Surely many people at least once had to stop in the spring in front of someone's yard or garden, unwittingly admiring an unusual picture - luxurious pink, white or purple flowers on a beautiful and delicate tree without leaves. It blooms magnolia. At first glance it may seem that such a miracle can only be cultivated by experienced gardeners, having invested considerable funds and put a lot of effort into it. Let's try to figure out whether this is true by telling how to grow a magnolia.
Magnolia (Magnolia) - Deciduous or evergreen ornamental tree and shrub in height from 2 to 30 m with beautiful large flowers with a diameter of up to 25 cm, which are located one at the ends of the branches.
This is a very ancient plant. Argued that it is the progenitor of modern flowering plants. This tree is popular in China, where there are many beliefs about it.
Magnolia: the choice of landing site
Before you attend to growing a magnolia in your garden and caring for it, you need to choose the right type, variety and place for planting. Since the main problem of the magnolia tree is the poor tolerance of frost, when choosing a plant type, you need to pay attention to how cold winters are in your region, and which particular type is suitable for your climatic conditions. The most cold-resistant magnolia Kobus and Lebner. The harsh winters of Magnolia Sulange, Wilson, Ash are relatively well tolerated.
When choosing a site for planting, it is necessary to take into account that this plant does not tolerate drafts very well, therefore the site should, if possible, be sheltered from the wind from the north and east, for example, by higher trees.
It is necessary to take care of sufficient illumination of the place, so that the tree is not located in deep shadow. Also, the plant should not penetrate direct sunlight. Exceptions may be for magnolias Lebner, Kobus and star-shaped, which can grow in open areas. Kobus is also resistant to exhaust gases and industrial emissions, which allows it to be planted near busy motorways and in industrial areas.
Today, magnolia is often used in landscape gardening, so many recommendations have been written on how to grow tree-flowers personally, the main ones of which we share with you.
When to plant magnolia in the garden
The tree can be planted both in spring and autumn. Although experienced magnolia owners recommend the latter option. This is due to the fact that before the autumn planting the plant is at rest, and so it is easier for him to transfer the winter. And at spring planting, the tree begins active growth, gives a big increase and often meets winter already with shoots, which by this time have not had time to become covered with wood and die.
Magnolia sapling is best acquired in well-established specialized stores. Usually there they are sold in containers. Such plants are well tolerated by both spring and autumn planting, since they are planted with a clod of earth, to which they have already adapted. Gardeners with experience for planting recommend acquiring plants 1 m in height with a pair of already blossoming flowers. So you will know for sure that your local climate is suitable for this type of magnolia.
The soil for planting should be light, well drained and moderately moist. Neutral or weakly acidic soil rich in organic matter is perfect.
If the soil on your site is lime, then you can add peat to it, which will increase the acidity.
The optimal composition of the soil:
- leafy or soddy land - 1,
- peat - 2,
- sand - 0,5.
Magnolia planting pattern
The pit for planting should be prepared in advance, 3-5 times the size of the tree root system. Drainage is placed at the bottom of the pit - 15 cm high. Then a layer of sand (10 cm), a layer of manure (15 cm), again a layer of sand (15 cm) and the prepared soil mixture are laid. After this, the seedling is placed in a pit and covered with earth, while controlling that the root collar is not buried. The maximum recommended depth is 2.5 cm. The ground should be lightly tamped and watered abundantly. Pristvolny area can be covered with coniferous bark, which will retain the desired level of moisture.
Magnolia does not tolerate transplants, so it must immediately be planted in a permanent place. If you plan to plant several trees, then the distance between them should be at least 4-5 m.
The roots of magnolias are superficial, so the ground in the basal area should be loosened to a depth of 20 cm, while doing this should be done with caution, preferably without using a shovel or a rake. Weeds are better to pluck hands. After the tree reaches 3 years old, the trunk circle can be mulched with organic materials (coniferous bark, peat, sawdust, manure). This will warm the soil and provide an additional source of nutrients. After this procedure, the land can no longer loosen.
When and how to fertilize magnolia
It is necessary to feed and fertilize a tree not earlier than 2 years after planting. In early spring, you can feed your beauty with a mixture of 1 kg of mullein, 15 g of urea, 25 g of ammonium nitrate. At the beginning of autumn fertilizing with nitroammofoska (20 g / 10 l of water) is useful. Irrigation rate - 40 liters per tree.
You can use fertilizer "Kemira-Universal" (1 tbsp / 10 l of water), as well as special fertilizers "For Magnolia".
Since magnolias do not tolerate pruning, this procedure is necessary only for decorative purposes in the first years after planting to give the desired shape to the crown. To get involved in this process is contraindicated, as this may provoke less active flowering. In the future, it is recommended only sanitary pruning once a year, in which dry, curved, damaged branches are removed. If the crown is thickened, then it is thinned out. In order for the slices to heal quickly, they must be covered with garden pitch.
Magnolia: how to save the plant in winter
Mature trees in winter tolerate temperatures down to -25-30 ° C. Therefore, the question of how to preserve a mature magnolia in winter is no longer necessary for its owner. But young plants need to worry. In the first 3 years, their lower part of the trunk and the root system (or even completely wood) must be insulated with special agrofabric (lutrasil), sackcloth, straw or spruce fir branches. With age, the hardiness of magnolia increases.
In subsequent years, the ground in the circle of the tree should be mulched with sawdust, pine bark, and peat in the fall.
Magnolia Breeding Methods
Magnolias breed in three ways:
- layering and cuttings,
In nature, magnolias breed by seeds that are carried by birds. You can also try to sow a tree from seeds. This should be done in the fall, immediately after picking the berries. Or postpone until spring, but keep the seeds in the refrigerator in a plastic bag.
