For everyone who plans to create a lawn in their plots or in front of the house, and is going to buy grass seeds, we inform you that there is a spectacular alternative to it - the Dammer's cotoneaster plant, unique in many respects. Undoubtedly, emerald-green grass is beautiful, but somehow ordinary and troublesome, because so that it does not turn yellow in the heat, it needs to be watered daily, and in order not to spoil the look of the lawn with the wrong way overgrown with ears, regularly mow. Dammer's cotoneaster does not require such trouble. Once planted, it will please its owner with chic green for many years. In addition, it can be used not only for lawns, but also for creating evergreen living borders, fences, as a covering natural material that covers all the ugly places on the site. We invite you to get acquainted with the peculiarities of cultivation, care, reproduction of this amazing plant, as well as with some of its varieties.
Cotoneaster Dammer belongs to the rose flowers and belongs to the family of pink, that is, is a relative of all the familiar apple trees, raspberries, strawberries. It has many varieties, some of which are very tiny, no higher than 7-10 cm, others slightly taller, up to 60-90, and still others are almost giants, growing to a meter and a half. The root system of all cotone killers Dammera branched, consisting of dozens of thin roots. Small leaflets, up to 2, less often 2.5 cm in length, in shape or ovate with absolutely smooth edges, or having a small notch at the apex and a distinct vein, dividing the leaf blade in half. The color of leaves in summer is saturated green, and in the fall of all shades of crimson. Dammer's cotoneaster blooms very nicely. The photo clearly shows it. The flowering period is in May-June. Its small (up to one centimeter in diameter), but fragrant flowers have five petals of white or pinkish color and a lot of stamens, which are crowned with purple anthers. Flowers in the axils of the leaflets open and can grow singly or 2-3. But the most spectacular at the cotoneaster fruits, resembling a generously scattered coral beads up to 7 mm in diameter. On the twigs they hold until spring.
Features of the form
Kizilnik Dammera came to Europe from the central regions of China, where his wild-growing thickets effectively twine stone cliffs, spread along the mountain slopes and hills, rising above sea level to a height of 4 km. In European gardens, it has been cultivated since the beginning of the last century. For such a long time, many varieties have been bred that are suitable for growing in central Russia and in its northern regions. Cotoneaster can be called one of the most indestructible ornamental crops. Almost any kind of soil suits it, it does not require watering, it is stable to frosts and droughts, the pollution of the atmosphere does not affect its viability, but lives for about 50 years.
Use cotoneaster Dummer in landscape design
This beautiful plant can be used in different ways to give a beautiful view to your garden plot, depending on the variety. For example, Dammer Major dwarf cotoneaster is ideal as a groundcover. It grows with a magnificent carpet, which is convenient for decorating bare lands, compost pits, places that are not amenable to other types of landscaping. Also, this and other dwarf varieties are great for decorating slopes, rockeries and rock gardens, and climbing the stone walls, they can give the original look to any buildings.
Low-growing varieties, for example, Dammer Eyholz's cotoneaster, whose height can reach one meter, are better suited than others to create lively curbs and hedges. They are also planted as a central element in herbal compositions.
Seed propagation features
The fruits are spectacular and original, which from the beginning of September until the very spring pleases Dammer's cotoneaster. The photo shows how they look in the winter in the snow. Each berry can be 4 or 5 seeds. Reproduction of this type of cotoneaster seeds by seed is not the best option, but it is practiced quite often. It is believed that this is the way the plant is able to best adapt to the conditions of each plot. The main difficulty faced by gardeners is low, only about 20% seed germination. Another feature is uneven stratification. That is, some seeds sown in the fall may rise next spring, while others will “sleep” in the ground for another year. Therefore, where sown, but did not ascend cotoneaster, another year nothing else is planted.
How to sow seeds
The very process of reproduction of Dammer’s cotoneaster with seeds is as follows: in the autumn, ripe berries are harvested, the seeds are washed from the pulp and soaked in cold water. After about 30 minutes all the non-standard will emerge, and at the bottom there will be seeds that can give life to new plants. Then you can go in two ways:
1. Suitable seeds to collect, put in boxes with garden soil, sand and peat (1: 1: 1) and leave at a temperature of 0-7 ° C for up to 9 months. The soil should be a little wet all the time. Emerging shoots cover from drafts and direct sun, moderately and very carefully watered. Seedlings with 3-4 leaves are planted in open ground in early autumn or spring.
2. In the fall, the seeds are separated from the pulp, washed and sown immediately in open ground to a depth of 4 cm, watered, make shelter over them like a small greenhouse to protect it from the bright sun. Shoots can appear within 2 years from the time of sowing.
Dammer's cotoneaster, planted even by a single specimen, is soon able to occupy a plot with a radius of several meters. This plant is not just growing, it propagates itself, because the twigs touching the ground, rooted perfectly. Such "talents" mainly exhibit dwarf varieties, for example, Major, Cardinal. Middle-grown varieties, such as the Dammer Coral Beauty cotoneaster, Stockholm, are also able to take root themselves, but it is more convenient to propagate them by grafting. Suitable young green or already woody, but certainly healthy and quite powerful shoots. Green petioles are harvested in the middle of summer, slicing them so long that at least 2 internodes remain. For greater effectiveness, ready-made petioles are placed in the rotor (according to the instructions) and planted in greenhouses (non-film). Soil for them should consist of humus, garden soil and sand. Top poured more sand layer of about 5-7 cm, moistened. Petioles are placed at an angle in the sand, but so that their ends touch the ground. When they are well rooted, they are transplanted into the garden.
If you did not manage to prepare green cuttings, you can try with ligneous. To do this, in late autumn or at the very beginning of winter, shoots are cut, placed in sand and lowered into the basement. In the spring of the shoots prepare cuttings about 25-30 cm long. The further process is the same as with summer cuttings.
Almost does not cause trouble to their masters Dizmera cotoneaster. Planting and caring for him are very simple. As noted above, it can be planted on any soil in places where it is difficult for other plants. But still, in order for the cotoneaster to grow luxuriant and beautiful, it is desirable to meet several requirements. So, he loves the sun, but he feels good in the penumbra. The optimal time for planting in open ground is the beginning of spring, until the buds have blossomed, or the second half of autumn before frost. If you plan to create a hedge out of the cotoneaster, preferably into the ground, where it will decorate the garden, drive in pegs and pull the string, and then dig a groove up to 70 cm deep and 50 cm wide along it. Place the bushes in it at a distance of 35-45 cm one from another, cover with soil, which must be compacted, watered. Despite the fact that cotoneaster is not demanding on the soil, it is better that in the landing holes there should be a mixture of sand from the river coarse, soddy earth and peat.
Dammer’s cotoneaster is a real treasure for those who don’t like to tinker with fastidious green pets or are severely constrained in time, because all care for this plant consists in pruning sick and weak shoots in early spring and watering on particularly hot days, but not more often 2- 3 times a month. If necessary, they make an artistic haircut of the cotoneaster bushes, for example, when they create hedges. You can also feed the plant, so that it was especially beautiful, lush and longer bloomed. Compost and complex fertilizers that are applied to the soil in spring are suitable for dressings. Some gardeners are advised to fertilize in the summer, using for this organic matter - bird droppings or liquid manure. Cotoneaster grows so thick carpet that does not leave a chance to break through the weeds. Therefore, weeding, as a rule, is not required.
Pests and diseases
In general, Dammer's cotoneaster is almost not ill, but sometimes it can be affected by Fusarium. In such cases, the plants are treated with fungicides, and if the damage is too strong, the diseased bushes destroy. Of pests for cotoneaster are dangerous apple aphid, scytwick, plum sawfly, cotoneaster mites. The diseased plant becomes less attractive, the leaves frown, turn yellow, fall off. To control pests using insecticides.
