Peach is a delicious fruit, but first you need to work a lot to get a good harvest. Diseases of the peach and its pests keep the gardener in suspense throughout the growing season. Peaches grown far from their home countries with a warm climate are subject to many diseases. Let's talk about the most common ailments of the tree and the measures of protection.
What diseases affect peach
All fruit crops are affected by one complex of diseases, but each species is predisposed to some of them. And as well as plum moniliozy, peach is affected by curl, more often than other diseases.
Other expected peach diseases:
- fruit rot,
- powdery mildew,
The complex of year-round protective measures is aimed at preventing diseases, destroying pests and increasing the yield of a tree. If you maintain the agronomic calendar, you can prevent the outbreak of the disease even in adverse summer. Look at the photo: peach diseases and their treatment, requires strong preparations and protective clothing for the worker.
Klyasterosporiosis or perforation of the leaves refers to fungal diseases. At the moment of development, punctures appear on the leaves, as if purple spots appear, then the tissue in the circle disappears and a perforated sheet is obtained. At the same time, disputes spread to the entire terrestrial part of the plant. Sometimes an overdose of copper-containing fungicides gives the same signs on the leaves. If it is a peach fungus disease, it will progress rapidly.
When the disease manifested itself, it cannot be defeated by folk remedies. It is necessary to apply fungicides, such as Skor, Kristalon or Delan, in a double dose, according to the instructions.
Mealy dew can spoil the development of the peach on the coast of the Black and Azov Sea. For the middle band, this disease is characteristic of melon and berry crops. At first, the leaves of the tree stand like powder sprinkled with flour. Later the leaf is deformed, shoots become thinner. The taste of the fruit is changing. Powdery mildew is tackled with the help of Topaz, a fresh mullein talker, and tenderloin of infected shoots. Colloidal sulfur is effective against powdery mildew.
Compliance with the technology of cultivation, prevention of peach disease and the fight against them, as in the photo, will keep the garden healthy.
Leaf curl disease is the most dangerous
Overwhelming spores of the fungus germinate into shoots and leaves in early spring, overwintering on the plant residues of last year. The causative agent of leaf curl disease is embedded in the leaf. The first sign is the formation of red bubbles on the leaf plate. But if the leaves have already hung on the tree for 2 weeks, the disease is powerless.
The fungus is embedded in the plate 5-8 days old. The leaves are destroyed, and together with mature disputes fall to the ground. Damaged young branches of fresh or annual growth and their wood. The buds of this year are deformed, and there will be no harvest next season.
How to treat peach disease leaf curl? Immediately! As soon as they saw the first signs - the young leaves, still green, began to swell, immediately it is necessary to apply copper-containing fungicides in the recommended dose. It is necessary to immediately begin the sanitary pruning, scrapping, pinching sheets, until the disease has captured the entire crown.
Experts and practitioners claim that among the peach varieties, some are more resistant to leaf curl:
- In memory of Rodionov,
- Simferopol Early.
How can you fight the curl of peach leaves with folk remedies? In the eradication of the disease the main thing is speed. Effective drugs are not many. If the disease was detected at the beginning, you need to manually remove the leaves, cut off the branches on which they were attached, and be sure to burn.
Dust the tree with a mixture of sulfur powder and fluff lime, spray 1% colloidal sulfur, but only on a hot day so that the temperature is above 25 degrees. You can use the drug Biostat. For the second treatment, prepare a 3-day infusion of tobacco dust. It can be sprayed with a mixture of hydrated lime and clay suspension, applying it on the leaves after each washing with rain or shedding. Practitioners warn if fresh galls appear, you need to switch to fungicides.
Preventive methods to combat peach curliness begin in the fall. During this period it is necessary to clean the garden from the winter tenants. As soon as the air temperature has dropped to 10-5 degrees, it is time for prevention:
- Inspection and sanitary treatment of the trunk, broken branches.
- Pristvolny circle free from all residues, burn the leaves and branches, the soil to puff or lay fresh manure over the entire area, not digging, let it be the crust. This is a top dressing for 3 years.
- In the spring to make the treatment of the buds copper fungicide, and then pruning. After to process Topsinom M, but before the appearance of the leaves.
On young leaves, spraying Champion. In the future, if swelling appears, 10% of the mullein infusion will cope with them. The started garden will be free from diseases within 2-3 years.
This is the answer to the question of how to process a peach from leaf curl. The scheme is used in private gardens in Ukraine. Systemic treatments can get rid of the main fungal diseases, even in warm rainy years.
The basic principles of disease control are the ability to grow a healthy strong tree. Then it will resist diseases and pests itself. For this you need to find a bright slope, with a barrier from the northern faith. Peach does not tolerate any shading. He loves fertile soil, regular watering and deep standing of groundwater. If there is a warm-up in winter, the tree will wake up. The roots will withstand the winter cold of +25 degrees for 3-4 days, and 35-38 degrees for several hours. Whitewashing trunks and manure in the bore circle will help reduce the risk of frostbite.
Types of diseases and their causes
All peach diseases faced by gardeners are divided into groups:
- defeat leaves
- trunk disease,
- fruit diseases.
Moreover, the disease can affect all parts of the tree, but is more pronounced on one of its parts.
Considering the diseases of the deciduous part of the peach, we can distinguish the following of them:
- Klesterosporiosis. This is the most common and unpleasant disease in which the entire tree is affected. But most clearly it appears on the leaves. Klyasterosporiozy fungus breaks the leaves brown patina.
After a while, the lesions completely fall out and therefore the disease is sometimes called perforated spot. Further, the causative agent of the disease penetrates deep into the stem and forms a mycelium there. Spores of the fungus infect the cells of the plant, which leads to its death. The disease is very stable, it withstands low temperatures and begins to progress rapidly with the arrival of spring.