Pre-seeds must be poured for 3 days with water, and then cleaned of a dense oily shell (for example, by rubbing through a sieve). After cleaning, they should be washed in a weak soap solution and rinsed in clean water several times. Sow in boxes to a depth of 3 cm in the universal soil. Capacity clean the cellar until spring. In early March, they need to be moved to the window sill before germination. Seedlings can be planted in a year. So you will have a self-grown magnolia, the birth of which you already know well how to take care of it.
When the vegetative method of reproduction (layering and grafting) magnolias enter the flowering phase earlier than the seed. This method gives the best result in the initial years of the tree life.
When breeding by layering in the spring, you need to bend down and sprinkle one of the lower branches with earth. In a year or two, roots should form on it. After that, the layers are carefully separated from the mother tree and transplanted to grow.
In late July, you can try cuttings. Cuttings are taken from young trees, leaving 2-3 leaflets in the upper part. The lower part is treated with any substance for rooting. Then they are planted in a greenhouse, in a container with sand, covered with a lid and maintained at a temperature of + 19-22 ° C and the necessary humidity. Rooting should occur in 5-8 weeks. In the open ground cuttings are planted in a year. If grafting was carried out immediately into the ground, then they need to provide good shelter so that they can transfer the cold.
The method of propagation by grafts allows you to achieve rapid growth of the plant, early fruiting, increase its endurance. However, this method is more laborious than grafting. Vaccinations are carried out in early spring in a greenhouse or in the open field by methods of improved copulation, pripriklad or lateral cutting.
Despite its nontrivial beauty and seeming fragility, magnolia is unpretentious when grown. It grows rather quickly, very rarely gets sick and is practically not damaged by pests and rodents. If you provide her with proper care, she will delight you with flowering and scent for many years to come.
Description and origin history
Until the 18th century, nothing was known about magnolia in Europe. The plant grew in North America in the valleys of rivers and wet forests. At the beginning of the 19th century, the famous French traveler and botanist Charles Plumier brought from America a sample of an amazing tree with huge flowers and incredible aroma.
The plant was named "maniol" in honor of the professor of botany, a friend of the discoverer of magnolia, Pierre Magnol.
Description of the botanical "portrait" of magnolia:
- Evergreen or deciduous tall shrub go tree,
- The bark of the tree is ash gray or brown. The texture of the bark can be smooth, in the form of scales or in small grooves,
- The leaves are dark green, large, rounded oval,
- Magnolia flowers bisexual, large size, white, cream or pink shade with a strong aroma,
- After flowering, a seed fruit is formed in the form of an intestinal group leaflet with triangular black seeds. Fruits have a decorative attractive appearance.
With the beginning of warm days, fragrant magnolia flowers bloom, which are so appreciated for their unforgettable beauty and fragrance. In addition, flowers, foliage and fruits contain a large amount of essential oils used as an antiseptic, as well as for various diseases of internal organs.
Varieties and varieties
Currently, in the botanical registers 210 varietal species of the Magnolia family are registered, which are divided into the following groups:
- Deciduous plants. Trees, like all other plants, fall foliage in the fall. Representatives of this group are better adapted to the winter cold.
- Evergreens. The plants of the second group are absolutely not adapted to low temperatures and for their cultivation in a different climate, greenhouses and greenhouses are needed.
Magnolia flower is primarily valued for the exquisite beauty and fragrant scent of flowers, its decorative effect. All flowering plants are very beautiful and very different. Magnolias differ in varieties.
In the popularity rating of varietal types of magnolia there are the following types:
- Magnolia tulip (Latin name - Magnolia x soulangiana). Initially grew in the southern regions of France. Hybrid shrub variety, reaching up to 5 meters in the southern regions. The tulip magnolia is deservedly considered the “queen” among the flowering plants. The plant owes its leadership to unusually large flowers, reaching up to a quarter of a meter in diameter. The form of flowers is goblet, petals of various colors: from pale pink to red-purple. Occasionally there are specimens with white colored petals. The leaf of the tree is slightly elongated, obovate, with a length of up to 15 cm. The plant blooms even when there is no foliage, or at the same time with them. Method of reproduction - planting stratified seeds, cuttings or branches of side shoots of plants. After flowering, fruits appear on the branches, in the form of assorted leaflets of pink-purple hues. The plant is best planted in bright places or slightly shaded places. Sapling should be protected from drafts,
All listed representatives of the Magnolia family are very decorative and appreciated for the unforgettable beauty of flowering. In addition, magnolia is valued for essential essential oils present in its ripe fruits, green foliage and fragrant flowers. In medicine, oils are used as a natural antiseptic, for diseases of the digestive system, hypertension and rheumatism. The fruits of the plant are of great therapeutic importance. They contain fatty oils with a complex of unsaturated acids: peanut, linolenic, stearin and other beneficial substances. Bark, leaves, flowers, fruits - all these wonderful gifts of magnolia are traditionally used for medicinal purposes.
Planting, growing and care
In order for the magnolia tree to be planted to bloom and become a blooming beauty, home gardeners are required to follow simple agrotechnical rules for growing this beautiful plant.
Step-by-Step Instruction on Landing:
- In early spring, magnolia saplings are planted in prepared pits of 100x100x100 cm,
- The pits are filled with nutrient soil with the constituent components of peat, sand and sod in a ratio of 2: 0.5: 1,
- Seedlings are very fond of moisture, but it is not recommended to get involved in excessive watering,
- After planting and watering, the saplings mulch and periodically loosen the soil.
The first year the plant gives a weak growth, and only by July the first leaves appear, in August-September a more active growth of the seedling is observed.
In winter, the tree should be covered with spruce branches or wrap with sacking. This is done so that the flower buds and young twigs are not damaged.