Cotoneaster Dammer Coral Beauty
This is one of the most sought after varieties. Brought him in 1967 in the Netherlands. Externally, it is a lush shrub up to 60 cm in height with thin, hanging down and creeping along the ground shoots, capable of rooting perfectly. Coral Beauty variety unusually decorative. In summer, its elliptical leaves with a clear median vein are saturated-green. By mid-September, they become burgundy, red-purple, purple. This variety blooms in mid-spring. Its flowers densely cover the twigs, creating an unusually picturesque fragrant carpet. The variety is frost resistant enough, suitable for cultivation in central Russia.
Cotoneaster Dammer Major
This is one of the most stunted varieties. The height of its bushes rarely reaches 15 cm, more often it rises only 7-10 cm above the ground. In this tiny piece, the leaves are also small, oval, reaching 1-2 cm in length. In the summer they have a beautiful green color and become bright orange and purple in autumn. . Flowers at the cotoneaster Major are white, bloom in late spring and hold until mid-June. Berries are light red. This variety grows on any soil, including sandy and stony, frost-resistant, not particularly picky about moisture. He needs watering only in extreme heat.
Dummer Cotoneaster Sort Eichholz
This is one of the relatively tall varieties, the bushes of which are stretched to a height of 1 meter. But its branches are able to travel along the ground. Cotoneaster Dammer Eichholz is perfect for alpine slides and rock gardens, creating various compositions, hedges. Its leaves are small, in summer it is saturated green, in autumn it is red-orange. The flowers are located in the axils of the leaves and grow one by one. They bloom in the second half of spring. The fruits of Eicholz cotoneaster are slightly oblong, orange and red. This variety loves sunny areas, undemanding to moisture, quietly transfers the polluted atmosphere, but in harsh winters it requires light covering with spruce branches.
Dummer Cotoneaster Sort Skogholm
Differs in fast growth of escapes. If other representatives of the species have an annual increase of no more than 10-15 cm, and in some cases only 7 cm, then Dammer’s cotoneaster Skogholm pleases its owners with a gain of up to 1 meter during the growing season. It differs from its "fellow" he and higher growth. Bushes of this variety can reach a height of 1.5 meters. However, his shoots also manage to crawl along the ground and quickly form lush carpets. The cothodicle of Skogholm small, up to 2 cm in length, evergreen, white flowers, bloom in late spring, the fruits are very showy, purple-red. This variety is one of the few shrubs that makes a shadow. As well as other cotoneaster, it is undemanding to the soil, it tolerates the winters of the Moscow region perfectly.
There are more than a hundred species of this plant, but only some of them are used by gardeners.
- Brilliant. This shrub is from Eastern Siberia. In the wild, grows in groups. Brilliant cotoneaster reaches up to two meters in height. Elliptical shoots have thick down. Pink flowers are collected in loose corymbose inflorescences. Flowers open in May or June. Flowering occurs over 30 days. The shrub has a round black fruit. Fruits do not fall until the beginning of winter. Fruits begin to grow in the fourth year of life. The plant is used to create a hedge. Brilliant cotoneaster has been cultivated since the 19th century.
- Cotoneaster black-fruited. This variety has edible fruits. Frost-resistant shrub is found in the Caucasus, Central Asia and North China. In height reaches up to 2 meters. The shoots of the black agape fruit tree have a red-brown color. The leaves have an ovoid shape. The length of the sheet reaches 4.5 centimeters. The upper side of the sheet is dark green and the bottom is light. Pink flowers form 5-12 inflorescences. Flowering lasts up to 25 days. Various handicrafts are made from the wood of black aperium. In culture grown since 1829.
- Cotoneaster ordinary. This is a deciduous plant. It is found in the North Caucasus and the Baltic States. It grows up to 2 meters in height. It has a rounded shape. Young shoots are covered with wool down. With age, the down falls. The leaves are egg-shaped. The leaf reaches up to 5 centimeters in length. Flowers form 2-4 inflorescences. Fruits are bright red. The plant is resistant to frost and drought. In a culture grown since 1656.
- Horizontal. This evergreen species is very popular with gardeners. The kizilnik horizontal reaches up to 1 meter in height and 2 in width. The shiny leaves are round and green in color. In autumn, the leaves turn pink. Small flowers bloom in late May. The fruits ripen in September. It has been cultivated in culture since 1880.
- Dammer's Cotoneaster. Externally similar to the horizontal cotoneaster. In the wild, it is found in China. It has creeping shoots that are practically pressed to the ground. Creeping shoots allow the plant to take root on their own. The branches grow on the same plane with each other. The branches do not rise above 20-30 centimeters. The width expands to 1.5 meters. Leathery leaves have an elliptical shape. Red flowers. Fruits ripen in September and do not fall for a long time. In a culture grown since 1900.
Dammer Cotoneaster Description
Dammer cotoneaster is one type of cotoneaster. It belongs to the Pink family and is an evergreen. Wild species found in China. Looks like a horizontal type of cotoneaster. Shoots spread along the ground, which allows for a proper pruning to create a beautiful field or pattern on the plot. Growth width of one shrub - up to 1.5 meters. The branches do not rise more than 30 cm above the ground. As a result, Dammer's cotoneaster has a height that is not very large, and therefore it is excellent for decorating and covering the soil.
The leaves of the shrub are leathery and have the shape of an ellipse. The flowers are red, and the ripening of fruits (which are unfit for food) occurs by September. The average size of the cotoneaster sheet is 1.5–2 cm. The leaf color is green above and the bottom has a grayish tint.
Peduncle has 2-3 buds. The result is a few white flowers with five petals. Bees gladly pollinate the flowers of the cotoneaster major, and other varieties. This is a great honey plant that attracts insects from long distances.
The cultivated plant is bred a little over 100 years, so the culture is not as popular as many other varieties. But in Russia, Dummer's cotoneaster is eichholz grown for about 50 years, because it is inferior in popularity to the cotoneaster horizontal and brilliant.
The plant tolerates adverse climatic conditions, so it is successfully grown in northern latitudes. Feels uncomfortable in areas with a lot of moisture and high soil moisture.
There are several popular varieties of cotoneaster Dammer, description and photo, which is most common:
- Cotoneaster Major,
- Kizilnik Dummer Strabs Fileindling.
In addition, Dummer Mix cotoneaster is often used, as it perfectly adorns rocky surfaces and unsightly areas.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
This shrub has high drought tolerance. The plant is able to do without watering for a long time and does not require regular rain. Therefore, it is successfully used in various climatic conditions and comfortably feels in Central Russia.
Another plus for the Russian climate - cotoneaster perfectly tolerates frosts. Therefore, there is no need to cover it. An evergreen plant will be able to please the eye all year round. Но важно понимать, что для Дальнего Востока и Сибири морозостойкости кизильника Даммера недостаточно, потому придется для ландшафтного дизайна нужно использовать другое растение.
Disease and Pest Resistance
Что касается болезней, то они редко поражают такой кустарник, как кизильник Даммера. Если под растением слишком влажная почва, то есть вероятность заражения такой грибковой патологией, как фузариоз. The disease most often affects the roots and the lower part of the stem. It is easy to fight such a disease - it is enough to remove all infected tissues, on which there are clear signs of fungal damage. After that, it is imperative to carry out the treatment with a fungicide.
There are also preventive measures that help not pick up this fungus. First of all, it is required to monitor the soil moisture, not to get involved in irrigation and ensure normal drainage. As well as prevention will be regular loosening of the soil. So the roots of the cotoneaster will be able to get better air, and the soil will not so much retain moisture.
But the pests are very fond of Dummer’s horizontal cotoneaster. This plant can infect: spider mites and other species of mites, scale insects, as well as apple aphid. Therefore, it is necessary to closely monitor the first symptoms of the appearance of pests on the plant. It is mandatory to treat the cotoneaster with special pest control agents several times a year.
To get rid of pests in the early stages of pest detection, it is sufficient to use natural solutions, such as:
- decoction of yarrow,
- decoction of tobacco,
- soap-ash solution
- decoction of marigolds.