In addition, peach klyasterosporiosis is very difficult to detect at the initial stage, as it hides in the buds of flowers and branches. It is necessary to periodically examine the plantings in order to detect disturbing symptoms in time. In addition, in early spring, pruning is necessary to prevent and treat the disease. In this case, sections are processed by copper sulfate or lime. The treatment is carried out three times with special preparations, such as Hom.
- Leaf curl. This disease especially occurs with high humidity and soil. If purple stripes appear on young leaves, wood should be processed. Indeed, in the future, a gray film is formed on the reverse side, the leaves begin to curl and fall off.
Such a tree will not bear fruit, or they will be badly damaged. That is why shoots with such damages should be immediately removed. For prophylaxis in the fall, special treatment with Hom or Scor is carried out.
- Mealy dew. This is one of the most dangerous diseases in which not only shoots and leaves are affected, but also fruits. The characteristic symptoms of this peach disease are light white bloom. In the future, it grows brown and turns into brown spots. The affected shoots cease to grow and die off after some time. Light quarrels move easily through the air, and therefore the disease can affect large areas.
To prevent the spread of the disease, you need to remove parts of the plant with a characteristic patina, not even sparing the fruit. Can be used for treatment drugs like Topaz. But they can be used only after the tree has faded.
Such illnesses include:
- Cytosporosis. At the same time, the bast layer of the tree under the bark is affected. It is possible to detect the disease by brown spots appearing on the bark and withering of the shoots. Fungi spread to the branches and trunk. If time does not begin treatment, then the tree is likely to die.
- Cut branches must be burned so that the infection does not spread throughout the site. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to carry out all agrotechnical measures in time, to feed and prune trees. In addition, treatment Bordeaux liquid is welcomed. It is necessary to spray the plants in early spring and late autumn.
Among these infections are the following:
- Monilioz. This fruit rot appears during flowering. Fungal spores penetrate into flowers and further damage the fruit. Another disease called monilial burn, because - all these are the names of a single disease caused by the same fungus, the leaves and fruits seem to be burned. Manifested a disease of brown spots and deformation of the fruit. Spores of the fungus are volatile and therefore all fruit trees on the site can be affected. Prevention is periodic thinning of the crown and the destruction of the affected shoots. In addition, it is necessary to carry out treatment with special preparations in early spring.
Major pests and their destruction
In addition to diseases, pests can destroy peach trees, among them the most dangerous are:
- Louse. This is the most famous and unpleasant pest. Aphids attach to the young shoots of the plant and begin to pull the juices out of them. If it is a little it can be easily destroyed these pests, even without resorting to chemical treatment. But when the number of insects will increase, then you can not do without pesticides. Aphids are immediately noticeable and therefore no extra effort is needed to identify them.
- Weevil. Insects damage the buds that appear and the fruit on such a tree can not wait. In addition, they lay their eggs in the fruit, and in some cases become carriers pathogenic fungal spores. For the destruction will need early chemical treatment of wood and autumn whitewashing trunks with lime.
- Ticks. These harmful insects are also able to suck all the sap from the plants. They are very tenacious, as in the cold they go to the lower tier of the tree and get hammered under its bark. Their activity weakens the plants and prevents them from developing normally. As a result, yield is reduced, andPersia can even die. For prevention, you need to prune and whitewash peach, as well as install trapping belts and clean the space under the tree from falling fruits and leaves. In addition, plants are treated with special preparations.
- Fruit Mole. Most of all the trouble gardeners delivers not the insect itself, and its caterpillars. They completely destroy the young shoots in the spring and do not allow the tree to develop normally. Each caterpillar can completely eat up to six shoots, and a colony of these voracious creatures will not leave the tree a chance to survive. Growing up, caterpillars pass into dry foliage or soil under a tree. The shoots damaged by moths are removed and destroyed along with the root foliage. It is also good to carry out soil loosening in the radical circle several times per season.
- Eastern Codling Moth. The caterpillars of this harmful insect eat not only the foliage, but also the ovaries and even young shoots of trees. In some cases, these gluttons destroy the bones of young fruits that are not covered with hard skin. Like aphids, these insects can carry fungal spores.in provoking peach diseaseso you need to quickly get rid of such caterpillars. Fighting with them is conducted in the same way as with such a pest as aphid. Trees need to be treated with special tools.
General preventive measures
To prevent the occurrence of diseases and the spread of pests need to carry out all preventive measures prescribed for agricultural technology. So, the number of spraying trees should be held at least four times.
They are carried out according to the following schedule:
- the first treatment should be carried out in early spring with fungicides,
- then after the trees ottsvetut need to pour their Bordeaux liquid,
- during fruit set, a third treatment is carried out,
- the last time spraying is done after picking the fruit.
If you stick to the schedule, you can prevent the disease of peach trees and get a great harvest of tasty fruits. To destroy pests, in addition to chemicals, you need to clean the basal soil from the windfall and fallen leaves, burn the cut branches and loosen the soil around the tree. This is the only way to preserve the health of peach trees and have fragrant fruit on your table.
The most dangerous and widespread peach disease. Its causative agent is the Taphrina deformans marsupial mushroom, whose spores in the spring fall inside the buds, into the cracks of the shoots. As a result, gum begins to ooze out of them, and on young leaves, blooms form in the form of light green bubbles. Then their color changes to amber-red and then to brown, after which wax bubbles appear on the bubbles, where fungal spores accumulate.
Ascomycetes (from the Greek. Ἀσκός 'bag'), or knobby mushrooms (lat. Ascomycota) is a department in the kingdom of mushrooms that combines organisms with septic (divided into parts) mycelium and specific organs of sexual sporulation - bags (ascoms) containing most often 8 ascospores.
Affected leaves turn black, dry up, become brittle and fall off. Diseases of one and two years are mostly susceptible to disease. They acquire a yellow color, thicken, bend and as a result dry out. Buds die off without forming fruit. If urgent measures are not taken, then by May the tree will become bare, it will weaken greatly and in winter it will most likely die.
