TO annuals This includes plants that implement their life program during the 1st growing season (from sowing seeds in the spring to receiving them in the fall).
General information - rapid growth energy (germination 7-10 days after sowing, grow quickly, bloom depending on biological features at different times, the duration of flowering depends on their living conditions, form seeds depending on the origin and growing conditions).
Important factors that ensure the best development of these plants are the basic environmental conditions (light, heat, soil richness and texture, air humidity, for some plants the pH value, the presence of trace elements and the care of plants). In accordance with the biological characteristics of each crop, it is not always possible to provide all the necessary requirements to the best degree, therefore a person regulates these features by placing plants on a sunny place protected from cold wind, if necessary in partial shade or light shade is created, etc.
In relation to temperature:
plants, better developing at medium temperatures, not suffering from low temperatures and little frosts (gilly, asters, sweet peas, phlox, aconite, etc.)
heat-loving plants that do not tolerate even minor frosts (zinnia, salvia, tagges, ipomeya, dahlias, balsams, garden beans / Turkish /, nasturtium)
High temperatures have a negative effect, especially when combined with dry air and soil, on the size of the plant, the duration of flowering, and terryiness.
Regulation of the attitude of plants to temperature conditions should be carried out in a timely manner in accordance with the phases of plant development. Cold wet weather badly affects the general development, formation of buds, seeds, contributes to the disease of plants.
In relation to water:
requiring constant watering (salvia, dahlias, poppies, asters, levkoy, reseda),
requiring moderately humid conditions (lobelia, phlox, celosia, anturrinum, petunia, alissum, matiolla),
drought-resistant (dry flowers, purslank, zinnia, verbena, tobacco, calendula, marigold, etc.)
Moisture supply and soil aeration should always be optimal. Therefore, the best are abundant irrigation, deep, but rare, with the obligatory subsequent loosening. Most annuals prefer light loamy soils that contain the necessary substances, loose, water and breathable, with a good structure. Fertilizers are best applied gradually. Most of them are brought under perepashka (better in the fall) in the form of composts. In the spring make a complete fertilizer, and then in the form of fertilizing during the growing season. Of the manure the most valuable are cow and bird, horse - for warm greenhouses. Poultry manure is the most concentrated, it is introduced in dry form 2-3kg / m 2. Top dressing - one part of a litter on 6-7 parts of water (1/10). Fermentation in two weeks. Dilution in accordance with 1/20 and contribute 10 liters to 10 m of the furrow. Peat has excellent properties. Nitrogen in it as much as in manure, decomposes slowly (to make in the fall), to prepare compost with the addition of lime.
Agrotechnology. Seeds of flowering plants usually last 2-4 years. Sowing is done as early as possible (April). Podzimny sowing is possible for cosmea, calendula, cornflowers, bayonet, delphinium, etc. Sowing can be carried out in boxes or other containers. The standard box size is 60 * 30 * 10cm. The substrate for sowing should be light, better a mixture of leaf, turf and sand. Crops do in scatter. Sowing dates: January - begonia, February - carnation of Shabo, gay, antirrinum, March - salvia, verbena, lobelia, petunia, aster, cineraria, perilla, April - ageratum, matricaria, portulac. Salvia, annual dahlias, marigolds, zinnia - sown, depending on the timing of flowering and opportunities. Sowing rates - from seed size and further growing conditions.
Lobelia, petunia, begonia - 0.3-0.5 g per 1 box.
Antirrinum, fragrant tobacco - 1 g.
Astra, Verbena - 3 years
Zinnia and dahlia - 7 g.
The boxes are covered with glass and provide a temperature of + 18 ... + 24 0 С. After the emergence of the shoots, the temperature can be reduced, the airing can be increased and after the appearance of the first real leaflet a pick is taken. After the first picking in the box should be 100 - 150 plants. It is relatively more profitable to grow seedlings in greenhouses compared to boxes. The number of picks depends on the length of the cultivation. Extrusion of plants is very unprofitable and harmful, the cause is a large density and excess heat with a lack of light.
Plants with a core system are best grown in peat-shaped pots or cubes.
Seedlings are grown in closed ground in compliance with the general rules and individual characteristics (regulation of ventilation, irrigation, prune, hardening before planting in open ground - for 10-15 days open the greenhouse).