But in any case, a single treatment will not do. The owner will need a course that consists of 3-4 treatments carried out with an interval of 6-7 days. Then you need to follow the plant to understand whether the pests died. If such methods do not help or the lesion stage is strong, then strong chemicals will be needed, which are sold in specialized stores. In this case, the processing must be carried out according to the instructions.
Kizilnik Dummer in landscape design
In landscape design, Dummer Stockholm's cotoneaster is used in a variety of ways, since everything depends on the variety and variety. For example, Dammer Major dwarf cotoneaster creeps low, which allows it to be an excellent soil cover. With the help of such a coating, it gets to hide from the prying eyes various naked glades, ugly plots, as well as compost pits, plots with garbage and those parts that cannot be greened.
Cotoneaster Eyholts suitable for hedges and fences, as well as to create beautiful borders. This plant will be able to decorate and gardens, and paths on the territory.
If you cut the shrub correctly, you can often and successfully use it to create hedges and evergreen sculptures.
As well as the shrub looks great, if you create from it a bright green spot that will attract the attention of visitors. Since the shrub feels great on loose soils and has a strong root system, it is justifiably used to decorate slopes and hills. Those who have seen Dammer’s cotoneaster at least once in the photo will definitely want to decorate their plot with this plant.
Often planted shrub in the rock garden, and on the lower and middle tiers. And also in landscape design this plant is recommended to be used for refining stony soils.
Landing Dammer's Cotoneaster
Dummera cotoneaster in terms of planting and care - an unpretentious plant. Planting is made by saplings. The procedure is carried out in the spring, but it is possible in the fall. During the autumn planting, it is important to have time to frost, preferably in the period of leaf fall.
Dammer cotoneaster is a sun-loving plant that tolerates the open sun well.
The landing algorithm is as follows:
- A hole is needed 50 cm deep and the same width.
- A brick or pebble is laid on the bottom for drainage.
- A layer of earth is poured onto the drainage. It should consist of peat, humus and sand. If necessary, add 200 grams of lime.
- Place the seedling in the prepared hole and bury.
- The distance between seedlings - 50 cm.
When planting, the root neck should be level with the surface. Experts recommend mulching the surface near the shrub with a peat layer of 8 cm. If the shrub is used as a hedge, then it should be planted in a trench.
Cotoneaster horizontal Dammer badly transfers excess moisture, and therefore when choosing a landing site it is necessary that the depth of the groundwater was not less than two meters.
Aftercare for cotoneaster
Plant care includes watering, pruning, and feeding. As for watering, cotoneaster really dislikes excess water. Even in a dry summer, it must be watered no more than once every two weeks. If there were even small rains, watering can be done once a month. Under each bush pours a bucket of water - this is enough for a plant.
The basis of care is considered to be the frequent loosening of the ground, as well as weeding of the bushes so that weeds are not interwoven. Kizilka differs in frost resistance, but in winter, the specialists recommend to press too high branches to the ground so that they do not freeze.
In order to form the necessary hedge, the plant needs to be cut regularly. Two-year shoots are recommended to pinch the growth point, then they will bush. After the pinching procedure, the young branches start growing again, only by creating the desired shape of the bush.
Shoots are pruned after the shrub itself produces a green mass. According to the rules, per pruning can be removed from the bush to a third of the green mass. It is possible to form a bush both in height and in the required form. The form is most often done with the help of a special wooden frame. The feeding algorithm is simple:
- In the spring and autumn make a bucket of humus on 1 square meter.
- In the spring of 30 grams of mineral fertilizers in a bucket of water.
- In the summer under the bushes make superphosphate and potassium.
Organic fertilizer in the form of manure has a very positive effect on the growth and strength of the cotoneaster.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
For most diseases, Dammer's cotoneaster is rooting resistant. More often it affects pests. For example, apple aphid. If it appeared, the shoots will bend and dry out, while the leaves will start to wrinkle.
Mite is the most dangerous and frequent pest on the cotoneaster. In order to avoid its appearance, it is enough to treat the shrub with a solution of shag, tobacco or yarrow. In this case, the tick will not attack the plant. If the pest has already attacked the cotoneaster, and there is damage, then insecticides should be used.
Landscape design is popular, and more and more people want to properly and beautifully decorate their plots near the house. As one of the ornamental plants from which evergreen sculptures are formed, as well as hedges and rock gardens - Dammer's cotoneaster. This is a beautiful shrub, whose crown width reaches one and a half meters. The fruits do not possess taste, but they are not poisonous. Therefore, those who have children can not worry. And in the spring the whole fence will be covered with white flowers with a pleasant aroma.
Cotoneaster varieties Dummer during planting and care are considered undemanding culture and very unpretentious. Cotoneaster is almost not picky about the composition of the soil and perfectly takes root on different soils. He does not need increased soil moisture and fertility. But it is not advisable to plant the plant on too heavy clay soils, as well as increased acidic reactions.
Optimal conditions for the cultivation of the cotoneaster are sufficient illumination and fertile soil. Ideal loamy soil or sod land. It grows well in open areas under the sun, although it takes root well in partial shade. Perfect neighbors for the cotoneaster are hvoyniki and ornamental deciduous trees and shrubs.
The shrub is easily propagated by seeds and layering, although seed germination is low. You can also use grafting, but cuttings root too badly. You can grow cotoneaster and with the help of vaccinations on mountain ash or hawthorn. But it is better to purchase planting material in nurseries, to be sure that you bought the variety that you wanted. Also, if you buy seedlings in a nursery, you will be sure that they are healthy.
- The shrub is very branchy, and therefore the distance between the seedlings should be left sufficient for the development of the crown. Usually between seedlings leave from 50 cm to 2 meters. If you plant a hedge, the seedlings should be planted in a staggered manner at a distance of about 50-70 cm.
- In early spring, after the snow melted, or in the fall before the frost, planting pits about 50-70 cm deep are dug up.
- Be sure to plant in the pits should arrange drainage - you can lay crushed bricks or gravel. The thickness of the drainage should be at least 20 cm.
- When planting it is necessary to ensure that the root necks of seedlings were at the level of the soil.
- Saplings are taken out of containers and, together with a lump of earth, they are lowered into a hole.
- Seedlings fall asleep with a mixture of turf land, peat or humus and sand.
- The ground must be compacted and well shed.
Cotoneaster Dammer refers to drought-resistant plants. Therefore, it is necessary to water it only in a strong drought. It is enough to water the plant a couple of times a month, pouring out under each bush near a bucket of water.
If suitable conditions are created, the cotoneaster bushes will very quickly grow. Feed the cotoneaster with humus in spring or autumn. It is enough to scatter a bucket of fertilizer on the square of the earth. In the spring, in addition to humus, they also add mineral fertilizers (urea can be used) at the rate of 30 grams of top dressing per bucket of water. In the summer period, you must add superphosphate or potassium under the cotoneaster. Feed for cotoneaster can also be prepared by infusing a bucket of fresh mullein or bird droppings in a barrel of water. Fertilizer should ferment. Then it is spent on a liter under each bush, planting water in a bucket. Organic dressings increase the fertility of the soil, which the cotoneaster really likes.
The main care is weed weeding, as well as loosening the soil around the bushes. To reduce the amount of weed, soil around shrubs can be mulched. As mulch, peat will fit, which is laid around the roots with a layer up to 7 cm thick.
In the middle lane during the winter, the cotoneaster can freeze. If a snowy winter is predicted, then it is better to cover the bushes with a layer of peat or fallen leaves. Cotoneaster branches easily bend down to the ground, which makes it possible to save them from severe cold snaps. Having bent branches, it is necessary to pin them, and to cover with leaves.
When forming hedges from a cotoneaster, the branches of the plant are regularly pruned to the required height. When forming on two-year-old shoots, they pinch a growing point in order to cause a strong tillering. After that, when the shrubs give green mass, shoots begin to cut. After pinching, the young branches grow very quickly, and at the same time the hedge retains the desired shape.