Curliness affects young peach leaves mainly on one- and two-year-old shoots.
If signs of leaf curl are found in the spring, act immediately. First of all, cut the affected shoots and burn them. Then you need to treat the plant with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. The Abiga-Peak drug, which is a 40% solution of copper oxychloride, helps to cope with the disease. For spraying dissolve 40-50 g of the drug in 10 liters of water. The treatment is repeated four times with an interval of two weeks.
In order to prevent the disease in the fall, it is necessary to collect and burn fallen leaves, as well as cut dry, diseased and damaged branches (sanitary pruning). After that, the wood is treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. The same treatment is carried out one more time in early spring before the awakening of the kidneys. Before flowering, the plant should be treated with fungicides such as Chorus, Strobe, Sw. After flowering, the treatment is repeated twice with an interval of 7-10 days. In the future, you can process Phytosporin with an interval of 2-3 weeks during the entire growing season. This biofungicide is absolutely safe for humans and bees, and also has nutritional properties, having in the composition of humic bioactive fertilizer.
Video: drug Fast against peach leaf curl
Peach, like most stone fruit crops, is prone to moniliosis. Infection with them usually occurs in spring during flowering. Spores of the fungus bring the bees on their paws while collecting nectar. Germinating, the fungus penetrates through the pestle into the shoots and leaves of the tree. The affected parts of the plant wither, wilt and look as if scorched by fire. Due to this phenomenon, the disease has a second name - monilial burn.
Plant parts affected by moniliosis fade, droop and look as if scorched by fire
Having found signs of moniliosis, it is necessary to cut the affected shoots with a portion of healthy wood and burn them. After that, the plant is treated with fungicides. In addition to the already known from the previous section, you can apply Kaptan, Kuproksat, Topsin-M, Zineb.
In the summer, moniliosis is manifested in the form of fruit rot, which affects the fruits of peach. Such fruits must be removed from the tree in time and destroyed so that they do not infect the neighboring fruits. For processing at this time you can use biological fungicides that are harmless to humans. These are drugs like
In the summer, moniliosis is manifested in the form of fruit rot, which affects the fruits of peach.
This fungal disease is widespread in stone fruit in all growing regions. Оптимальная среднесуточная температура для развития грибка составляет +20 °C. Поэтому наибольшая активность его наблюдается дважды за сезон — весной и осенью.Primary infection usually occurs in early spring at a steady average daily air temperature of + 4-5 ° C. At this time, the mycelium, wintering in fallen leaves and on the surface of the bark of trees, begins to germinate and produce spores. When the optimum temperature and humidity are reached, spores germinate in less than a day (19-20 hours), and after 5-6 days the first visible signs of the disease appear. They look like small spots of red-brown or crimson on the surface of the leaves. In a few days, the spot sizes increase to 4-5 mm, their inner surface dries out and crumbles, forming holes bordered by a red stripe.
The first signs of nodules appear in the form of small red-brown or crimson spots on the leaf surface.
With strong development, the disease can also affect shoots, on which small reddish spots with black or brown borders also appear. With an increase in spots, they are pressed into the surface of the cortex and eventually crack. Often this leads to gumming in the affected areas. At defeat of fruits on them ulcers of brown or red-brown color are formed, which, growing, take the form of warts. Warts harden, the upper part of them disappears and gum begins to stand out from the holes that have formed.
With the defeat of fruit inflorescence on them, ulcers of red-brown or brown color are formed on them, which grow in the form of warts - the upper part of them disappears and gum begins to stand out from the formed dimples.
Treatment of the disease is in the treatment of fungicides, an approximate list of which was given above. In addition, it is necessary to remove and destroy the fallen leaves, the affected parts of the plant.
Powdery mildew is one of the marsupial fungi. Leaves, shoots and fruits of peach are affected by the disease, and this happens most often in young orchards and nurseries. In the first half of May, the first signs of the disease appear in the form of a white mealy plaque on the affected parts of the plant. By mid-July, the development of the disease reaches its peak. The leaves that form in the shape of a boat fall off, the green fruits become covered with a thick layer of plaque and no longer develop, and when they are defeated in a mature form, they shrink, crack, rot. The fungus overwinters with mycelium on the affected shoots, and in the spring there occurs a primary infection of the young leaves and shoots. As a result of the weakening of the disease, the winter hardiness of the peach is sharply reduced, and the yield is also reduced by 5-7%.
Powdery mildew leaves fold into a boat shape, then fall off.
The fight against powdery mildew is reduced to pruning and destruction of affected parts of the plant, as well as processing with a 0.8% solution of colloidal sulfur. The first treatment is carried out on the "green cone", that is, when the buds swell, the second - two weeks after the end of flowering. After this, two more treatments are carried out with a 0.6% solution of colloidal sulfur with an interval of 1.5-2 weeks. You can also use a 0.8% serocin solution and other fungicides.
Fungi of the genus Cytospora are the causative agent of cytosporosis, a disease of tree bark. Most often it is prone to stone fruit, especially peaches and apricots. As a rule, this disease appears in neglected gardens with poor care or lack of it. Healthy, well-groomed plants do not get sick with cytosporosis. Infection occurs during dormancy in early spring or late autumn through injuries or dead bark areas. And it can also occur as a result of damage to the bark by the cholera. Initially, the mycelium develops in the cortex, and then in the wood, which causes the death of living tissues. Gradually, the lesion area increases, underneath the dead bark, fungal sporulation forms in the form of black shiny tubercles with a diameter of 1.5-2 mm. The disease is usually accompanied by abundant blood flow.