For magnolias, pruning pruning is contraindicated, the plant loses its decorative effect and is restored for a long time. When sanitary pruning, it is necessary to remove dry damaged branches and cut points must be covered with garden pitch.
The next spring, the seedlings are “fed up” with organic fertilizers with the addition of urea and ammonium nitrate, diluted in water. Magnolia - moisture-loving plant, the rate of watering for each tree is 40 liters. The plant loves loose soil, so the soil of the trunk circle is loosened to a depth of 20 cm and must be mulched with peat or compost.
Such simple agrotechnical methods of growing magnolia will be the key to successful growth of this beautiful and amazing plant.
A gardener can admire the first flowers of magnolia in a few years. A plant planted with seeds may bloom in 10-14 years, hybrid varieties will delight in their flowering at 4 or 5 years of age.
Need to understand! Magnificent bloom is a reward for the gardener for his care, patience and hardworking hands.
Diseases and pests
Various rodents bring great harm to magnolias: moles and mice. They destroy the root system of the plant and undermine its roots. If the trunk is damaged, the wound is treated with a base solution.
If the plant is affected by spring frosts, gray rot may appear on the leaves. Another disease is powdery mildew that infects young leaves. Affected leaves must be removed and the plant itself treated with copper preparations.
The plant can be planted both singly and in combination with conifers. This will achieve a unique composition. Preliminary it is worth taking care of selection of a suitable site, it should not be drafts and wind. When choosing the south side should pay attention to the fact that the area was slightly shaded.
Legend of the plant
Magnolia is a tree about which legends have long been composed.
In ancient times, there lived a Japanese girl named Keiko. She earned her bread by making beautiful paper flowers and selling them. However, their price was low, so she barely managed to feed herself. This went on for a long time. Until one day ...
The fact is that she lived a parrot, which was already very old. He told her a little secret. It turns out that any masterpiece of paper can be revived: just sprinkle it with drops of your blood. However, you can not use the last drop. Using this magic, Keiko soon became rich, but it did not protect her from harm. She fell in love with a young man who was too greedy and he always lacked money, therefore the girl was forced to pay much attention to the work.
After some time, she gave the last drop of blood to a flower, then she died, and the flower was called magnolia.
Magnolia is traditionally considered a shrub, but can reach almost 30 m in height. It grows mainly in the Crimea and the Caucasus peninsula. With the onset of warm days, the tree blooms. After the petals fall, the shrub is covered with fruits in the form of cones, which do not disappear until the frost. The bark of the tree is smooth and scaly.
Magnolia flower is simply unforgettable, starting from the moment of flowering. Ценность составляют не только красивые цветы, но и масла эфира, которыми насыщены плоды, листья и соцветия. Их употребляют в виде антисептического средства, для избавления от болей при ревматизме, а также для излечения от желудочно-кишечных заболеваний.
Растение не везде способно ужиться, встретить его можно только в определенных странах:
- Кустарник обитает в садах США и Англии. Там имеется более 40 видов магнолии. Belarus has become a country in which there is a whole botanical garden, this beauty is always present in it.
- Magnolia is a plant that also grows in the Ukrainian garden in Kiev. There are several varieties of it.
- St. Petersburg is also the city where the queen of magnolia flowers lives, more precisely, her subspecies of Siebold. Magnolia Kobus lives in Moscow, and in Vladivostok you can enjoy the flowering of Kobum and Sulanzhi.
What are the types
In nature, you can see many types of magnoliawhich are subdivided into evergreen and deciduous.
Not everyone can grow an evergreen magnolia, because even minor frosts can cause harm to the plant. For the normal development of the plant, it is necessary to plant in the greenhouse, in which the optimum temperature should be maintained.
In order for the plant to grow in the middle latitudes of Russia, it is better to plant a deciduous variety, since it is easier to tolerate temperature drops, and the flowering period is somewhat shifted. Such a variety is subdivided into varieties: they are distinguished by the presence of frost-resistant and conditionally frost-resistant. The latter group is characterized by a slight freezing of the kidneys during the cold period.
Features of growing
In order to successfully grow a magnolia, you must adhere to some recommendations:
- The plant should be planted in the area where there are no drafts and wind.
- Carefully consider the choice of soil, it should not contain limestone. If it is available, you should resort to the help of sour peat, which should be placed in the soil.
- The excessively heavy soil with the presence of high humidity will not work either. It is better to choose places where the ground is well ventilated.
- When planting and caring for the plant will not have problems. This culture feels great in the southern regions, in well-clarified areas. However, it is worth knowing that the scorching sun rays are detrimental to magnolia.
When purchasing a tree in a kadnochny version, planting can be carried out in the summer, but it is worth remembering that the best time for this is autumn, since this is the period when the plant begins to fall asleep. When purchasing a sapling, it is better to stay on the choice of the one that has several flower buds.
Planting and Care Rules
With all the necessary rules for landing and courtship magnolia will remain beautiful a long time and delight with their flowers:
- It should produce watering plants in the hot season. Water should be warm. However, magnolia should not be poured, it can end tragically for a tree.
- In order to avoid excessive evaporation of moisture, it is necessary to mulch the soil near the flower. With a lack of water, the plant can also die. Since the location of the root system is such that the roots are located both in the depth of the earth and on the surface, you should be careful with the garden implements in order not to damage them.
- For magnolia, it is very important to apply the necessary fertilizers: dressing provides rapid development and protection from the troubles associated with temperature changes. Fertilizers are applied no later than July, since later the tree will be prepared for a long cold season.
- Many think about the question of how to make a shelter for a magnolia so that it does not freeze in the winter. When the foliage begins to fall, you should begin the preparatory work. It is necessary to remove a small amount of land near a bush and cover the area using leaves, pine bark or pine needles. This will protect the root system from cold penetration. The thickness of the layer should be at least 20 cm.