For pruning you need a good garden tool - you will need a brush cutter, as well as a twine, to make it easier to adjust the height of the fence. On the level of the tensioned rope pruned branches. You can also form a fence along the frame, which is made of wooden bars. For one pruning, safe for plants, you can cut up to 1/3 of green mass.
Depending on the desire, the cotoneaster can be given a round shape, rectangular, trapezoidal. Experienced growers cut the cotoneaster three or four times in one season, achieving the shape of the bush they need. With each pruning, the surface of the border or shape becomes more and more even, as constant pruning stimulates the tillering of the bush, and it becomes thicker.
If you still decide to grow Dammer's cotoneaster out of seeds, you must first collect the fruits. The berries are slightly dried, then it is easier to separate the pulp. Then the seeds should be removed from the berries and rinsed with cool water. To determine which seeds are suitable for sowing, they must be poured into a jar of water - those seeds that remain floating on the surface are not suitable for sowing.
Only after culling the seeds can they start sowing. To do this, the seed is mixed in half with sand and peat, it is well moistened, and put in boxes that are stored until spring at a temperature of 0 degrees. So the seeds will be stratified, and in the spring they can be sown in the ground. However, there is no guarantee that even properly prepared seeds will sprout.
Cutting is the easiest way to breed a lot of cotone killer on your site, because after cutting the bushes there are a lot of twigs. The best period for grafting is June. First, the cuttings are placed in water with dissolved growth stimulants for a day. After that, the cuttings are obliquely buried in a mixture of peat and sand, shed with warm water and covered with cans. In too hot days, so that the cuttings are not picked out, the banks need to be removed. Next spring, young bushes can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Reproduction by layering
For reproduction by layering choose shoots that grow close to the ground. It is advisable to choose young shoots, make a few scratches on them, and pin the scratches to the ground. The place of attachment is covered with humus and constantly kept wet. Carry out reproduction by layering in the spring. The next spring, the young plants can be separated by cutting a branch and transplanted.
If your bushes have greatly grown, then they can be divided into several parts. Shrub dividing is a quick and easy way to breed a cotoneaster.
The bush is dug, and the root is cut into several delenok with a sharp large knife. It is possible to divide a maternal bush both in the spring, and in the fall. The resulting delenki immediately planted in a permanent place in the garden.
The main distinctive feature of this species is black berries, which soon after flowering is covered with the whole bush. In height, the variety can reach 2 meters, has oval-shaped, juicy-green leaves. The back of the leaves is covered with a nap, which in the windy weather creates the effect of silver.
This species comes into fruition on reaching the age of five. Blooms with pink flowers, collected in brushes of 12 pieces. Flowering lasts more than a month.
The black agycis can very well tolerate frosts, is completely unpretentious in care, and can grow in partial shade. It tolerates transplantation, reproduces well, even by seeds. Very often, this view is used to create live obstacles. The bush looks very attractive, has many decorative forms.
This form can reach up to 2 meters in height. Upright bushes have a very thick crown. Flowers pink color, collected in beautiful brushes. In bloom enters in May, and bloom lasts more than a month. Fruits appear on shrubs that have reached the age of four. Berries are black, edible, but tasteless.
It is not demanding to the composition of the soil, easy to clean. Propagated as a vegetative, and seed method. Very decorative look, used to create woody flower groups in the garden and to create hedges. Homeland Eastern Siberia.
Cotoneaster: its varieties and specific features
There are a huge number of cotone killers, but only a few are widely used. They can be met not only in summer houses and gardens, but also in central parks, where cotoneaster contributes to the decoration of its aesthetic appearance.
Cotoneaster black-fruited. It is found in forests of various types from China to Central Europe. You can also find it in the reserves, where it is under heavy guard. Differs in the increased frost resistance and sudden weather changes.
The black cornel is a two-meter shrub that is distinguished by shoots of red-brown color, as well as black fruits. Leaf size - no more than 5 centimeters. Their shape resembles an egg, and the color varies from green above to white-clawed below.
The process of rapid flowering begins with five years and it takes no more than 25 days. Each subsequent year, everything is repeated. This species easily tolerates transplanting, not picky about the type of soil and can grow in the shade.
The main purpose of the black-fruited cotoneaster is the decorative component. In addition, it can be a good honey plant.
Cotoneaster shiny. Appeared in the eastern part of Siberia. It can grow, both independently and with other shrubs. Its value is 2 meters. It has a bright color foliage, which can change by the beginning of the autumn period. The form of foliage - pointed.
The first fruits of the shiny cotoneaster begin to appear 4 years after planting. The flower period takes about 30 days and occurs in May. It has black fruits that can be stored on the shrubs until autumn. The flesh is distinguished by its brownish tint and tastelessness.
It can be propagated vegetatively and with the help of seeds. The main features of this type of cotoneaster are that it is not picky about the sun's rays, grows easily in almost any soil and is able to survive strong frosts.
Basically, it is used as a decorative ornament for fences and to improve the aesthetic appearance of lawns.
Cotoneaster ordinary. Occurs on mountain slopes, ranging from the North Caucasus to the Baltic. The shrub is distinguished by its upright and branchy structure, and its height reaches two meters.
Листья яйцевидного типа отличаются своей гладкостью и ярко-зеленым оттенком сверху. Снизу, поверхность листьев войлочная. Цветки имеют бело-розовую окраску, а когда они превращаются в плоды, то цвет меняется на красный.
Вне зависимости от типа почвы, такой кизильник будет чувствовать себя великолепно. Стимулирование роста происходит в солнечных местах. Суровые зимние морозы ему нипочем. Ripened fruits can delight their decorative appearance until the fall.
Planning to create a living cotoneaster hedge, this variety can be a bright decoration for it.
Cotoneaster horizontal. It originates in Central China and is a mountain growing shrub. This cotoneaster grows in the same way as it is called, that is, horizontally. The height of the shrub can reach 50 meters. Its branchy shoots are pressed to the ground.
It has rounded miniature leaves that are green in warm periods and turn purple in autumn.
Horizontal cotoneaster is very picky about soil type. It is characterized by accelerated growth and has a habit of expanding in width, which is not limited to a diameter of one meter.
The vegetative period of a bush begins in May and comes to an end in June. Flowers can be single or paired. The fruits have a spherical shape and reach a diameter of no more than 5 millimeters. Their main difference in brilliance and bright red hue. They appear in September, but a few more months will be a great addition to this ornamental plant.
Due to its excellent color and ideal aesthetic properties, this cotoneaster is the most common type. The most widely used: cascading landscaping, rocky gardens and strengthening the slopes.
Kizilnik Dammer. It is found in central China in a forested area. The shoots of this species are rooted and moderately pressed to the ground. The branch reaches 20 centimeters in height and more than 1.5 meters in width. The leaves are leathery and have a bright green color. Their size does not exceed two centimeters in length.
With the beginning of autumn, the first fruits appear that delight with their coral-red coloring. As time passes, the leaves begin to turn purple, which, in combination with bright fruits, creates an original decorative ornament.
For reproduction can be used seeds, cuttings and layering. It is characterized by rapid growth, especially on sandy soil, as well as preference for sunlight and copes well with drought. There are no problems with low temperatures even under the snow.
Cotoneaster hybrid Coral Beauty. Branched shoots and small size of this species of cotoneaster are its main recognizable feature. Flowers turn out extremely small and have white coloring. The period of rapid flowering begins in May and ends in June.
The fruits are spherical in shape and are colored red. They can be used for bird feed. The beginning of fruit ripening is the end of August and the beginning of September.
It can do without sunlight, but they allow for more rapid growth. Hybrid cotoneaster is well prepared for winter frosts. The soil can be any, up to the oxidized one, but it feels best in wet and fertile places.
Cotoneaster Coral Beauty can be a great addition to the garden interior and can be used as a ground cover element for a lawn. Many create with the help of this cotoneaster all sorts of decorative ornaments for borders and hedges.
What should be afraid of the cotoneaster
Despite its resistance to all sorts of diseases and pests, you should regularly look closely at the foliage and shoots of the cotoneaster, in order to remove the damaged elements in time.