Individual plant characteristics:
1) attitude to frosts,
2) the ability to tolerate transplant and dry air.
Plants who are afraid of transplanting are best grown in pots with a diameter of 7–10 cm, are sown in a pot of 3–5 seeds, then they pierce, removing weak ones, sowing directly into the ground.
In late spring frosts (June 5–10), cover the seedlings. Formation of crusts on crops, especially on heavy soils, watering and light processing tools, weeding, feeding, watering in drought, pest control and disease.
Annuals: Ageratum, Alisum, Amorant, Astra annual (Chinese), Tagetes, Cornflower, Verbena, Gailardia, Dianthus Chinese, Immortal, Dahlia, Gypsophila, Godecia, Delphine, Sweet Peas, Iberis, etc.
Seedlings of annual flowers: growing features
In order during the period from spring to late autumn, your summer cottage would be pleasing to the eye with its blooming flower beds and fragrant, you must prepare in advance for the beginning of the growing season. Many garden plants multiply by the seed method, and in order for them to bloom and grow faster, it is necessary to start growing them before the onset of spring, using the seedling method of seed reproduction. This is done quite simply, but you will need special knowledge, which you can find below in this article.
What garden flowers are sown on seedlings?
First of all, you need to find out exactly what garden plants can be propagated by the seedling method. These plants include both annuals and biennials. In addition, perennials can also be propagated by seedlings.
If we talk about annual flowers, then seedlings are mainly sown by those that differ in a long growing season, or, if you want the flowers to bloom much earlier than the allotted time. In general, it is possible to grow seedlings of absolutely any garden flowers, with the exception of those that tolerate transplantation rather poorly. Most often seeds are sown for seedlings of the following flowers:
- Carnation Shabo,
- Sweet pea,
- Viola and many others.
When to plant seedlings?
As a rule, seedlings are planted in January, February, March or April. Let's take a closer look. Consider the features of planting seedlings in each of these months:
- Sowing seeds in January. In January, Shabo carnation is sown, which blooms 6 months after this procedure. Also in January, tuberous begonia is sown, which will delight with its first flowering six months after this action. If you sow begonia in December or in January, its tubers will be formed much better and stored longer than the tubers of those sown in March. As a rule, the bag with seeds indicates how much time must pass from the very moment of sowing to the beginning of flowering. The longer the time interval, the earlier it is necessary to produce seeds. During this period, seedlings of flowers are sown, the seed of which must undergo mandatory stratification. These colors include the following: aquilegia, spring gentian and stemless, azarizm, climate, little book, bathing suit, rutovnik, jeffersonia, perennial violet, promomnik, alpine bell, irises, most of the onion flowers, lavanda, primula. In addition, in January it is recommended to plant tug-like perennial seeds, which have a dense thick shell. This is done if you for some reason do not wish to scarify the planting material.
- Sowing seeds in February. In February, the sowing of those flowers, which also have a long germination. In the same month you can sow a clove of Chabot or blooming begonia. In addition, February is precisely the time when it is allowed to plant those plants that will feel pretty good both in the garden and at home. Such plants include the following: fuchsia, lobelia, balsam, petunia, pelargonium. Also in February, sowing of narrow-leaved lavender seeds, sparkling salvia, Vittrok viola and heliotrope is carried out. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the seedlings of some plants need a long light day, so you will have to arrange additional lighting for it using special lamps.
- Sowing seeds in March. For March, as a rule, they plan to grow seedlings of fragrant tobacco, echinacea, lobularia, verbena, climbing Kobey, snapdragon, iberis, bluebells, mattiola, carnation-grass, climbing azarins, as well as flowers that for some reason were not sown in February. In the first half of the month, it is recommended to sow those flowers that can be grown both in the garden and at home. What colors are the following: kufeya, pelargonium, coleus. In the second half of the month, the following annual plantings are sown on seedlings: castor beetle, Drummond phlox, Penstemona, Cellosia, Astra Anera, Helichrisum, Arctotis, Alissum, and Venidium.