- If it comes to pruning, it is important to know that it is not required. Only removal of frozen or dead branches will be sufficient. It is necessary to remove some stems that grow into the inner part of the tree. Field pruning handle cuts garden pitch.
- If some leaves begin to turn yellow, it is important to understand the cause of this phenomenon. For example, this may be due to a lack of iron in the soil. To remedy the situation, it is necessary to water the soil and sprinkle the magnolia with iron chelate.
- This beautiful plant is practically not attacked by pests and is not subject to serious diseases.
The main thing you need to know - the tree is poisonous. You can’t stay close to him for too long, it can cause headaches.
However, this feature does not mean that you should not grow it. It contains a lot of useful components that are applicable for therapeutic use:
- Making a tincture of magnolia flowers and using it, you can reduce blood pressure.
- Rinse with a decoction of brewed flowers cures even old asthma.
- This is an excellent plant, a decoction of which can cure caries and other diseases of the teeth.
The tree has long been famous for its healing qualities.. In all parts of the plant, useful components are present, many medicinal preparations are created from the magnolia.
Magnolia tree has a truly unique beauty, its flowering is able to enchant. However, it will take a lot of effort to monitor this process in order to do everything possible to create an enabling environment. Magnolia is planted in the fall, it will have time to develop the territory. This will help to plant the seedling, which means the first step to obtaining a beautiful and luxurious tree.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Growing up
- 4.2. Transfer
- 4.3. Pruning
- 4.4. Pests and diseases
- 5. Reproduction
- 5.1. How to multiply
- 5.2. Growing from seed
- 5.3. Cuttings
- 5.4. Reproduction by layering
- 6. Magnolia after flowering
- 6.1. Care
- 6.2. Wintering
- 7. Types and varieties
Planting and maintenance of magnolia (in short)
- Bloom: in early spring, some species - in early summer.
- Landing: from mid to late October or in April.
- Lighting: bright sunlight, partial shade is possible within a few hours.
- The soil: light, moderately moist, rich in organic matter, slightly acidic or neutral.
- Watering: regular, even permanent: the soil under magnolia should be a little wet all the time. Especially important regular watering for seedlings under the age of three years.
- Top dressing: fertilizer applied for planting lasts for two years. From the third season, complex mineral-organic dressings need to be made from early spring to mid-summer. For example: a solution of 15 g of urea, 1 kg of mullein and 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water — this fertilizer in the amount of 40 liters is applied instead of watering 1 time per month.
- Trimming: to form the crown of magnolia is not necessary, and sanitary pruning is carried out after flowering.
- Reproduction: usually cuttings, layering, inoculation. For breeding experiments, you can use the seed method.
- Pests: roasted thrips, mealybugs, peach aphids, spider or transparent mites, rodents.
- Diseases: chlorosis, seed rot, powdery mildew, gray mold, soot fungus, botrytis and scab.
Magnolia - Description
A magnolia plant can be a deciduous tree or shrub with brown or ash gray bark, smooth, furrowed or scaly. Magnolia can reach a height of 5 to 20 m in height. On its shoots large scars from leaves and narrow ring-shaped scars from stipules are visible. Magnolia buds are large, as well as entire, leathery, emerald green with feathery venation and a slight pubescence from below, which for the most part have an obovate or elliptical shape. Single fragrant bisexual terminal or axillary flowers with a diameter of about 6 to 35 cm of white, cream, pink, red, lilac or purple color consist of 6–12 elongated wax petals tiled against each other, arranged in one or several rows. Magnolia blooms in early spring, but some species bloom in early summer. Anyone who has seen magnolia blooms will definitely want to grow this tree in his garden.
Magnolia fruit - team cone-leaflet, consisting of a set of single or double seedlings. Magnolia seeds, triangular, black, with fleshy pink or red prisemyannikom, when opening leaflets hang on seed threads.
The magnolia tree, like the magnolia shrub, is a highly ornamental plant. It is especially beautiful in spring: a flowering magnolia is a sight that will be remembered forever. But magnolia is appreciated not only for its beauty: its flowers, fruits, leaves, and even the cortex contain essential oils, which are a unique antiseptic for rheumatism, hypertension and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
When to plant magnolia.
Magnolia grows not everywhere, but if your area is suitable for its cultivation, then plant it in a sunny area protected from northern and eastern winds, far from large trees, so that no shadow falls on it: slight shading is permissible only in southern areas. Magnolia also has requirements for the composition of the soil: it should not be very calcified or saline, too wet, heavy or sandy. Optimally, organic-rich neutral and slightly acidic soils are considered. When purchasing planting material, give preference to a sapling about 1 m high with one or two buds and with a closed root system, so that it does not dry out in anticipation of planting. Saplings, in which the root system is in the container, can be planted in open ground in spring, summer and autumn.
As for the planting dates, the majority of specialists consider the best time for this to be from the middle to the end of October, when magnolia saplings are already at rest. When planting in the fall, almost 100% of seedlings take root. Magnolia is planted in spring in April, but it must be borne in mind that even minor return frosts can severely harm trees that have begun to grow.
How to plant a magnolia.
In preparing the planting pit, it must be borne in mind that its size should be at least twice the volume of the seedling's root system. The soil of the upper fertile layer removed from the pit should be mixed with rotten compost, and if the soil is too dense, add a little sand to it.
Place a layer of drainage material in the pit - crushed stone, broken brick or crushed ceramic tile - 15-20 cm thick, then place a layer of sand about 15 cm thick on top, and a layer of prepared fertile mixture on top of it. Place the magnolia sapling in the center of the pit so that the root neck after planting is 3-5 cm above the surface. Fill the remaining space of the pit with soil, slightly tamp the surface and water the plant liberally. When water is absorbed, bark the perennial circle of the magnolia seedling with peat, and on top of it with the dry bark of coniferous trees, to protect the soil from too fast evaporation of moisture.