The first enemy of the cotoneaster is the green apple aphid. The first signs of infection: the leaves begin to wrinkle, and shoots - to bend. All this can lead to their drying out.
The second dangerous opponent of the cotoneaster is the apple white mole crumb. It contributes to the mining of the leaf, after which, there remain patterned passages, which, although barely noticeable, are capable of delivering many problems in the long run.
It is also necessary to be afraid of the kizilnikovogo mite, plum sawfly and shchitovki. They are not harmful for all types of the cotoneaster, but only for some of its species. If time does not pay attention to them, foliage and branches are doomed to drying out.
Versatility of cotoneaster
Landscape design - the main scope of the cotoneaster. Today they create amazing beauties for gardens, gardens, parks and city streets, which attract attention for several months. Birds are also happy, because the fruits of some varieties of cotoneaster are an exquisite delicacy for them. Thus, the decorative component of the cotoneaster acquires not only picturesque, but also naturalness.
In an attempt to achieve greater uniqueness and double the magnificence rate when using cotoneaster, it is recommended to combine several varieties together. Given their ability to germinate in groups, they can create a more expressive beauty thanks to the distinctive features hidden in each of the cotoneaster species.
Cotoneaster can also be considered a useful plant, because its rationed use helps to get rid of a number of diseases of different severity. Chronic gastritis, epilepsy, nervous disorders, jaundice and scabies - all this is successfully treated due to the unique properties of individual types of cotone killer.
How does the reproduction process cotoneaster
Cotoneaster can breed in the following ways:
- Cuttings (summer and winter).
- By bends.
- Shrub division.
Reproduction through seeds. This method will require incredible assiduity and attentiveness. They are harvested from the ripe fruit of the cotoneaster. Only high-quality seeds should be selected, since only they can start the germination of the cotoneaster. After completion of the selection, they must be placed in a container with water. In the case of the ascent of some seeds, they should be immediately removed. This means that they are not viable. The share of such unsuccessful seeds can reach 60 percent.
Be prepared for the fact that the seeds can not immediately go up. Often you have to wait a whole year. To speed up the process of their germination, it is recommended to apply the method of stratification. It involves the mixing of pure sand and peat with seeds, as well as their subsequent moistening and movement into special boxes or pots. The layer of the mixture should be equal to 30-40 centimeters.
In this state, the seeds must lie until the beginning of spring. It is very important to maintain zero temperature for them. The seeds of most varieties of cotoneaster need stratification for one or two months. In individual cases, this period may increase from 6 to 12 months.
Important note! Seed treatment with sulfuric acid for 5–20 minutes can shorten the duration of stratification to one month.
The result of such efforts is the following: up to 20 percent increase in germination for seeds.
There is another way to accelerate the germination of seeds. To do this, it is necessary to prepare the appropriate ground for the seedboxes. It is best to use a mixture of peat, river sand and humus. Their proportions should be on the same level. You can pre-soak the seeds in water, which will improve their growth.
It is necessary to deepen the seeds within a centimeter, and from above fill it with a layer of sand in the same volume. Watering should be done carefully and only with a watering can. Otherwise, the soil layer will be washed out and the seeds will be on the surface. But this is easily remedied by the next deepening of the seeds.
The first periods of germination should be protected from direct sunlight and cold air. For this it is enough to use special shields. After the emergence of seedlings with developed leaves, they should be carefully transferred to the open ground. This can be done not only next spring, but also at the end of the current season.
Reproduction through green and woody cuttings (summer). This method is characterized by an easier approach. It is necessary to choose mature shoots, which should be developed and large. Soft and insufficiently woody shoots are unsuitable for reproduction.
Selected shoots must be cut into pieces, up to 15 centimeters in length. They must include two internodes. To speed up the process of maturation of the root system, you can use a special solution to stimulate growth, which is created from heteroauxin. For its preparation you will need a liter of water and one tablet of this substance.
Planting cuttings carried out in prepared glass greenhouses. The soil is created from a mixture of humus soil and sand or sod mixture. A layer of coarse sand should be poured over the soil, which should be washed well beforehand. Its layer can reach 3-5 centimeters.
Before planting cuttings at an angle of 45 degrees and with a recess of 5 centimeters, it is desirable to water the soil plentifully.
Root growth can range from 30 to 95 percent. As the cuttings germinate, it is advisable to give them more fresh air. Already by the beginning of autumn their root will be able to grow stronger, which will allow to begin transplanting cuttings into open ground.
Important note! The first winter for them can be disastrous. To keep them intact, it is recommended to cover them with spruce leaves or a sheet.
Reproduction through woody cuttings (winter). It includes several differences in comparison with summer cuttings. Their preparation is necessary to do in the late fall or early winter. Up until spring, they should be stored in sand tanks in the basement. After that, they should be cut into 10-20 centimeters, leaving 3 to 5 buds. The method of rooting remains the same as in the case of summer cutting.
Reproduction through bends. This method is relevant only for ground cover varieties of the cotoneaster. Their shoots adjacent to the ground can be the ideal seedlings. To do this, these shoots must be attached with staples, and sprinkled with a small layer of humus. After a while, they will begin to form their own root system.
In the spring, it is necessary to separate the formed bush with a shovel from the rooted escape. Then it must be carefully dug and planted in the right place, guided by the standard rules of the cotoneaster.
The effectiveness of this breeding is extremely high, because while the shoot, attached to the ground by clips, will be associated with the main bush, it will receive all the necessary nutrients and moisture.
If you leave everything as it is, then such a shoot will grow dynamically, covering a significant area of the site and will become an original alternative to a grass lawn.
Reproduction through the division of the shrub. The easiest and most effective breeding method. If you already have an overgrown cotoneaster bush, then it is enough to divide it into several parts that can live their life in a previously prepared area.
Their root system will already be sufficiently developed, and they will be able to take root in a new place very quickly. The division of the adult bush can be made in spring and autumn.
How to plant cotoneaster
It is recommended to plant a cotoneaster at a distance of 0.5 to 2 meters from each other. It all depends on the size of his crown and the age of the plant itself. It should be deepened by the level of the root collar. The minimum requirements for this - 50-70 centimeters. It is highly recommended to create a 20-centimeter drainage of gravel or broken brick.
Useful recommendations for the care of cotoneaster
Virtually all types of cotoneaster do not need specific care, but some recommendations need to be taken into account.
- With the arrival of spring, when serious frosts recede, the soil needs mineral fertilizers. It can be urea, which should be diluted in water. Enough 25 grams per bucket of water.
- Before the first flowers appear, every square meter of soil should be fertilized with 15 grams of potassium sulfate. Instead, you can use 60 grams of granular superphosphate.
- It is recommended to regularly monitor the cleanliness of the soil, removing weeds.
- Regular irrigation should be established within a few times a month, and its intensity should be at the level of 6–8 liters for each cotone kiln bush.
- From time to time to pruning shrubs. Use your imagination and give it uniqueness. Cotoneaster does not suffer from this.
- Some types of cotoneaster may need additional protection from winter frosts. To do this, mulch the soil with peat and bend the branches of the bush.
Planting a cotoneaster and caring for it may initially cause a lot of difficulties for an inexperienced gardener, but after a while it comes to the realization that almost anyone can handle it. This applies not only to well-known varieties of the cotoneaster, but also those that only a few know about.
The main thing is to accept the specific features of the cotoneaster and not to abandon useful methods that are aimed at the dynamic formation of the root system.
This plant, though gaining popularity, but still remains a mysterious creation of nature for many people. Having seen such beauty in your garden, they will not only change their attitude towards the cotoneaster, but they will certainly want to decorate their garden with it.
Describing cotoneaster, I want to note its constancy. The plant is able to grow in one place up to 50 years, forming bushes or small trees. Depending on the species there are deciduous and evergreen representatives. The bush is densely covered with miniature leaves of an egg-shaped form, the plate is whole, dark green in some varieties with a white pattern.
