with a trunk diameter of up to 60 cm. The crown of young stock has a pyramidal shape, rounded with age, becomes transparent, with hanging branches. This birch is distinguished by hilly, dark brown, almost cherry bark, covered with strong cracks. On young trees peel has a sweet, fragrant aroma. It grows quickly, chooses well-drained, light and wet lands, is considered a long-lived. Poorly withstands cold and often freezes in frosty winters. Demanding of growing conditions, never becoming the dominant tree.
Wood is used to produce high-quality plywood., ski, small carved crafts, guns for rifles. The most preferable is Karelian birch, which is distinguished by a rather complicated wood pattern.
The galls, which are occasionally formed on roots, large branches or trunks of a tree, have an interesting and complicated pattern in the section. They have long been used for the production of delightful products: caskets, boxes, cigar boxes, exquisite furniture items.