First, the mycelium develops in the cortex, and then in the wood, which causes the death of living tissues
The treatment of cytosporosis is carried out by stripping wounds to live bark and wood, followed by treatment with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquor and coating with garden pitch. In case of significant damage, it may be necessary to remove entire branches, and if a tree trunk has been severely affected, then it cannot be saved. In order to prevent, it is necessary to periodically clean the bark of the tree from the dead parts, timely heal possible wounds, produce lime limestone trunks and skeletal branches.
Aphids on peach
Like many fruit plants, peach is often affected by aphids. These are well-known small insects, depending on the type of black, green, yellow, white, red or other color. They settle on the underside of leaves, on buds and on the tips of young shoots. And these insects get into the crown with the help of ants that carry them on their backs. This fact is explained by the fact that ants love to eat the sweet discharge of aphids, called honeydew. Damage from the pest is expressed in the drying of part of the leaves and shoots, which leads to a weakening of the tree and a decrease in yield.
Ants love to eat sweet aphids
Fighting is carried out with the help of various insecticides (the so-called preparations for the fight against harmful insects), as well as with the help of numerous folk remedies.
Among the popular insecticides are the following:
- copper sulphate (in early spring), etc.
Some folk remedies:
- Dandelion infusion: take 10 g of leaves or 200 g of plants for 10 liters of warm water and leave for 2 hours.
- Infusion of garlic: 300 g of minced garlic are taken on a bucket of water and left for 20 minutes.
- Broth of onion peel: 150 grams of peels are drawn in a bucket of water for five days, after which 50 grams of soap are added.
- Broth tops of tomatoes: two liters of water boil 200 g of dry tops for 30 minutes, then diluted in a bucket of water and add 50 g of soap.
All infusions and decoctions should be applied immediately after preparation, as they are not intended for long-term storage.
If the tree is young and has a small crown, then you can simply tear off the leaves with colonies of aphids and destroy them. It is also possible to flush the aphids with a stream of water from a hose under high pressure. And also need to deal with ants, which are mass suppliers of aphids. To do this, you need to whitewash the trunks and branches of the trees with lime mortar, and also install on the stumps hunting straps that prevent insects from crawling. Such belts can easily be made from scrap materials.
Fishing belt can be easily made from scrap materials
Weevils, also called flowering beetles, hibernate in the soil, fallen leaves, and bark cracks. In early spring, when the soil warms up to 10-12 ° C, the beetles crawl to the surface and climb to the crown. There they begin to feed at first with buds and buds, gnawing them and laying eggs. In the future, beetles also eat the leaves and young peach shoots. Eggs appear from the eggs, eating flowers and ovaries from the inside, thus causing irreparable damage.
Weevils feed on buds, buds, leaves and young peach shoots.
In the early morning, when the temperature does not exceed + 5–6 ° C, the beetles are sitting on the branches in a daze. At this time, they can simply be shaken onto a cloth or film that was previously spread under a tree. In order not to allow the beetles to climb the crown, it is good to install stupid belts on peach stakes and also whiten them with a solution of hydrated lime. In late autumn, it is worth deeply digging near-trunk circles, so that the pests raised to the top would die from frost.
For the destruction of tsvetoedov chemically used various insecticides. In late autumn and early spring, plants are treated at rest with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or DNOC. And the latter is allowed to use no more than once every three years. Before flowering and after flowering, they are treated with Decis, Spark, Fitoverm, etc.
Ticks are not insects, but are arthropods of the arachnid class. Therefore, conventional insecticides are powerless against them, and acaricides are used to control and prevent (this is a group of tick-borne preparations). These animals are very small and have a size from 0.25-0.35 mm to 1-2 mm, so it is difficult to find them with the naked eye. The defeat of the kidney mite can be detected by the changed form of the flower bud - it takes on a barrel-shaped form and increases in volume.
On the branch on the left are healthy buds, and on the second - affected by kidney mites
The spider mite initially forms small yellow dots on the leaves, then the leaves turn yellow and fall off. If you do not take action, then later on the plant appears a web - there are mite nests in it.
To combat the tick, peach is treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur before flowering and after completion. The dosage is the same as in the treatment of powdery mildew. During the growing season, acaricides Akarin and Fitoverm are good - their waiting time is only 2 days.
Fruit Striped Moth
This peach pest is common in the south of the European part of Russia. The butterfly has a brown-gray color and small size, is nocturnal. During the growing season of plants gives 3 generations.
The butterfly fruit moth has a brown-gray color and small size.
Brown caterpillars 8-10 mm long feed on young shoots, gnawing their cores from the top tips to the base. During their short life, each insect destroys 4-5 shoots, which leads to a significant weakening of the tree. In summer, in addition to shoots, the caterpillars also damage the fruit, drastically reducing the volume of the crop.
Fruit moth caterpillars are chocolate brown in color and have a black head.
For the purpose of the fight used various insecticides. In March, when the caterpillars begin to crawl out of shelters, you can use potent drugs - DNOC, Nitrafen. In the period of the first flight of butterflies, Decis, Spark, Karbofos are effective. In the future, you should use only biological preparations that are safe for humans. This is Fitoverm, Spark-Bio, Entobacterin.
This small butterfly (wingspan up to 15 mm) is called eastern, since it began its distribution from China, Japan and Korea. And thanks to a special predilection for peach fruits, it is also called peach moth. Currently distributed in almost all southern regions. Being a twilight butterfly, it is most active in the morning and evening hours. The first flight occurs at the time of peach blossom. After mating, the butterfly lays its eggs on the inner surface of the leaves, and the females of the next generations (up to six in a season) lay the eggs on the sepals and stalks.
The eastern butterfly moth has a wingspan of up to 15 mm.
Before the fruit ripens, caterpillars of a pinkish color and up to 13 mm long, crawling out of eggs, feed on young shoots, and then pass on to fruits. If you do not stop them, then you can lose up to 100% of the harvest of peaches. The insect is in the quarantine list and all imported fruits and saplings are checked by the state quarantine inspection. In case of detection of infection with the eastern coddle moth, imported products are subject to disinfection or are not allowed to be imported.