Magnolia moisture is always needed. Particularly in need of regular and abundant watering seedlings age from one year to three years. The soil in the circle should be wet, but not wet, and the water for irrigation should be warm. To loosen the soil in the wheel circle is necessary only with forks and very carefully, since magnolia has a superficial root system, easily damaged by garden tools. Therefore, they recommend pristvolny circles of magnolias to mulch.
Growing a magnolia implies fertilizing it. Trees up to two years old have enough nutrition laid in the soil when they are planted, and from the age of three you need to start feeding. Fertilize magnolia in the first half of the growing season. As a top-dressing, you can use ready-made mineral complexes, on the package of which the required dosage is indicated, but you can also make a top-dressing yourself: in 10 l of water, dissolve 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of urea and 1 kg of mullein. To feed one adult tree you will need 40 liters of such a solution. Bring it instead of watering once a month. Consider that it is easy to overfeed a magnolia, and if you find that the leaves have started to dry before it, stop fertilizing and increase the water flow during watering.
Transplant magnolias in the garden.
Magnolia tolerates transplant very badly, but if you have such a need, do everything as she likes: find the most suitable place, taking into account the dynamics of magnolia growth. Before you dig a plant, be sure to water it well, and remember that the larger the earthen ball on the roots of a plant, the easier it will take root. Magnolia dragged to a new place on a piece of oilcloth or a sheet of plywood. Transplantation is carried out in the same manner as the initial planting: first, a spacious pit is prepared, drainage, sand, some fertile soil are laid into it, and then a magnolia is placed in the center of the pit and the free space is filled with earth, leaving the root neck of the plant above the site. You do not need to thicken the soil around the plant, just press it with your hands.
After transplanting produce abundant watering, and then mulch pristvolny circle. If the transplant was carried out in the autumn, for the winter, in the near-stem circle, it is necessary to pour a barrow from dry soil - this measure will protect the plant's root system from freezing. The trunk and branches of a transplanted tree for the winter are wrapped with cloth.
It doesn’t need a magnolia in pruning in the garden, and sanitary cleaning is carried out only after flowering: they remove shoots frozen in winter, faded flowers, dry and thickened branches. Fresh slices need to be processed with a garden pitch. Do not cut magnolia in spring, since all plants of this genus are characterized by intense sap flow and can die from wounds.
Pests and Magnolia Diseases.
For a long time it was believed that magnolia is invulnerable for diseases and pests and suffers from very different problems. For example, sometimes yellow spots start to appear on its leaves - chlorosis. At the same time, the veins of the leaves remain green. This is a signal that there is a lot of lime in the soil, and the magnolia root system in such an environment develops poorly and dies. In this case, you need to add sour peat or coniferous soil to the soil. And it is possible to use commercially available chemicals, such as iron chelate, to restore the required level of acidity.
Magnolia's growth and development are slowed down by soil fertilization with fertilizers, because salinization occurs from excess nutrients. It is possible to determine that too much fertilizer has accumulated in the roots, along the edges of the old leaves of the plant that are drying out at the end of July. Stop feeding and increase water consumption when watering.
From insects magnolia can be caused by thrips rosacea, mealybugs and peach aphids, and in the dry season spider or transparent mites can live on the plant. All these pests suck the magnolia juice, weakening the plant. From this, the leaves from the tree begin to fall off in July or August. Sucking pests sometimes weaken a magnolia so much that next year it almost does not increase. In addition, they suffer incurable viral diseases. To fight ticks, thrips, worms and aphids, you need acaricides - treating the wood with Actellic's solution, Aktar or a similar drug.
In winter, the magnolia can suffer from rodents eating the roots and the root neck of a tree, but you will know about it only if you remove the top layer of soil. If you find binges, treat them with a one-percent solution of Fundazol and henceforth cover the trunk circle for the winter only after it freezes the topsoil. In this case, rodents will not get to the roots.
Of the diseases in our climate, magnolia can infect fungal infections: rot of seedlings, powdery mildew, gray mold, soot fungus, botrytis and scab. You can cope with these diseases if you find them in time and take immediate action: reduce watering and treat the plant with a solution of fungicide. It is possible that the processing will have to be carried out repeatedly. And from bacterial blotch magnolia is treated with blue vitriol.
How to propagate magnolia.
Magnolia is propagated by seed and vegetative methods - cuttings, layering and grafting, but only the vegetative method allows to obtain hereditarily identical plants. For the sake of justice, it should be said that generative reproduction contributes to the development of new varieties, varieties or forms, and this method is also the simplest in execution.
Reproduction magnolia cuttings.
It is necessary to harvest cuttings for the propagation of magnolia from young plants, before the buds bloom on the tree. The ideal stalk should be green above and woody at the bottom. The cuttings are planted in late June or early July in the greenhouse where it will be possible to control the temperature and humidity of the air and soil. Sand or a mixture of sand with peat, perlite and vermiculite is used as a substrate. Rooting should take place at a temperature of 20-24 ºC, and then the appearance of roots in cuttings can be expected in five to seven weeks. Large-flowered magnolia cuttings bruise twice as long. Try to strictly observe the temperature regime, since at a lower temperature the process will proceed much slower, and at temperatures above 26 ºC the cuttings will die. During the entire period of grafting, the greenhouse should be aired, and the soil should be kept wet.
Reproduction of magnolia by layering.
The branches multiply shrub magnolias: in the spring, a low-growing branch of a plant is pulled over at the base with soft copper wire, bent down, fastened and poured a small mound of earth in the place of attachment. The process of formation of the roots will go faster if you make an annular incision in the place of the branch where it contacts the soil.