In autumn, the leaves get beautiful shades of red. The location of the leaves next. Inflorescence - a brush or shield, formed from small white or pink flowers. After flowering, the fruits are formed - green apples, and at the end of summer they become, depending on the variety, black, red, orange or brick-red. Inside the fruit from 2 to 5 seeds. The root system is very powerful, it runs close to the surface, thanks to which the cotoneaster is often used to hold slopes.
The shape of the bush is upright or creeping. There are also small trees, the height of which does not exceed 8 - 10 meters. Wood is used for the handles of knives and garden tools, tubes. A cotoneaster hedge is found in cities, squares and along roads. When describing the cotoneaster brilliant, I would like to note that it is most often used in city landscaping due to survival and frost resistance. Watering this plant is not necessary, just wash off the dust from the leaves.
Types and varieties
Cotoneaster (Сotoneaster) belongs to the Rosaceae family. About 80 species and varieties of cotoneaster are used in landscape design, they are great for any garden. There are varieties, such as, for example, a kizilnik shining, a black agycarpus, splayed cotoneaster, common cotoneaster or whole cotoneaster, which are widely distributed in the urban landscape, most often in the form of a hedge.
There are also unusual varieties with shoots clinging to the ground. Kizilnik Dummer and kievilnik ivolistny, thanks to the creeping shoots, openwork foliage and bright berries that can hold on the branches throughout the winter, create a beautiful design. There are also rare protected varieties, such as Alaun cotoneaster, forming stumps in the tundra zone on the rocky scree of the Barents Sea.
Cotoneaster brilliant or cotoneaster lucidus is a common and long-cultivated species in cities, which is home to Eastern Siberia. In the wild, there are two-meter specimens, forming dense thickets or growing as a single tree. Cotoneaster shiny - deciduous plant with smooth shiny leaves, up to 5 cm in length. The sheet plate is solid, the edges are smooth. Stem erect. Pink flowers are collected in corymbose inflorescence.
Duration of flowering month, from May or June. After flowering, small black fruits are formed. Since the beginning of the 19th century, the bush has been cultivated in culture for landscaping gardens and parks. The brilliant cotoneaster fence is part of the urban landscape. Shrub planted along the roads. Due to its durability, it copes well with dust and gas.
Kizilka kizilka is a tree up to 3 meters in height. The leaves are small, bluish-green. The underside of the leaf and young shoots are covered with white fuzz. Inflorescence of 7-12 pale pink flowers. Abundant flowering begins in May. At the end of summer, bright red fruits of spherical shape ripen. After the onset of cold weather the fruits do not fall. Thanks to the berries, the bushes without leaves retain their decorative effect for a long time. Feels great in the gardens of central Russia.
Kizilnik many-flowered grows in Central Asia, Western Siberia, Western China and the Caucasus. Forms the undergrowth of mixed and deciduous forests. In the wild is protected. The plant reaches a height of 3 meters, thin young branches are covered with down. The leaves change their color during the year: in the spring they are silver-green, in the summer they are green, in the autumn they become red.
Leaf shape ovoid, wide, up to 5 cm in length. Inflorescence is corymbose, it includes from 6 to 20 large flowers. Цветение, очень обильное, покрывает весь куст и длится до 25 дней. С августа куст покрывается красными плодами.
Сорт менее морозоустойчивый, чем предыдущие. Легко переносит засуху. Высаживая его на дачном участке необходимо позаботиться о плодородном грунте, можно дополнительно обогатить землю известью.
Кизильник Корал Бьюти
Cotoneaster Coral Beauty is a low-growing shrub capable of growing up to 50 cm in height, and wide in area to close to 2 m. The bush is very sprawling, capable of strongly branching. This cotoneaster is evergreen. The leaves are shiny, green, do not exceed 2 cm. During flowering, the bush is covered with white flowers with a pleasant smell. Fruits are light red and remain on the branches until the next season.
For planting in the garden is better to choose a place that is closed from direct sunlight. Soils fit any, but not marshy. Young plants after planting need frequent watering and mulching. You can feed them with nitrogenous fertilizer. The bush is easy to shape, for this, in March it is cut to 1/3.
The bush is easily propagated by basal layers and cuttings. Cotoneaster hybrid Coral Beauty is independently difficult to propagate; it is better to purchase seeds in a store.
Alaun cotoneaster in the wild is found on the territory of Russia, and more specifically on the Central Russian Upland. A relatively small plant up to 1.5 m in height. In the spring, the branches are covered with fuzz, then they become smooth and green, and closer to the autumn I get a reddish tint. The leaves are small, oblong, ovate. The underside of the leaf is covered with a fine down. Racemes, 4-7 flowers of pale pink color. Fruits are 6-9 mm in diameter, black, with a touch.
The Alaun cotoneaster is included in the Red Book and is protected in the regions of the central part of Russia.
Cotoneaster small-leaved - frost-resistant look. This evergreen cotoneaster reaches a height of up to 15 cm. The leaves are small, broadly elliptical, up to 8-15 mm long, glossy. The front side is dark green, the back side is light green. Flowering with small white flowers begins in May. Fruits are orange-red, rounded. Perfect for rock garden.
Kizilnik felt - deciduous plant up to 1.5 m in height. Spreading branches covered with whitish fuzz. The lamina is light green, the shape is elliptical. The thyroid inflorescence consists of pink flowers. At one place can grow and maintain a decorative look up to 20-30 years.
Cinnabar - Red Cotoneaster
Cinnabar - red cotoneaster is endemic to Eastern Finoscandia. It is rare, listed in the Red Book of Russia. In height grows to one meter, often has the form of elfin. Living in cold regions and on poor soils, during the season practically does not give a gain. The leaf shape is broadly elliptical, no more than 5 cm, covered with down, the upper part of the leaf is colored green, the underside is yellow-green.
The location of the leaves on the stem alternately. Small flowers are painted white and green with a pinkish edge. After flowering, rounded cinnamon red fruits are formed. The plant prefers moist stony river banks, scree on the mountain slopes. Flowering begins in June, and ends in September.
Cotoneaster splayed is a spreading bush 1.5 m in height. The leaves are dark green, egg-shaped, no longer than 2 cm. The flowers are small, collected in three in the sinuses. After flowering appear rich - red fruits with two bones. Very hardy representative, not prone to disease and pest damage. The bush blooms profusely and bears fruit, preserving its decorative effect from May to September. At the end of the summer, the foliage becomes reddish.
Suitable for very dry and saline soils. Able to grow in one place for a long time, sometimes up to 40 years. Ideal for decoration of hedges.
Cotoneaster on a shtambe
The cotoneaster on the trunk is a very decorative tree with beautiful flowers and berries. The height depending on the trunk can vary from 60 to 1.5 m. For the trunk, other members of the Rosaceae family are used. These can be pears, apples, hawthorn and mountain ash. The cotoneaster horizontal and atropurpurea are grafted onto shtamb, less often other creeping varieties. Their prostrate shape looks very good and is easy to shape.
The ivoliferous cotoneaster is a creeping member of the family with shoots that are tightly pressed to the ground and spread out to 2 m. The plant does not rise above 50 cm in height. This variety belongs to conditionally evergreen plants, since the leaves do not fall off but overwinter on the plant. Blooming luxuriant, with white flowers, gathered in an inflorescence in the form of a brush. Fruits are red, formed at the end of summer and stored on the bush almost all winter.
In the garden, you can choose almost any place: the bush feels good both in open spaces and in partial shade. It will suit almost any soil, with the exception of marshy soil. Before planting in the soil it is necessary to provide a drainage system.
The cotoneaster rising up has one more name - the cotoneaster pressed. Found in the territory of the western part of China. Prefers well-lit mountain slopes. It does not exceed 50 cm in height, but branches well, forming a lush shrub with dark red stems. Leaves egg-shaped with a pointed tip and a wavy edge, not more than 1.5 cm in length, fall off. In May-June, the flowering period begins. The flowers are pinkish red, no more than two in the inflorescence. In August, ripen light red fruits, globular in shape, 7 mm in diameter.