The larva of the eastern moth has a pinkish little body up to 13 mm long
Pest prevention measures are traditional - about them in the next section. The fight is carried out with the help of insecticides, the consumption of which per 10 liters of water is as follows:
- Benzophosphate - 60g.
- Malathion (10%) - 60 g
- Trichloro-metafos-3 (10%) - 60 g.
- Chlorophos - 20 g.
- Rovikurt (25%) - 10 g.
Begin treatment before flowering, and finish no later than 30 days before harvest. Depending on the degree of damage, up to three treatments are performed with an interval of 10-15 days. During the period of fruit ripening, it is possible to use only bioinsecticides safe for humans (Iskra-Bio, Fitoverm, etc.).
Measures for the prevention of peach diseases and pest damage
Timely and regular implementation of simple preventive measures almost guaranteed to protect the gardener from problems with diseases and pests. Most of these activities are the same for all plants in the garden and are held simultaneously. When describing diseases and pests, some of the measures have already been mentioned - for convenience, we summarize them in one table.
Diseases and pests of the peach tree
Peach is characterized by all the main diseases of the stone fruits - leaf curl, fruit rot (moniliosis), powdery mildew, cytosporosis and clostersporosis. In addition, it is sometimes attacked by pests - aphid, the eastern moth, fruit mite, fruit moth, weevil. The gardener needs to react on time and get rid of problems.
The peach tree is a good target for diseases and pests, so you should not sit back, even if the plot grows resistant to many evils variety
Peach does not bloom
The lack of flowering suggests that the necessary conditions are not created for the plant. Most often the problem is as follows:
- Shadowing. For a peach when planting you need to choose a well-lit place.
- Unsuitable soil. Peach grows best on loose, permeable soils (sandy, sandy, loamy). On heavy clay, stony or peat soils peach fruit will not.
- Frost-affected flower buds - they do not withstand temperatures below -28 ° C.
- Unbalanced nutrition. Excess nitrogen fertilizers with a lack of potash and phosphate - a common cause of lack of flowering.
- And also do not expect peach blossom, which is affected by diseases, especially leaf curl.
Peach blooms, but no ovaries form
If after the successful flowering of the ovary does not form, this suggests that the pollination of flowers did not take place. The peach is a self-fertile crop, but under adverse weather conditions — rain, strong wind — pollination may not occur. There is nothing you can do - you have to wait for the next, more successful season.
The peach flowers fall
The fall of flowers is observed in two cases.
- The first is sour soil. In this case, you can try to deoxidize it by making ground or lump lime in the fall under the digging. Norm - 500 grams per 1 m 2.
- The second is the damage to flowers by the weevil taters. More on this in the appropriate section below.
Gum is a sticky, thick, yellowish-brown liquid that often stands out from the wounds and cracks of the bark of the plant, as well as from the fruit. In common people, gum is often called simply glue. The disease associated with the release of this sticky liquid is called cicatrine or gommosis.
The thick, sticky, yellowish-brown liquid, which often stands out from the wounds and cracks of the bark of the plant, is called gum, and the process itself is called gumming.
This non-infectious disease is more common in stone fruit. There can be several reasons for it:
- Mechanical injuries of the bark and wood.
- Incorrect or untimely pruning. It should be remembered that pruning branches with a diameter of more than one centimeter should be carried out only in the resting state of the tree. And also we must not forget about the processing of all slices with garden pitch.
- Damage to the cortex as a result of frostbite.
- Excessive watering or stagnation of water in the root zone contribute to the formation of gum and its expiration.
- Fungal diseases (cytosporosis, black cancer) can also cause gum therapy.
Small areas of gum will not harm the plant, but if their area starts to increase - you need to take action. They are simple and consist in cleaning the affected areas with a sharp knife to a healthy bark or wood (depending on the degree of damage), disinfection with a 3% solution of copper sulfate and treatment with garden pitch. There is also a folk remedy - wounds are rubbed with fresh sorrel leaves. After drying, the procedure is repeated two more times, after which the wound is covered with garden pitch or putty.
Crack bark on peach branches
This unpleasant phenomenon can be caused by various reasons.
- Most often, cracking of the bark is caused by frostbite. On frosty sunny days, the temperature difference on the sunny and shady sides of the tree can reach significant values, which leads to the formation of vertical cracks. Since the peach is a heat-loving southern plant, when growing it in more severe conditions it is necessary to provide it with insulation for winter time. Cracks in the bark of fruit trees from frost damage are usually located vertically
- Thermal sunburns usually occur in early spring when, due to the strong heat of the sun, the tissue structure that is not adaptable to heat after the winter frosts of the trunk causes a breakdown in the tissue structure, causing severe cracking and sometimes even dying off of whole areas of the cortex. To prevent this phenomenon is lime whitewashing trunks and branches of a tree.
- Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers in the autumn time causes the active growth of the tree, which often crack the bark.
- The defeat of some fungal diseases - klyasterosporiosis, black cancer, cytosporosis.
Чем бы ни были вызваны трещины коры — их обязательно следует лечить. Способ лечения описан в предыдущем разделе.
Сохнут листики у ростка персика
Выращивание саженца персика из косточки — распространённый способ размножения. If at the same time the gardener was faced with the fact that the leaves on the sprout began to dry out, then surely the problem is caused by a violation of the rules of cultivationI. Possible reasons:
- Lack of moisture.
- Excess moisture, stagnant water in the tank with the soil.
- Heavy soil.
- The room is too hot and dry. The optimum temperature is 20-25 ° C, humidity 70-80%.
- Damage to the roots of pests or fungus.
It is clear that for the prevention and elimination of the problem it is necessary to strictly observe the rules of cultivation, to ensure a balanced diet and watering.