You can multiply magnolia and air layering. At the end of spring or at the beginning of summer, make a circular cut of bark 2-3 cm wide on the branch chosen by you. Try to do this carefully so as not to damage the magnolia wood. Treat the cut with Heteroauxin, cover the wound with wet moss and wrap with cling film, fixing it above and below the cut. Then tie a branch to neighboring branches, so that in strong wind it does not receive damage. Keep the moss wet: spray it several times a month, piercing the film with a syringe with water. After two or three months, roots are formed at the site of the cut. In the fall, the branches are cut from a branch and grown at home.
Magnolia care after flowering.
Magnolia blooms in spring or early summer, and this sight is worth seeing: a magnolia in bloom - the queen among the garden trees. And when this holiday is over, you have to make a sanitary pruning of a tree: remove faded flowers, broken, dead in the winter from frost and branches and sprouts growing inside. But even without flowers, magnolia is decorative due to its beautiful leathery leaves.
Magnolia in the winter.
When the autumn comes, and the garden begins to fall asleep, your task is to prepare a shelter for the magnolia, because even the most winter-hardy species of this genus can suffer from frost, especially in a windy and snowless winter. To avoid frostbite, wrap the trunk of a tree with sackcloth in two layers, being careful not to damage fragile branches. Then, waiting for these frosts, cover with thick mulch near the trunk circle. Now your beauty will not be afraid of neither frost, nor a mouse, nor other rodents.
Types and varieties of magnolia
The largest collections of magnolias are collected in the UK: in the introduction center of Arnold Arboretum and in the Royal Botanical Gardens. But there is a beautiful collection in Kiev, and it is the Ukrainian experience of growing magnolias that gives hope for the promotion of this plant to the east and north. The most common types of magnolia in culture are:
Siebold Magnolia (Magnolia sieboldii)
- deciduous tree up to 10 m high, but more often tall shrub with broadly elliptical leaves up to 15 cm long and fragrant, cup-shaped, somewhat drooping white flowers on a pubescent thin pedicle. The diameter of the flowers is from 7 to 10 cm. It is one of the most winter-hardy species that tolerates short frosts down to -36 ºC. In culture, the view from 1865,
Magnolia obovata (Magnolia obovata),
or white-colored magnolia comes from Japan and the island of Kunashir, which is in the Kuriles. It is a deciduous tree with gray, smooth bark, reaching 15 m in height. The leaves of this magnolia are collected in 8-10 pieces at the ends of the shoots, and the beautiful flowers with a diameter of up to 16 cm are creamy-white in color with a spicy aroma. Fruits of bright red color reach a length of 20 cm. This tree is decorative at any time of the year, it tolerates shading and frost well, but is demanding on the level of soil moisture and air. In culture, the view from 1865,
Magnolia officinalis (Magnolia officinalis)
- a plant originally from China, analogue of magnolia obovate, but with larger leaves. The flowers are also large, fragrant, resembling water lilies, but with narrower, pointed to the top of the petals. In China, this species is used as a medicinal plant, and in our area magnolia is rarely encountered,
Magnolia acuminata (Magnolia acuminata),
or magnolia cucumber from central North America, where it grows in deciduous forests at the foot of the mountains and along the rocky shores of mountain rivers. It is a deciduous tree up to 30 m in height with a pyramidal crown at a young age, which eventually becomes rounded. The leaves are oval or elliptical, up to 24 cm long, dark green above and greyish green, shortly pubescent below. Flowers with a diameter of up to 8 cm have a bell-shaped form and yellow-green, sometimes with a bluish bloom, color. It is the most cold-resistant representative of the genus. The cucumber magnolia has a form in which the leaves are either round or heart-shaped at the base, and the flowers are smaller than those of the main species, and canary-colored. In the USA, hybrids between magnolia sharpened and magnolia lily-colored magnolia are also obtained, united under the name of Brooklyn Magnolia,
- one of the most elegant and spectacular magnolias originally from Japan. It is a small tree or shrub up to 2.5 m high with bare gray-brown branches, narrow elliptic leaves up to 12 cm long and original flowers up to 10 cm in diameter with numerous snow-white, elongated ribbon-like petals directed in all directions, like rays of a star . This species has two decorative forms: pink and key. Some varieties and hybrids of this plant are also popular among gardeners:
- – magnolia susan - A variety with dark purple-red flowers on the outside and lighter on the inside. This variety is part of a series of hybrids with female names - Judy, Betty, Anna, Pinky, Randy, Jane and Ricky - which was bred in the 50s of the last century.
Magnolia lilia color (Magnolia liliflora)
common in culture especially widely. It comes presumably from eastern China, and the plant came to Europe in 1790. Magnolia lilium color blooms profusely with flowers in the form of lilies with a diameter of up to 11 cm. Outside the flowers are purple, from the inside they are white, they have a faint aroma. The decorative form of this type of Magnolia Nigre (Nigra) with ruby-red outside and white-lilac inside flowers opening in late April or early May, is of the greatest interest.