- Sowing seeds in April. In April, sowing of the following flowers is carried out: marigolds, tsiniya, exquisite summer cypress, cofie, aquilegia, amaranth, daisies, Suvorov limonium, perennial delphinium, fragrant rose, annual dahlia, Xeranthemum, basilus, calendula, vogue, and changing and changing, and changing, and changing, and changing and changing, . In addition, in April, you can sow the seeds of those flowers that for some reason were not sown in March.
Selection of pots for seedlings
First of all, there is a question about choosing a container for growing seedlings. If you choose between boxes and pots, then it is recommended to give preference to pots, since it is in this way that the seeds are sown in a separate container, without having to pick out the seedlings in the future. In pots, planting material is not injured, and the risk of infection with rot is minimized.
As a rule, seedlings are grown at home on loggias or window sills, on which there is not so much space. If you are not a fan of the seating method, and you can do with just a few seed containers, then it is recommended to use pots. Well, if you have planned to get a large number of seedlings, then you need to use plastic cassettes designed specifically for seedlings. In such cassettes, as a rule, there are pallets, otherwise they can be installed in cups or boxes.
It is strongly not recommended to use cardboard containers, especially from under dairy products, as they are currently being treated with substances that, evaporating, are able to inhibit peeping shoots, which causes fading and lack of development.
It should also be borne in mind that the capacity for seedlings must be environmentally friendly so that the plants do not experience any discomfort. It is best to buy peat pots. Such containers have simple walls that provide moisture and air exchange in the root zone of the soil. When the seedlings grow, they can be planted in open ground directly in peat pots, while not injuring the root system of young plants by extracting from the tank. These pots do not contain any toxic elements, pathogens. In addition, they are quite strong in both dry and wet condition.
There is also the so-called peat tablets, designed specifically for growing seedlings, which swell when soaked, after which they form a cup, which is filled with peat substrate.
The above containers are ideal for growing seedlings, but you can also use small plastic disposable cups and large drawers. The main thing is to do drainage holes in the tanks, and put a tray for excess water under the bottom.
Soil for sowing
The soil for seedlings should have the following qualities:
The substrate for sowing seeds must pass air well and also retain moisture. In addition, the soil must meet all the requirements of exactly the culture that you are going to grow.
It is not recommended to use a substrate consisting of the following components:
- Compost and any kind
- Leafy ground
- Dead manure
- Lowland peat,
- Wood chips,
- Untreated turf land,
- Sawdust wood treated with varnish
- Chopped straw,
- Hay dust
- Career sand, not washed from clay,
- Not washed sea sand.
For soil preparation it is necessary to use the following components:
- High peat,
- Weathered or expressed peat moss,
- Ground pumice stone
- Expanded clay
- Sand or sandy loam,
- Granulated Foam,
- Turf ground after heat treatment,
- Sphagnum moss,
- Ground coniferous bark,
- Dry needles,
- Quartz river sand,
- Corn husks,
- Crushed peanut shells.
You can also buy ready-made soil mixture for planting seedlings in the store. In order to choose the necessary, you need to know exactly in which substrate the seedlings will grow better. In addition, it is necessary to study the composition of the soils offered in specialized stores.
It is imperative to pay attention fertilizer compositionwhich enter ready pochvosmes. Excess fertilizer in the substrate can interfere with the flowering of future plants. If the soil contains phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen within 400 mg per liter, it is recommended to use it only as a component for seedlings or for picking seedlings. It is undesirable to sow the seeds in such a soil, since the future seedlings will be very green and the buds will not form.
In addition, it is not recommended to use the garden land, as it is unbalanced relative to the mineral composition, as well as there is a pathogenic microflora and larvae of pests. The ideal soil for growing seedlings is a substrate for cacti. But before sowing seeds, it must be adjusted for acidity, while making dolomite flour.
Lamps for seedlings
As a rule, the days at the end of winter and early spring are rather short. For this reason, growing seedlings are often not enough for the full development of daylight. To increase the light day need to use artificial lighting.
Immediately you should exclude from the list of incandescent lamp highlights, as they are capable of emitting a large amount of heat, and at the same time do not emit the rays necessary for plants. For additional lighting, it is recommended to use energy-saving lamps or phytolamps.
If we talk about energy-saving lamps, then induction lamps are used for germinating seeds. Lamps with a warm spectrum are used to illuminate seedlings that are already in the flowering phase, and energy-saving lamps for the daytime spectrum are ideal for highlighting seedlings during the entire growing period.