The soil prefers well-hydrated and fertile. Frosts and direct sunlight is not afraid. It is easy to propagate by cuttings and layering. For seed propagation, it is necessary to observe stratification.
Cotoneaster horizontal variegatus is common in western and central China. This species can be found at an altitude of 1000 - 2000 m in the mountains of China. Deciduous shrub grows to 50 - 60 cm. Growing, branches form the shape of a dome. The leaves are shiny, dark green, densely cover the entire bush. In autumn they become saturated red, in November they fall. Flowering lasts less than a month, pinkish-red flowers.
In late September, red fruits are formed from 4 to 5 mm in diameter. Fruits can remain on branches up to 4 months. Type unpretentious, resistant to frost and pests.
Common or Full Edged
Cotoneaster ordinary is a deciduous plant, up to 2 m high. Young shoots are covered with fine down, but become smooth with age. The leaves are ovate or rounded, green, dull, up to 5 cm long. The underside of the leaf is covered with a white-haired or grayish felt. Kizilka full bloom in early spring, forming a corymbose inflorescence of 2-4 flowers. Fruits are bright red, spherical.
In the wild, it is found in the Caucasus and in Western Europe. Since 1656 used in landscaping. It tolerates winter and drought.
Planting and caring for cotoneaster horizontal will not be a hassle even for a novice gardener. Despite the simplicity, the soil is better to pick loose, with neutral acidity. On clayey heavy soils with close bedding, the plant is most likely not to take root, it will often hurt.
Planting and caring for dummer cotoneaster does not differ from other cotone killers, but it must be taken into account that the varieties of this type are less cold-resistant and do not tolerate overwetting. Cotoneaster - a plant, planting and caring for which is not associated with special conditions. It is so undemanding that it does not even need regular watering.
Powerful roots of the plant are able to independently obtain a sufficient amount of moisture from the soil. Most varieties do not require additional watering, only at the time of planting. In very hot and dry seasons, they are sprayed with water to remove dust. After planting, young plants are watered and mulched to preserve moisture at the roots.
Cotone killers are ideal for pruning, in order to form from them hedges and geometric shapes. New branches grow quickly, the bush becomes more dense and strong. After planting, pruning is done by 1/3 to help the plant take root. You can carry out and rejuvenating pruning of the bush, cutting off almost the entire plant.
Top dressing is extremely rare, most plants do without it. In early spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied, and before flowering, fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. This will help the lush bush bloom and tie more fruits. Responsive cotoneaster and organic fertilizers: they can be applied during planting, mixed into the planting soil.
Secrets of preparing soil for seedlings
All cotoneaster plants are not demanding on soils, but for better survival and adaptation of the plant, it is advisable to make a mixture of peat, turf soil and sand at a ratio of 1: 2: 2 before planting. Cotoneaster does not like acidic soils. In some cases, an additional 300 grams of lime per plant is added.
How to get rid of flower midge?
The scientific name of the flower midge is sciaride. It does not harm the plant, only bothers the owner of the flower. Problems with the plant may occur due to the larvae that live in the roots of the flower. The cause of the appearance of midges is waterlogging and a high content of organic matter in the ground due to the use of folk fertilizers, such as tea (tea leaves), and sleeping coffee. To cope with it will help any insecticide, changing the soil or changing the mode of irrigation.
Planting and breeding
Planting cotoneaster process is simple and affordable for a novice gardener. But to get the best result, you must meet certain conditions.
Cotoneaster in winter does not require additional shelter. Most varieties, especially the ancestor of which has become a shiny cotoneaster, are able to easily tolerate extreme cold. Dymera cotoneaster is more sensitive to cold and, in the case of a harsh, snowless winter, needs shelter. Shelter also have young plants planted this year.
When and how to plant seedlings in the ground?
Young plants obtained from seeds are planted in open ground for 1-2 years of life. Such plants require prepared soil, abundant watering and mulching with sawdust of at least 6 cm. Cuttings from young shoots are ready for planting in a permanent place this autumn. Cuttings cut from woody branches in the fall should be placed in the sand and left in a cool place for the whole winter, and in the spring be planted in pots to form roots.
Propagated by layering: in the spring they press a branch to the ground, fix it, and in the fall cut it off. The plant can be transplanted to a new place only in spring.
In order to know how to plant a cotoneaster, it is necessary to take into account its designation purpose and features of the variety. In any case, do not plant closer than 50 cm from each other.
Plant cotoneaster can be on almost any site. It feels great in the open spaces of the sun and in partial shade. Poor survives in places with close bedding. Before planting a shiny cotoneaster, it is necessary to dig a hole or trench (if you plan to plant for a green hedge) with a depth and width of about 50 cm. A drainage height of 10 - 20 cm must be put on the bottom. You can use crushed stone or broken brick as a drainage. Pre-pour into the pit the soil consisting of 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of peat (or compost), 2 parts of sand. The plant is abundantly watered and fed, you can use the root stimulator. Special attention during planting should be paid to the location of the root collar: it should be above ground level.
Application in landscape design
In the urban landscape, cotoneaster is used for planting as a hedge. To do this, suitable varieties such as cotoneaster shiny, cotoneaster ordinary and cotoneaster black-fruited. The cotoneaster hedge will perfectly protect against dust and at the same time will not suffer from the pollution of motorways. The bush is easily formed, turning into dense thickets of densely woven branches. From the cotoneaster, the brilliant form is not only a hedge: it perfectly transfers curly hairstyle, including to the popular form of geometric objects.
Cotoneaster Dammera prefers moist and nutritious soil, but it can perfectly replace ordinary lawn in places with insufficient lighting. Under the crowns of trees of this type, you can create a dense green carpet with red berries. For the formation of balls and hemispheres suitable cotoneaster splayed. It can be planted on the loamy soils of rockeries as curbs. Kizilnik splayed looks great and as a single plant on the background of the lawn. Cotoneaster horizontal in landscape design, due to its small size and evergreen leaves, is often used as a single plant. You can plant this species and as a group, forming various forms of them and complementing low perennials.
In landscape design, the cotoneaster horizontal is perfect for regions with severe winters. Cotoneaster Alaunsky beautiful view, which could be used in landscape design. Its beautiful berries are red first, and then turn black. But at present, the species is listed in the Red Book and is not widely used in culture. The cotoneaster shrub maintains its decorativeness for several seasons or a whole year.
The ability of some species to preserve red berries in winter makes it particularly attractive for landscape design.
General description of cotoneaster
Cotoneaster grows rather slowly, valued for a dense crown, good branching, undemanding of soil and light, resistance to dust, gas pollution, drought and frost. Growing cotoneaster is a simple matter, and it can grow in one place up to 50 years and will not require a transplant!
Small cotoneaster leaves, dark green and shiny, become red in autumn. Moreover, some species of cotoneaster will not lose foliage for the winter either - evergreen beauties will simply snow themselves.
Flowers in the cotoneaster are small, white or pink, can be collected in inflorescences, but still will not be of particular decorative value. But they will attract butterflies and bees (cotoneaster are considered good honey plants).
But what this shrub is especially appreciated for is the red or black fruit that appears by the end of summer and delights the eye before winter. Those who have children, do not worry - the bright fruits are not poisonous. However, one should not expect taste and benefit from them: many amateur gardeners unknowingly plant a cotoneaster at the site, confusing it with cornel (Cornus mas). Cornels come from the Caucasus, are valuable for their vitamin acidic fruits, and the products of the cotoneaster are almost tasteless.
Application cotoneaster in landscape garden design
Due to the strong branching, dense lining and unpretentiousness, cotoneaster is indispensable for planting in a low hedge or border. A brilliant or kizilnik cotoneaster fence quietly withstands the merciless urban conditions, so it can be found in parks, squares and along highways.
Slow growth allows the cotoneaster to be one of the best plants for topiary haircuts. The most popular topiary forms - balls, cubes, hemispherical pillows - can be created by any summer resident, subject to certain rules.