Magnolia Kobus (Magnolia kobus)
originally from northern and central Japan and South Korea, and in 1862 the species was transported to New York, from where it came to Europe in 1879. In culture, the plant reaches a height of 10 m, but in nature it can grow two and a half times higher. The leaves of the tree are broad, obovate, with a sharp top, bright green on top and brighter on the underside. This magnolia is white, fragrant, with flowers with a diameter of up to 10 cm. The plant blooms in the ninth-twelfth year. The look differs in frost resistance, gazo-and dustproof. The northern form of the species - a plant with larger flowers and even more resistant to low temperatures,
comes from the southeastern states of North America. It has a slender cylindrical stem, a beautiful crown shape, dark green, large shiny leaves and white flowers with a diameter of up to 25 cm, with a strong spicy aroma. Even the fruits of this plant are attractive: the original cone-shaped form, brightly colored and very showy. At a young age, the magnolia-flowered magnolia develops slowly, growing by only 60 cm per year. It does not differ in frost resistance, withstanding cold not lower than -15 ºC, but it copes well with urban conditions, is resistant to diseases and pests and is durable. The main decorative forms of Magnolia grandiflora are:
- – narrow-leaved - a plant with narrower leaves than the main species,
- – lanceolate - a plant with elongated leaves,
- – famous - Magnolia with very wide leaves and flowers with a diameter of up to 35 cm,
- – round-leaved - this plant has very dark green leaves and flowers with a diameter of up to 15 cm,
- – early - Magnolia, blooming earlier than the main species,
- – exon - a tall tree with a narrow pyramidal crown shape and oblong leaves pubescent from below,
- – Traterti - Magnolia with strictly pyramidal crown,
- – Hartvis - a tree with a pyramidal crown and wavy leaves,
- – dragon - a plant with a crown lowered, the branches of which, hanging in an arc, touch the ground and take root easily,
- – Gallison - Magnolia of higher winter hardiness than the main species.
Magnolia Sulange (Magnolia x Soulangeana)
- A hybrid bred in 1820 by the French scientist Etienne Soulang. Since then, more than 50 forms of this hybrid have been registered, which are incredibly popular all over the world. Magnolia Sulanzha is a deciduous shrub or tree up to 5 m high with obovate leaves up to 15 cm long and goblet-shaped flowers with a diameter of 15 to 25 cm, sometimes fragrant, and sometimes completely odorless, with petals from delicate pink to purple hue, and only occasionally there are specimens with white flowers. The plant is resistant to adverse climatic factors and grows well on soils of different composition. Of the numerous garden forms of this hybrid species most often grown:
- – Lenne - magnolia with fragrant white flowers inside and pink-purple outside,
- – Alexandrina - drought-resistant plant up to 8 m in height with dark purple outside and white flowers inside,
- – Red (rubra) - with pink-red flowers outside,
- – Nemettsa - Magnolia with a pyramidal crown shape.
In addition to the garden forms described, there are various varieties of magnania Solange.
In addition to the described species of the plant, in culture one can also find magnolia, wolfberry, large-leaved, Lebner, nude, trekhlepestnuyu, or umbrella, and others.
Botanical description of magnolia
The tree has bark of brown or gray color with scales or grooves. Magnolia height is different, from 5 to 25 meters. The leaves are large, dark green, glossy, elliptical. Flowers solitary, bisexual, large, from 8 to 15 cm in diameter. Their size look and shadedepends on the variety. They can be white, pink, red and lilac.
Each flower has 6−12 petals, which are arranged in several rows. They have a pleasant aroma. Fruit - coniferous leaflet. Flowers pollinate beetles, as the magnolia blooms early, even before the appearance of bees. After the leaves fall, scars remain on the branches.
Some popular species
In our country, mainly deciduous varieties resistant to temperature changes are grown. Winter-resistant varieties that are suitable for the middle band:
- Kobus An enduring, winter-hardy variety, but in Russia this tree is unpopular, since no less than 30 years should pass from sowing seeds to the beginning of flowering of this magnolia variety. Petals of flowers are white, purple at the base. The tree is high from 8 to 12 meters.
- Stellate Shrub with a spherical crown, the leaves are green, large. Flowers 8−12 cm in diameter with ribbon-like white petals. Shrub blooms early - in March-April.
- Magnolia Labner. Is a hybrid Star and Kobus. It can be a shrub or tree to 7−9 meters. The crown is round. The flowers are white or pink, large. The plant blooms at 8−10 years of age. Most often it is propagated by cuttings.
- Magnolia Sulanzha. Hybrid liliyetsvetnoy and naked. Common in Russia variety. Deciduous shrub or low tree. The flowers are large, pink or purple, have the shape of a glass, with a delicate aroma or odorless.
- Magnolia Ash Tree 5−7 meters, blooms in May. The flowers are white, very large 20−30 cm in diameter with a pleasant lemon flavor, the leaves are green, 50−70 cm in length. Blooms at a young age of 2−5 years. It is rarely found in nature and is considered an endangered species.
A variety of species allows you to choose a magnolia for any garden. All of them are extraordinarily beautiful.
- grandiflora (North America),
- Siebold Magnolia (Japan, China, Korea),
- wolfberry (Japan),
- lilia color,
- white magnolia (Japan, Kuril Islands).
Thermophilic varieties can be grown in the southern regions. If the garden area is well lit by the sun, magnolia successfully takes root and pleases with its amazing flowering.
Planting in the garden
Many gardeners purchase ready seedlings in specialized stores. Without experience it is difficult to get a young plant by yourself.
Magnolia is a heat-loving plant, it prefers to grow in sunny areas where there is protection from strong winds. It is necessary to prepare a fertile moist soil with good drainage layer.
The seedling is lowered into the pit, covered with earth, leaving the root neck on the surface. Soil compacted, abundantly watered, covered with a layer of mulch (sawdust, foliage, straw).
Reproduction and care
Magnolia propagates by cuttings, layering, grafting and seeds. Young plants propagate by cuttings and layers:
- Layering. In the spring, they lower the lower branch and sprinkle it with earth, in 1–3 years it will grow and take root, it can be separated from the parent plant and deposited.