Additional lighting lamps should be installed perpendicular to the boxes with seedlings.
Among the lamps choose LED, sodium, halogen or fluorescent. Most often the choice falls on the latter. This is due to the fact that such lamps produce almost no heat, but they consume very little energy and have a full range of colors. LED lamps are very durable. They also have the ability to emit red and blue colors, which are stimulated by the rapid growth of plants.
Halogen lamps lose their heat transfer over time, so they are used quite rarely. Sodium lamps are most often used for additional illumination of seedlings in small volumes.
Во время выборов фитолампы необходимо также обдумать, какие именно вам подойдут больше: потолочные, настенные или компактные, которые дают направленный луч.
Как сажать однолетние цветы на рассаду — советы и рекомендации
Many gardeners grow annual flowers for open ground in an apartment building and in the country, deciding not to acquire seedlings, but to do everything with their own hands. It is quite simple and less expensive or economical.
In the middle zone of the seedlings are grown a large number of flowers.
To acquire seedlings with sprouts, even 10 plants of each individual species, the event is expensive, but to grow from seed for a garden is quite simple.
In addition, a seed lowered into the ground gives life to a future beautiful plant, which, growing, will make the world more effective - this is not happiness for an amateur gardener.
What soil is suitable for growing seedlings of annual flowers?
It is important that the soil for seedlings was of high quality.
What soil is suitable for growing annual flowers?
There are no tricks for planting.
There is a lot of energy in the seeds to ascend, so, especially if you pre-process the material with growth-promoting means, standard land from a specialized center will be suitable for planting.
Neutral low-acid peat should be mixed in equal parts with clean river sand (sold in the store).
It is possible to make a 3-component sowing soil - peat / leaf soil / sand in equal proportions.
At the bottom of the container for seedlings need to lay a drainage layer.
What is grown seedlings for annual flowers?
Seedlings of one-year flowers should be sown in special, suitable for the size of the container.
This is the second point in the list of things required for growing seedlings; one should not just buy a container, but choose the right one.
In the store today you can find the following containers for flower crops:
- The cassette is plastic.
- A pot of peat.
- Tablet and others
In any of the types of containers for seedlings there are both pluses and minuses, depending on the material from which the container is made, its size, stage of use.
How to choose seeds of annual flowers?
In addition to the proper selection of ornamental crops themselves, which are better to grow seedlings, you should know how to choose the right seeds.
However, there is such a thing as the time of ascent:
- if the term came out to sow meaningless,
- the seeds will sprout badly or not at all,
- those that have risen will be weak.
When are the seeds of annual flowers sown on seedlings?
- What flowers are planted on seedlings in February:
In February, annuals with the longest development period in seedlings are planted in heated greenhouses or in room conditions on special racks with light plants:
- chabo carnation,
- tuberous begonia,
- lobelia for warm regions,
- Petunia for warm regions.
- What flowers are planted on seedlings in March:
In March, the seeds of the following flowers are sown on seedlings: salvia, delphinium, celosia, gatsania, godeciya, gelhisio, annual aster, sweet peas, kohia, snapdragon, lobelia, alissum, left.
In March you can sow pansies, petunia, geraniums, gerberas, carnations of Shabo, verbena, primrose primrose and gaylardiyu, Drummond phlox.
- What flowers are planted on seedlings in April:
Seedlings of species such as marigolds, zinnias, amaranths, annual dahlias, coleus, celosia, annual chrysanthemums are sown in boxes on the window sill in mid-April, and planted in the ground in late May, when the threat of return frost is over.
Dates of sowing annual flowers in our country are approximately as follows:
- In the south of the country - March 1-15.
- The middle lane is March 20-25.
- Ural and Siberian territory - from March 25.
Lunar calendar 2019 for planting flower crops
The suitable days for planting flower crops for seedlings in February will be the period of the arriving moon: in Pisces 17–18 numbers, in Taurus 21–22 numbers and in Cancer 27-28 numbers.
How to sow annual flowers for seedlings?
Highlights to pay attention to:
- Soil preparation.
- Preparation of material for disembarkation.
- Preparing conditions for creating a favorable microclimate (light, temperature, humidity, etc.).