Peach leaves blush and curl
This is an alarming symptom of a dangerous peach fungal disease - leaf curl. It manifests itself usually in the spring after flowering on young shoots. In this case, first on the leaves are formed red tubercles, in the future they curl. In the next step, the leaves turn black and dry, then fall off. If not to take measures, then by the middle of May - June most of the leaves will be twisted, the fruits either do not become tied or become shriveled, ugly. The disease progresses rapidly and the tree can die without urgent intervention.
With the defeat of curl leaves first formed on them tubercles red, then they curl
In order to fight, the affected parts of the plant should be cut and destroyed, and the plant itself should be treated with fungicides - Horus, Strobe, Abiga-Peak, Skor, etc.
Peach froze after winter - how to help
Peach more than other crops suffer from frost. If in the winter the frosts were strong and in the spring it turned out that the peach was freezing, then first of all it was necessary to determine the extent of the lesion. This can be done only with the beginning of the growing season. In any case, the only way to help the tree is to make a competent pruning. If it turned out that only fruit buds are damaged, and the wood has not suffered, then cut those branches that do not have flowers. Crop do up to 2-3-year-old wood. After falling off the ovary, you need to remove all branches without fruits.
If all the fruit buds are affected, then this is a reason for carrying out a strong rejuvenating pruning with cutting out all vertical shoots and transferring them to lateral branching (on 4–5-year-old wood). And also make a strong thinning of the upper and inner parts of the crown. Do the same pruning and with a strong frostbite shoots.
With severe damage to skeletal branches and their bases pruning should be carried out in June after waking up sleeping buds and sprouting from them. If the buds wake up weakly in all branches, the pruning is tolerated until next spring. When frostbite of young trees to the level of snow cover pruning is carried out with the capture of 10-20 mm healthy wood trunk. Then, from the shoots formed above the grafting site, a new aboveground part is formed, and it is better to do this in bush form.
It is clear that such stress greatly weakens the plant and reduces its immunity, increases the risk of fungal diseases, especially curly. Therefore, during this period, preventive treatments with fungicides are mandatory.
Aphids are small hemiptera insects of no more than 2–3 mm in size (there are some rare species up to 5–8 mm in size). There are more than 3,500 species of aphids known to have the most diverse colors — black, red, white, green, yellow, peach, etc. Regardless of color and type, all aphids feed on plant sap and release sweetish sticky liquid (the so-called honeydew) in the process of vital activity. Control measures are also the same for all species. On a peach black aphid is more often observed, but other kinds of it are possible.
On the crown of an aphid tree, as a rule, ants are placed on their backs and planted on leaves and shoots. They do this in order to subsequently eat honey dew secreted by insects. You can detect aphids by twisted leaves, inside of which are its colonies on the back side. And it can also be located at the tips of young shoots.
Ants like to eat honeydew emitted by aphids
Any significant harm aphid can bring in the case when it is not struggling and allowed to multiply quietly. But usually this does not reach. There are many chemical and folk remedies for the destruction of harmful insects, as well as to prevent their attack. We list the main ones:
- Creating an obstacle to the crown of ants putting in it aphids, by installing on the straps of hunting belts and the implementation of lime whitewash. The catch belt is easy to make from scrap materials
- Flushing insects from leaves with a strong water jet from a hose.
- Processing crown infusions of tobacco, marigold, garlic, onion peel, etc.
- Complex treatment with insecticides (preparations for the control of harmful insects). In early spring it can be DNOC (not more than once every three years), 5% solution of blue vitriol, Nitrafen. In the spring and early summer, Decis, Karbofos, Iskra, etc. are used. In the last month before the ripening of fruits, preparations such as Iskra-Bio, Fitoverm, and other bio-insecticides are used.
The bug of small size (up to 5 mm) has a long proboscis, to which it owes its name. Hibernates in cracks of bark, fallen leaves and upper layers of soil. In the spring when the soil warms up to +10 ° C, the beetles climb to the crown. Swelling buds are the first food objects for weevils. Then they switch to young leaves and shoots, as well as flowers and peach ovaries. The females of the flower beetle gnaw through the buds and lay eggs in them, from which the larvae subsequently gnaw the flower from the inside. Damaged flowers, of course, do not form the ovaries and fall off. Large populations of weevils can cause significant damage to the harvest of peaches, so you need to conduct a systematic struggle with them.
Weevil is a small bug, but damage can do a lot
In the period when the beetles have just climbed to the crown, you can take advantage of their ability to enter a state of stupor at low temperatures (+ 5—8 ° C). Such temperatures are not uncommon in the early spring morning. At this time, you just need to shake off the beetles on the film or fabric previously spread under the tree and then collect them and destroy them.
In late autumn, deep soil digging is effective as a result of which overwintering pests will be raised to the surface and will die from frost. And of course, not to avoid insecticide treatments, as described in the previous section.
Peach diseases and their treatment, photo
Peaches in our country are very valued, they are expensive and perceived at the level of delicacy. At the height of the season you can find a lot of peaches and nectarines of various varieties on the market. However, self-made fruits are another thing. They are more fragrant, tasty and guaranteed to contain no harmful substances. That is why gardeners for their families tend to grow this tree, but for this you need to learn how to cope with the many diseases of this plant.
Fruit Rot or moniliosis is a fairly common peach disease caused by a fungus. Mycelium of the fungus is spread by insects, wind or rainwater. Spores more quickly affect fruits that have damage, cracks or wounds from the bites of birds, insects. When moniliose flowers and leaves of the tree dry up, the shoots turn black. On ripening fruits, spores of fungi appear in the form of gray circles, the flesh begins to rot, and later the fruit is mummified.
In the photo fruit rot or peach moniliosis
The following actions should be considered as preventive measures:
- spring pruning of dead branches,
- destruction of the affected fruits and shoots,
- crown thinning
- spring spraying of trees with fungicides.