- Cuttings Reproduction is carried out at the end of June. From young plants, cuttings with 2–3 leaves are cut, the lower part should be held in a growth stimulator to accelerate the appearance of roots. Then the scion is added dropwise into the sand, creating greenhouse conditions +19 + 22 ° C. When the cuttings take root, they are transplanted into the greenhouse. In the open ground planted young seedlings that spent in greenhouse conditions for a year.
- Seeds. Long and laborious way. Seeds need to be sown immediately after harvest, until spring they are difficult to preserve. The shell is dense, it needs to be slightly broken (slightly split), so that they quickly sprout. The seeds are washed in water, planted in boxes of soil and put in a dark, cold place until spring. In the spring, boxes are placed on the window, constantly moistening the soil and waiting for sprouts to appear. When young plants reach one year old, they are planted in a permanent place.
Application and tree description
A huge number of beliefs, legends and folk will take a person tied to this tree:
- Magnolia - fossil (relic) species. The first specimens of this shrub appeared long before the appearance of the bees, so it was adapted in ancient times to pollination through various beetles. Many specimens found in the form of plant fossils formed about 95 million years ago. Archaeologists have found traces of ancient magnolias in the regions of the Urals and on Sakhalin. Such a discovery by archaeologists has made it possible to prove that the harsh modern climate of these regions was previously milder.
- Magnolia tree is the flower of the ancient Celtic horoscope. According to this horoscope, a person born under such a sign possesses ambition, a sense of addiction to beautiful things and persistence in striving for a goal.
- The most ancient teaching Feng Shui binds magnolia with dignity, generosity and wealth.
- In great China, this flower has always meant spring, pride, integrity, and female beauty.
But, besides folk beliefs, there are well-founded scientific facts about the use of this exotic tree:
- Fruits, leaves and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, as a means to stabilize pressure, eliminate problems with diseases of the digestive tract, reduce heart pain. And the essential oil, which is obtained from various parts of the magnolia tree, turned out to be an indispensable aid in the treatment of colds.
- Pharmacological industry produces a variety of drugs, using the healing properties of plants, which are widely used in official medical institutions.
- In the perfume industry Magnolia is currently used as an aromatic component of various ointments and creams.
There is also the problematic side of the use of magnolia - beautiful flowers, with a strong smell, can cause a headache for a person who has been near the tree for a long time.
The history of the appearance of this exotic tree on the European continent is considered very interesting. A botanist from France, monk Charles Plumier, while traveling in South America, found this beautiful plant.
Marveling at the unusualness and grace of the tree, Plumier brought a magnolia as a gift to the court of King Louis ⅩⅣ.
From this time began the spread of magnolia throughout Europe. The southern beauty got its name from the name of another French scientist - Pierre Magnol.
In Russian, this name was transformed into a modern name - Magnolia.
Although popularly this plant is called a tulip tree, because of the similarity of its buds with flowers of spring tulips.
In accordance with the botanical classification, magnolia as a genus is included in the family of magnolia plants of the same name. Shrubs and trees of this genus can be evergreen or deciduous, depending on their species.
The leaves of this tree are simple, have the shape of an ellipse. Flowers - fragrant, large size, have the color cream, white, yellow, pink. The fruit that appears after flowering has a cone-shaped shape, with flat, black seeds.
In nature, magnolia grows in North and South America, as well as in East and Southeast Asia.
Magnolia has a large number of useful properties, but despite this, it is more often used as an ornamental plant. It is hard to imagine Coca or the southern city, without the fragrant aroma of these beautiful trees.
Currently, the magnolia adorns not only summer cottages and gardens, but also city squares and parks. In many arboretums of Russia, this flowering tree is their hallmark.
Но, мало кто знает, что не только жители субтропических районов могут похвастаться цветущей магнолией, некоторые виды этого растения можно выращивать и в умеренных широтах.
Ещё в прошлом веке проводились селекционные работы по выращиванию зимостойких видов, многие из которых удачно прижились в питомниках Дальнего Востока и средней полосы России. And even in Moscow, seedlings of frost-resistant bush magnolias appeared on sale, which immediately interested amateur gardeners.
The name of this species received for the whiteness of its colors. It is a shrub or deciduous tree, the maximum height of which is up to 9 meters. The plant is decorated with glossy long leaves and cup-shaped snow-white flowers of medium size.
This species is most popular in the countries of Southern Europe, although China is considered the birthplace of its origin.
A separate group of gardeners distinguish frost-resistant species of plants, which are beautifully grown even in areas with a temperate climate.
For planting, it is necessary to choose a location according to climatic conditions. In regions with a temperate climate, it is important to choose a sunny area, securely sheltered from the wind. Any, even a slight shading of the place of cultivation of this southern beauty, may adversely affect its development.
In the southern regions, the requirements for planting a tree are much less significant, the main thing is that there is enough free space for normal plant development.
The soil for growing trees should be rich in organic matter, have a good drainage system and breathability. Unfavorable alkaline and acidic soils are considered unfavorable, but otherwise there are no special requirements for the composition of the soil.
Basically, all work on the care of magnolia is reduced to standard actions - watering, feeding and trimming the plant.
Increased attention should be paid to the irrigation of this exotic culture, because the trees and bushes need a lot of moisture. Especially important is the observance of the regular mode of irrigation for young plants in which the root system is not fully formed. In summer, the intensity of irrigation increases. It is advisable to use the water already settled, since the presence of lime in tap water adversely affects the health of the plant.
Fertilizing should be started no earlier than two years after planting the seedling, otherwise it is possible to provoke a chemical burn of the root system from substances in fertilizers.
For autumn care, you can use nitroammofosku in small doses of about 10-15 grams per 10 liters of water. But in the spring, before the beginning of the flowering period, it is desirable to use nitrogen fertilizers (250 grams of urea per 10 liters of water), and after flowering - organic fertilizers, preferably 200 grams of chicken manure add 10 liters of water.