When to plant seedlings annuals at home - the instruction is as follows:
- Before sowing the material should be treated with a disinfectant. Soak the seeds should be in the usual potassium permanganate, do all the same, what is done with the seeds of vegetable crops before sowing. However, the seeds of such flower cultures as petunia and lobelia are very small, they are not soaked, it is correct in this case to treat with a fungicide (powder). You should pour a handful of powder in the bag with the seeds sent in advance, shake everything well and the powdered material is disinfected.
- In the container where sowing is planned, the ground should already be prepared, moderately moist, and spilled with a pink solution of potassium permanganate, with grooves for the seeds. For petunia / lobelia, there is no need to make holes on the surface of the soil, you just need to scatter the seeds without closing them. You can mix small seeds with sand. Seeds of small size or large enough to sit down to a depth of 10-50 mm and cover with a peat layer. The depth of planting seeds is usually several times larger than the seed size in height.
- Until the plant proklyunitsya, the container should be covered with a film or glass. The temperature in the room before the plants should be - plus 22 ° C. The container should be ventilated daily and the soil moistened with a pulverizator. Lighting colors are not required yet. But, as soon as the sprouts become noticeable, the container should be moved to the light of the light, and the temperature in the room should be increased to plus 22-25 ° C.
- Watering is done very carefully and systematic spraying too. If there is little light in the room, you need to install special lamps. The first top dressing of a plant is carried out in 14 days. When the sprouts will be 30 days old, it is necessary to re-fertilize the seedlings. Next should be fed every week, alternating gumin funds and minerals.
How is picking up seedlings of annual flowers?
Dive plants in the phase of 2-3 true leaves that have grown after the cotyledon leaves.
24 hours before transplanting, seedlings should be well shed.
Fill the prepared container with quality primer. You need to fall asleep by 1/3 so that you can fall asleep the ground as you grow.
Soil in the boxes, pots for transplanting need to moisten.
Seedlings need to get a landball and transplant.
Features of planting some annual flowers on seedlings
- Petunia seedlings - interesting moments
If at the beginning of summer you want to see flowers resembling bright gramophones on a loggia or country house, sowing petunia seeds is allowed as early as mid-February.
The seeds of the flower are miserable, but the shoot is long:
- It is necessary to sow exclusively superficially.
- Crops must be covered with a protective glass or thick film, it should be like in a greenhouse.
- Before sending to the beds it is necessary to transplant a petunia at least 2 times.
Do not worry if the petunia will give flowers right on the window. The seedling of this flower is not afraid of replanting when the color comes. It is important that the seedlings are not stretched and thinned. For this, it is imperative that when you grow, you need to use extra light.
- Lobelia - how to sow
Another quite popular among amateur flower growers is lobelia.
It is radically different from petunia on aesthetic data - light, with small:
- soft blue
- snow white buds.
Her seeds are small, less crumb, it is necessary to sow superficially, not to deepen.
In general, sowing is done in the same way as petunias.
Lobelia bushes will be the most powerful and lush, the flowers will later be brighter and more tender.
- How to sow marigolds on seedlings
Marigolds can also be grown by sowing directly into the ground.
However, the preparation of high-quality seedlings will give the opportunity to enjoy flowering a month earlier, so many gardeners love to propagate these yellowish-red-orange flowers precisely seedlings:
- Sow properly in the boxes. They need to make indentations and send seeds there in increments of 30 mm. The furrow depth is 10-15 mm. Powder crops need peat-sand composition.
- Marigolds peck up actively - sprouts will appear literally in a week. Sprouts as soon as they need additional light for at least 12 hours.
- Pickups are also carried out in placed boxes, but larger and with a gap of 70 mm. Diving by the rules is necessary when 2 real leaves appear on the plant.
- After 30 days, you can transplant the plant again. Marigolds spike beautifully, even when flowering. On the flowerbed, these beautiful and not capricious plants also take root very quickly.
- Therefore marigolds adore gardeners so much.
Planting single-seedlings is an inexpensive way to get a large abundance of flowers on the plot, from which it is possible to make an incredible beauty of the composition, real masterpieces of nature.
Absolutely everyone can try to germinate the seeds of their favorite flowers on their own.
Having listened to the recommendations of professionals listed above, everything will be successful.