Gardeners at the first signs of fruit rot resort to the use of medicinal preparations, the affected fruits are removed, and the branch on which they grew is pruned. It is recommended to use “Topsin” or Bordeaux liquid. It is advisable to carry out the first treatment before flowering, then repeat twice more.
Mealy dew - a dangerous fungal disease, which is easy to identify. The first signs of damage appear on the leaves. A white, velvety film appears on the surface, resembling scattered flour in appearance. Soon the infected leaves are folded, as shown in the photo, and showered. Spores are spread by wind or raindrops and settle on fruits that also begin to ache, crack and rot. The thicker the crown of a tree, the more serious the defeat will be.
Pictured as mildew or peach powdery mildew
All shoots with powdery mildew are subject to mandatory pruning and destruction. Spraying of colloidal sulfur, copper sulfate, “Topaz” or “Fundazol” preparations is an effective control measure. To popular methods is to include spraying a tree with a soap-soda solution.
Peach diseases: photo and fight with them
Scab - education on the back side of the leaves of the peach clarified areas of round or oval shape. The scab affects the crust, which cracks, as shown in the photo. At the first sign of the affected leaves are removed and destroyed. All trees are sprayed with preparations “Delan”, “Topsin”. The preventive measures include spring treatment with the drug “DNOC” and autumn spraying with Bordeaux mixture.
On the photo symptoms of peaches klyasterosporia
Klesterosporiosis - One of the most dangerous fungal diseases of peaches. Most often affected are the fruits that grow in the southern regions of Russia, in Moscow, Tula, Ryazan regions, on the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. Infection overwinters on plant debris, among fallen leaves, wood. In the spring you need to start inspection and pruning of the tree. All diseased branches should be trimmed before the beginning of the sap flow period, and wounds should be treated with lime mortar or iron vitriol.
In the spring, in wet and cool weather, the infection spreads over the area, which leads to the defeat of all parts of the fruit tree. The leaves form small brown-brown spots, as shown in the photo. Gradually, they increase in size, and the affected leaf fades and falls. Spots can merge, they are always surrounded by a characteristic fescue border.
Early spraying of peach with Bordeaux liquid is an effective preventive measure. During the period of growth use drugs “Skor”, “Abiga-Peak”. Treatment with strong poisons should be carried out 3 weeks before harvest. To reduce the likelihood of infestation with a tree, you should prefer planting varieties resistant to fungal infection, namely:
Peach disease: peach leaf curl how to treat?
Leaf curl - A particularly dangerous fungal disease, often progresses rapidly during prolonged cool and rainy weather. Peach fruits are rarely affected, but symptoms can be seen on young leaves. A red-pink wavy curl forms on their surface. On the back of the sheet appears a white, brilliant bloom - the fungus mycelium. Affected leaves turn yellow and fall off.
The pathogen has a high winter hardiness and survives even in severe frosts. During the period of intensive spring growth, spores spread throughout the plant, affecting the leaves and buds. Growing spores inhibit the development of the tree. When viewed from the leaves have a rough structure, short and thick, as shown in the photo.
In the photo the fungal curl of peach leaves
Gardeners recommend that all affected leaves and shoots be urgently removed from the tree and destroyed. In early spring, you need to carry out preventive spraying peach. For this suitable fungicide "DNOC". You can use and biologics, because they are not so harmful. Experienced gardeners use a combination of biological products and the simultaneous addition of a fungicide. In the dosage of 100 grams per 10 liters of water mix:
- Trichodermin is a drug containing antagonist fungus spores; it inhibits the development of peach curl.
- Planriz - a bacterial agent, the overwhelming development of rot, pathological microflora, stimulates the immune system of the plant.
- Pentaphage is a potent fungicide with preventive and curative properties.
During the growing season, you can use the drugs “Delan”, “Scor”, “Copper Oxide”. Before processing it is recommended to carefully read the instructions for each tool, observe the dosage and precautions.
Video about peach diseases and treatment methods:
Peach diseases, photo descriptions and treatment options are an important topic to consider, which concerns farmers and small orchards. Measures to combat them are described in the article. However, it is better to prevent the occurrence of illnesses than to get rid of the consequences, because sometimes it leads to crop losses.
What if there are holes in the leaves?
If brown blotches with a dark red or crimson border appeared on the leaves of the peach, which eventually fall out and form holes, it means that your tree has been attacked by a fungal disease - klyasterosporia. In the case of proliferation, the blotches merge and form one large spot, which also falls, leaving behind an extensive hole. In addition to the leaves, the fungus affects the buds, flowers and ovaries. The process of defeating them is the same. Infected tissues gradually die off, dry out and fall out.
Holes in peach leaves
The fungus feels especially comfortable in wet rainy weather, it winters beautifully on the healthy organs of the tree, forming sporulation. In order to protect the trees from this peach disease, in the spring, even before the first buds begin to bloom, we prune damaged branches and shoots. Place the sections treated with a thick solution of lime and 1% solution of copper sulphate. When the first signs of the disease are detected, we spray the leaves with 3% Bordeaux liquid before bud break and after flowering. If klyasterosporioz struck peach during flowering, then reduce the concentration of the drug to 1%, so as not to burn the leaves and flowers.
Leaf plate fragility - what does wood signal?
After blooming the leaves in spring, you can notice their deformation. Some sheet plates are not sufficiently formed, others have not yet had time to acquire a rich green tint, and some have completely twisted, become wavy, brittle, have lost elasticity. If the last leaf variant is present on your peach tree, this is a fungal disease known as curly. Leaf plates infected with fungus acquire a yellowish red or light green tint. Soon they dry and fall. As a result, the tree can completely lose foliage and stay with bare branches. It ceases to fully produce nutrients and drops fruits that have not yet had time to form.