The result will please not only you, but also neighbors passing by your country house.
Feedback from experienced gardeners
Many grow annuals in the country, but not every culture deserves positive feedback from florists.
According to gardeners, it is not always easy to grow annual flowers through seedlings, as it may seem, so if a person is not a pro, it is better to choose marigolds, zinnias, amaranths, annual dahlias, coleus, celosia, annual chrysanthemums, petunias for planting.
The choice of annuals, as a rule, is made on the basis of the characteristics of the suburban area.
Florists are advised before choosing seeds to decide on where they want to see flowers and which ones.
So according to flower growers reviews, marigolds, lobelia or ageratum are suitable for borders, but correctly place ampelnye varieties of petunias in hanging baskets.
Annual ornamental plants can be planted in almost any climatic zone of our country. The vegetation period lasts all summer. In the fall, plants form seeds and die. There are also winter seeds. Such sown in the ground mainly in the late fall, closer to winter. It is important that they do not have time to germinate before the onset of frost.
Annual plants can be seen in greenhouses, flower beds, flower beds, alpine hills. They are also used to create exquisite landscape compositions at sites.
It should be noted that the annals reproduce exclusively by seeds and never - vegetatively (with the help of whiskers, rhizomes, rosettes of leaves). At the same time, it is possible to single out a seedling and seedless breeding method.
Most of the varieties of letniki are unpretentious in care, they develop well even on untreated soils, adapt to different environmental conditions, therefore a garden with such flowers can decorate the site even an amateur beginner grower. In addition, due to the large number of species, varieties, you can change the appearance of your backyard every year. Among the Letniki there are low, medium and tall flowering, decorative and deciduous plants. Most flowering species begin to bloom in 1-1.5 months after planting (alissum, marigold, amaranth, cornflowers, dimofoteka).
Tip! Buying the seeds of annual plants, you should not buy all bags in a row with bright images of flowers. Assess your strength, consider the type, composition of the soil on the site, as well as the biological characteristics of a particular species.
By planning to plant your plot with airplanes, you can purchase ready-made seedlings, seeds for planting in the ground or adult flowering plants.
Planting annual plants
Annual plants are grown from seed by seedling or sown directly in open ground in spring, with the onset of heat. It should be borne in mind that some varieties are grown only through seedlings, others - only by the seed method. For example, the majority of thermophilic varieties of letniki, as well as “conditional” annuals, are preferably planted only by seedling. The seeds of climbing varieties of ornamental plants or cold-loving flowers are planted in the open ground.
Letniki seeds are planted at the beginning or in the 15-20th of May. Before planting, in order for the plants to enjoy their bright, lush flowering, we recommend preparing the soil. Purchase planting material from reputable, reputable manufacturers only.
In the fall or about three to four weeks before planting, apply mineral, complex fertilizers, dig the soil well, remove weeds. Before planting, make small indentations in the ground. Put the seeds in there and spill the soil well.
If you plan to plant directly into the ground, purchase the following plants for planting:
- sweet pea,
- decorative beans,
Important! What is the best way to sow can be read on the package with seeds. When planting, consider the distance between adult shoots of plants.
The soil should be constantly moist. For irrigation it is best to use separated, filtered water. Take into account the climatic conditions of the region, temperature. If plants tolerate light frost, they can be planted in early to mid-April. Heat-loving cultures - only in May.
Many flower growers prefer to plant yearlings by seedling method. To do this, in early March, seeds are sown in greenhouses or in special flower containers at home in a nutrient, slightly moistened soil. For planting in seedlings, flower boxes, you can buy ready-mixed soil. Place a drainage layer on the bottom of the containers in order to avoid a strong overwetting of the soil. Can be used as a drainage expanded clay, small gravel. Also, the soil before sowing seeds can be mixed with vermiculite, perlite.
Before planting the seeds for a day, we recommend soaking in any growth stimulator, which can be purchased in the flower shops of the city. You can soak them in ordinary water. This will accelerate their germination, increase vitality.
Small seeds are mixed with sand, soil and evenly distributed over the surface of the earth. The large ones are sown in small depressions, after which the top is covered with a layer of soil mixed with sand. In order for them to germinate, you should not go deep into the ground. Seedlings will germinate for a long time.
In the heat, with proper care, the first shoots appear very quickly. Seedlings, as soon as the shoots get stronger, dive, plant on a permanent place on the site with the onset of sustained heat. Planting as carefully as possible, taking care not to damage the plant root system.
Tip! Before planting in open ground, take out flower containers during the day outside. This will help the plants to quickly adapt to new conditions.
Petunia, surfinia, lobelia, marigolds, viola, snapdragon, marricaria, zinnia, nemofilu, cinnamonria, annual dahlias are grown by the seedling method.
Some species can be planted both seedling and seedless (marigolds, Turkish carnation, amaranth, daisies).
Care of pilots
Caring for annual plants is reduced to constant watering. Ensure that the soil does not dry out. Especially need watering blooming varieties of letniki. It is very important that after watering on the leaves, flowers, buds do not remain water droplets. On a sunny day, it can cause burns. Plants are best watered early in the morning before sunrise or late in the evening. For irrigation, use only filtered, settled water at room temperature.
The soil should be periodically loosened, since the crust forming on the surface of the earth makes it difficult to access the root color system. You can use different types of mulch (mulching). Timely remove weeds that slow down the growth, the development of letniki. Apply mineral fertilizers three to five times per season. Seedlings are fed for the first time 2 weeks after planting, with the formation of buds, with flowering and after flowering, also approximately every three weeks. In the fall yearlings do not fertilize.
For feeding, you can use universal formulations or fertilizers for ornamental flowering plants. Organic is only suitable for cruciferous annuals.
Tip! To prevent the plants from wasting their energy on the formation of seed boxes, regularly remove the flowers that have faded.
In order to achieve continuous, uninterrupted flowering, many gardeners resort to a little trick, sowing new seeds once a month, when some fade, others start to bloom. Some varieties have a long flowering period. Petunias, surfins, lobelia, ageratum, lobelia bloom from late spring to October, of course, with the right systematic care.
Adding an article to a new collection
You do not know how to grow strong seedlings of letnikov? Our article will help you not to make mistakes and get a beautiful flower garden.
With the help of attractive annuals, you can create a bed of continuous flowering. To do this, the first thing you need to determine the optimal timing of sowing seeds for seedlings. Растения, которые зацветают уже спустя пару месяц после посева (вербена, гацания, губастик, колеус, колокольчик, пеларгония, сальвия сверкающая, табак душистый, львиный зев, цинерария приморская), высевают в январе-феврале. Но массовый посев однолетников приходится на март и апрель.
Емкости для цветочной рассады
Рассаду цветов лучше всего выращивать в отдельных горшках, чтобы потом не заниматься пикировкой всходов. Such seedlings grow sturdier and, as a rule, they do not affect rot.
As capacity for seedlings of flowers suitable as small disposable cups, and bulk boxes. The main thing is to make holes in the bottom of the container for draining excess water, and also to have a pan.
Seedlings of compact plants can also be grown in peat tablets or peat cups.
Soil for seedlings
In no case can not use the land, which has already grown indoor or container plants. For seedlings need to take a new soil. If you want to save money, you can cook the postal mix yourself. At the same time, do not forget to disinfect it: warm it in the oven for an hour at 50 ° C.
The substrate for the seedlings of most annuals should consist of sod and leaf earth, humus and sand, taken in equal proportions. Only some crops need a different soil composition. For example, for flowers susceptible to the formation of black legs (ageratum, aster, Levkoy, lobelia, snapdragon, petunia, fragrant tobacco), soil is needed, which includes soddy soil, peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 1: 1.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Pour drainage from expanded clay, gravel or broken brick with a thickness of 1 cm to the bottom of the tank. Then place a moist (but not too wet!) Substrate so that about 2 cm remains up to the top of the container.
Sow large seeds in the previously made grooves to a depth equal to the triple size of the seed, and slightly tamp the soil. Seeds of medium size also sow in the grooves, but only slightly sprinkle with earth (its layer should not exceed 0.5 cm). Mix very small seeds with dry sand, scatter on the surface of the soil and pour with a spray bottle.
Cover the container with glass or plastic wrap and place in a warm place. Note: until the seedlings appear, the soil should always be slightly damp.