Signs of leaf curl
In addition to the lack of harvest, peach trees, affected by curl, lag behind in the development of other garden crops, becoming less resistant to winter frosts. A good condition for reproduction of the causative agent of this disease of stone fruit is rainy, wet weather. The fungus is activated during the spring vegetation period, first manifesting itself as a purple bloom with a border, and a week later forming growths on the reverse side of the leaf plate as a gray bloom. Treating trees from leaf curl is carried out as follows. First, we remove and burn the affected leaves and shoots, and then we treat them with copper-containing preparations, such as Scor, Horus, copper oxychloride, Xom, Oxych.
What is the cause of fetal rot, and will fungicides help?
During flowering, brown flowers may appear on the tree, which darken and dry out completely. This warning sign can signal the infestation of trees with moniliosis, as a result of which the ovaries are not able to develop, and the already formed fruits become deformed and rot. The fungus is transferred by pests of stone fruit crops, such as oriental pinworms, weevils, geese, as well as during pollination by bees from a diseased tree to a healthy one.
Moniliasis affected fruit
The rapid spread of fungus promotes wet cool weather. In a short time, both young annuals and mature mature shoots die. As a preventive measure against infection, the tree is regularly rejuvenated by cutting dry and damaged branches, as well as removing rotten and non-set fruits. To cure peach trees, spray them with fungicides. The first time before the flowering drug Chorus, the second - after the start of flowering Topaz and the third after harvest Topsinom-MDo not forget to also use insecticides, if the cause of infection were insect pests.
Why does the tree "cry" - how to prevent gum therapy?
On almost every stone tree trunk, sticky protrusions can be seen, similar to a frozen resin. This gum, which was formed as a result of the destruction of cells, their membranes and sugary secretions. This phenomenon is called gumming. It can be caused by various external factors, ranging from improper farming techniques to unfavorable natural conditions.
Camera treatment in peach
Среди наиболее распространенных причин выделяют избыток влаги, резкий перепад температур, перенасыщение азотистыми удобрениями, механические повреждения коры дерева, инфекции на фоне других грибковых и бактериальных заболеваний (клястероспориоз, монилиоз, бактериальный рак). Как результат, на стволе персика появляются трещины и ожоги в виде отрытых ран, заполненных камедью. It is impossible to leave such a tree without care. Cue therapy reduces peach immunity, quality indicators of the crop, and in advanced cases it can lead to the death of a large number of branches and the complete destruction of the tree.
Wound treatment is carried out as follows. Using a sharp garden knife we remove the gum and clean the affected area, grabbing 1-2 cm of living tissue. Disinfection is done with a solution of copper or iron sulphate at the rate of 3 g of substance per 10 liters of water. Next, give the wounds to dry slightly and gloss over them with a thin layer of garden warrior. To consolidate the therapeutic effect, before applying the garden pitch, wipe the cleaned places from gum with fresh sorrel leaves, performing the procedure 2-3 times with an interval of 5-10 minutes.
Special pests - who are they?
There is a huge amount of peach pests. A special place among them is occupied by the oriental moth. It is a small butterfly that likes to use this plant for food and as a favorable place for wintering. The larvae of this pest especially like to eat the young shoots of the tree, and the adults - with unripe fruits. In the cracks of damaged bark, they lay cocoons, continuing to eat shoots and ovaries. To cope with the invasion of the eastern moth, we recommend the installation of traps of corrugated cardboard or burlap soaked in 1% solution. Chlorophos.
Oriental moth inside a fruit
Among insecticides, spraying of 10% Carbofos, Benzophosphate, Trichlormetaphos, 25% Rovikurt has a harmful effect on pests and their larvae.
A fruit or food moth is another dangerous enemy of the peach crop. It is a narrow-winged butterfly of a dark gray shade. Like the eastern moth, it also winter in the cracks of the bark of the tree, and in spring it crawls out of its shelter and eats young shoots along with the core. As a result, not having time to form, the branches wither and die. The larvae of these pests eat buds and peach flowers. As a preventive measure, cut and burn damaged and dry shoots, fallen fruits and leaves. As for the main methods of struggle, they are the same as in the case of the eastern moth.
The invasion of insects - how to deal with it?
This familiar enemy of many cultivated plants often affects peach trees. It's about tl. Colonies of these small insects damage shoots and leaves, as a result, the leaf plates are folded and deformed, and reddish spots appear on the damage sites. The greatest activity of aphids is observed in July. To fight these insects, spray wood with a solution during the growing season. Karbofos or use the proven national method, for which dissolve a piece of laundry soap in 10 liters of water. To achieve the maximum effect when using the second option, leave the peach tree in the soap solution for 3-4 days. During this period, aphid colonies and their larvae should completely leave the tree, and the remaining pests can be easily collected manually.
Aphids on peach leaves
We recommend to read
Signs of peach bark cause significant damage to peach bark, which are easily recognizable by solid plates that protect eggs laid against enemies. Mass accumulation of these pests is observed in May, when the larvae pupate and spread throughout the peach tree. By the end of July, they become adult individuals, and the second breeding season begins. For pest control and as a preventive measure, before bud break, we spray the tree with an emulsion of mineral oils and, during the growing season, with a solution of Karbofos.
Particularly dangerous enemies of the peach - flowering weevils. Adults of these insects eat from the inside buds, flowers and buds, and also young leaves. As a result, the tree loses its ability to reproduce and stops growing. In addition, they are the main carriers of fungal diseases. If insects attack a tree after the fruit has ripened, they leave numerous narrow passages in them, where eggs are laid. Such peaches are inedible, productivity and quality of the harvest is sharply reduced. Good performance in combating weevils, tsvetoyedami gives installation trap belts, whitewashing the stem with lime mortar, stripping wounds to living tissue, disinfecting and processing dead bark areas with garden pitch, cutting off darkened buds.