The optimum temperature for germination of seeds of thermophilic plants is 25-30 ° C, cold-resistant - 15-18 ° C
After the emergence of seedlings, remove the glass or film and keep the plants at a temperature of about 20 ° C. When the seedlings grow up, slightly sprinkle their stems with light earth and place the plants in a well-lit place with a temperature of 15 ° C.
Try not to flood the plants. But note that the ground should not dry out. Small seedlings are better to moisten with a spray or syringe, and grown plants - izleyki. In this case, the water should be at room temperature.
Adult seedlings are recommended to be watered in a pan. Due to this, the root system of plants will develop faster.
The main rule of watering seedlings of flowers - often, but little by little
Hardening annual seedlings
2 weeks before planting in a flower garden or a cold greenhouse, it is necessary to gradually train seedlings to a lower temperature. To do this, take out young plants daily in the yard or on the veranda. First, keep them outdoors for 2 hours, and then gradually increase the tempering time.
Cold-resistant batters (for example, cineraria and antirrinum) begin to take to the street at an air temperature of 8-10 ° C, and for hardening heat-loving plants you should wait until the temperature is at least 12 ° C.
Note: during hardening, seedlings must be protected from drafts and direct sunlight
Planting flowers in open ground
Flower seedlings are planted in the ground in late May - early June, when the threat of recurrent frosts is over. Transplanting is best done on a cloudy day or in the evening when the sun goes down.
Before planting seedlings in advance, prepare the ground: loosen, apply mineral fertilizers and humus, level the surface, make grooves or holes and water them. When moisture nourishes the soil, plant the seedlings.
If you know some tricks and proven techniques for the successful cultivation of annual plants, share them with readers in the comments or on our forum.
When to sow annuals
For growing seedlings at home sludge in a greenhouse, it is desirable to sow the seeds in late February - early March. If you are sowing seeds in a warm greenhouse, then the sowing time shifts a little - March - the beginning of April.
Dishes for sowing seeds may be different. You can use bowls, trays, boxes or ordinary flower pots. The main thing - to make drainage slots or holes. Wash the dishes thoroughly before use, even if you just bought it. A day before sowing, the earth mixture needs to be sprinkled with water.
What earth mixture is needed for sowing?
For growing seedlings, peat-based compost is the best option. It is distinguished by its ease, sterility and uniformity. If there is no such earthy mixture, then you can use any fertile, loose soil, adding some sand to it.
A layer of coarse river sand 1 cm thick is poured on the bottom of the prepared dishes. A moist earthen mixture is poured over the sand. The layer of earth needs to be slightly compacted and leveled. At the same time, a distance of about 1 cm should remain up to the edge of the pot. Wash the container with the ground by gently spraying water with your hand. Seeds are scattered across the surface, sparsely. Seeds are poured with a thin layer of earth, about the thickness of the seed thickness. If the seeds are very small, they must first be mixed with sand at a ratio of 1:10 and do not sprinkle with earth after sowing.
Sown seeds need to be covered with glass or put a plastic bag on the pot, fixing it with an elastic band. The seed container is placed in a shaded place at a temperature of + 16 + 20 degrees C. Periodically wipe the glass, removing the accumulated condensate, and turning it over.
When the sprouts hatch, the dishes are moved closer to the light, but not under direct sunlight. At the new place, the glass is lifted from one edge, and after a few days it is removed completely.
All this time it is important to monitor the condition of the earth, keeping it in a slightly damp state, but not allowing overmoistening.
Reportedly on lovelus.com. The picking is done when the first 1-2 true leaflets appear in sprouts. Seedlings are planted in small individual containers or in the soil of a greenhouse. If it is seedlings of cold-resistant varieties, then it can be planted directly into the ground at the end of April.
Planted seedlings need to gently, holding them under cotyledon leaves and helping with a peg or finger. The roots must be straightened so that the seedling is not planted too small or, on the contrary, deep. The root neck when landing must be at ground level. It is important to remember that incorrect picking can cause the death of the plant. Water newly planted seedlings need from a small strainer. For the first 2 days, seedlings need to be applied.
In the daytime, seedlings should be on the street, and the greenhouse should open. If you prepare the seedlings in this way, the transplant will be transferred by the plants quite painlessly. Planted seedlings in open ground at a permanent place in late May.