The most stunted cotoneaster such as Dammer's cotoneaster, used to create shrub lawn. A lawn of shrubs effectively replaces an ordinary lawn on problem areas of the garden - under trees, on relief differences (slopes, slopes) and on other areas difficult for lawn mowers.
Cotoneaster looks great in both single and group plantings. A variety of shapes and sizes will allow it to fit into almost any composition, because in the genus Cotoneaster there are both upright and low-body cotone killers of various sizes, with different shades of foliage and flowers of fruits. Landscape designers say that these plants are particularly well combined with conifers. Low species can be used in rock gardens and rockeries.
Planting, breeding, care
Landing: timing and technology
Like any leafy shrub, cotoneaster is preferable to plant in the spring, when the buds swell, but before the foliage blooms. In each region, this happens at different times. If you live in a warm region - you can safely plant a cotoneaster in the fall, during the beginning of the massive leaf fall of the trees.
Such strict terms of planting are necessary for normal survival of seedlings with an open root system or seedlings dug out with a clod of earth. If you have purchased a seedling with a closed root system (in a pot), plant it in summer, but it will be necessary to plant on a cool, overcast day. The optimum age of seedlings is from 2 to 4 years.
Place for landing can be any, because the cotoneaster transfers shading. Although its decorative qualities are best manifested in a sunny area.
The pit for planting should be larger than the size of the earthen coma or root system, it is advisable to drain on heavy soils to avoid stagnation of water in the soil and rotting of the roots. As mentioned above, cotoneaster is not picky about soil composition, but adding fresh fertile soil with 200 grams of lime to the pit during planting will significantly improve bush life. During planting, it is important to ensure that the root neck is not above or below the soil level, otherwise the plant will die. Остальные процедуры стандартны: легкая утрамбовка грунта после посадки, обильный полив, мульчирование торфяной крошкой, опрыскивание «Цирконом» для снижения стресса…
Как ухаживать за кизильником
Уход за кизильником донельзя прост. Обычно за ним вообще не ухаживают после того, как саженец окончательно прижился. Можно ограничиться поливом куста во время засухи и обрезкой засохших ветвей. But if you want to see the cotoneaster in all its glory, to these activities you can add periodic loosening of the soil under the bush after watering, weeding, feeding, molding pruning and cleaning the crown of evergreen and semi-evergreen species. Cleaning is done with a water jet from a hose to remove dust and small debris. Forming pruning of the cotoneaster is carried out in the spring before leafing and no more than a third the length of the shoots.
Feed the cotoneaster in the usual way: in the spring - with any nitrogenous fertilizer (urea, ammonium nitrate, etc.), and before flowering - with potash-phosphate (potassium sulfate, superphosphate). The flow rate of your chosen fertilizer will be shown on the package. Instead of potassium phosphate fertilizer you can use wood ash. The rate of its introduction - 3 cups per 1 m2 of soil.
Diseases and pests cotoneaster
Kizilka rarely hurts, because it is resistant to viral and bacterial infections. Sometimes it can be affected by fusarium, a fungal infection that is activated when the soil moisture is high and affects the roots and the lower part of the stem. Fusarium on the cotoneaster can be managed by removing damaged tissue and treating the plant with fungicides. In order not to encounter this infection, it is advisable not to forget about the drainage during planting and periodically loosen the soil.
But with animal parasites cope more difficult. Cotoneaster can infect apple aphid, mites and shieldweed. If you noticed the enemy in time - you can limit yourself to treating the bush with a decoction of yarrow, tobacco, marigolds, or a soap-ash solution. And repeat the treatment will have 3-4 times with an interval of 5-6 days. If you see that the entire bush from top to bottom is covered with pests, it is better not to use powerful insecticides (Aktellik, Aktara, etc.).
How to easily propagate cotoneaster
Reproduction of the cotoneaster is possible in the following ways:
The first method is the longest, dreary and unreliable. Germination of the cotoneaster seeds, even after special treatment is very low. Seeds extracted from the fruit of the cotoneaster are tested for quality in a vat of water (empty seeds should float up), and then sent to a stratification (keeping in a moist environment at a low temperature) to improve germination. In the spring, after the end of stratification, they can be etched with fungicides, treated with “Zircon”, but there will still be few seedlings - a maximum of 60%.
The second method is the most popular and practical. Best of all, the cuttings will take root in July. Before planting the cuttings in a nutrient mixture of peat and sand, it is recommended to put them in water with any stimulator of root formation (for example, “Root”). It has been noticed that rooting occurs better at high humidity, therefore many gardeners build shelters made of polyethylene or plastic bottles for the cotoneaster shanks.
The simplest and most reliable way is reproduction by layering. However, it is more suitable for creeping, ground cover species of the cotoneaster, as it is their natural way of vegetative propagation.
The fourth method - the division of the bush - is effective for the reproduction of old shrubs. This is the fastest way. Reproduction by dividing a bush is not possible for the whole season, but only in terms suitable for planting plants with an open root system (see above).
Popular species and varieties of cotoneaster
Cotoneaster brilliant (Cotoneaster lucidus).
Growing area: The natural homeland is Eastern Siberia, but in culture it can grow in Western Siberia and Europe.
The size and shape of the bush: Bush height 2, at least 3 m, rounded, with upright growth.
Decorative qualities: The foliage is thick, glossy, dark green. In late May, pink flowers bloom at the cotoneaster. In the fall, the leaves turn red and fall, but until November, round and shiny black fruit hang on the bush.
Requirements for environmental conditions: There are no special requirements for cultivation (basic requirements see above). Differs in high winter hardiness and frost resistance.
Kizilnik brilliant perfectly tolerates a haircut, and therefore valued as one of the best shrubs for hedges up to one and a half meters. The step of planting in a single-row hedge depends on the size of an adult plant and averages about a meter to obtain a dense hedge. Absolutely appropriate, this look will look in decorative groups and on the edge of large lawns.
Kizilnik brilliant strongly resembles another species - cotoneaster black-fruited (Cotoneaster melanocarpus). The latter is distinguished by larger leaves, loose buds, better winter hardiness and edibility of its fruits.
Do not confuse these types of cotoneaster with blood-red dogwood (Cornus sanguinea), also known as dören or svidina. It has black fruit, but it can be easily distinguished by its bright red branches, especially noticeable in winter.
Cotoneaster horizontal (Cotoneaster horizontalis)
Growth area: The homeland of this species is China, where it grows along the mountain slopes. From the end of the nineteenth century, gardeners began to actively use the cotoneaster horizontal in the landscape design of European gardens. By the way, the shrub will take root well in Siberia.
The size and shape of the bush: The maximum height of the plant - 1 m, but usually it is somewhat lower. The horizontal cotoneaster crown grows to 1.5–2 meters, making it look like a large pillow with wide-spread branches arranged in layers.
Decorative qualities: This is an evergreen species with small leathery leaves, arranged alternately with mathematical precision. In May, flowering occurs (hot pink flowers), which can be observed for three weeks, but the flowers are not very decorative. But by September the bush will be burnt with crimson and mature medium-sized, but numerous bright red fruits that will not fall off until spring.
Environmental requirements: Worse than other species, tolerates high soil moisture, winter hardiness and high frost resistance. One of the most slow-growing species, does not need frequent pruning.
Horizontal cotoneaster, along with brilliant cotoneaster, is the most popular type of landscape design. It is used to create borders, for the design of retaining walls, mixborders, rock gardens and rockeries, as well as to strengthen and decorate the slopes. In general, this is a great decoration for the garden in any compositions.
Cotoneaster horizontal has several varieties, the most common of which are:
- ‘Variegatus’ - 30-40 cm tall, has a narrow white-cream border, looks gorgeous in the fall.
- ‘Perpusillus’ - very low and slow-growing variety (height 15-20 cm)
- ‘Saxatilis’ - differs with recumbent twigs and tiny leaves.
Cotoneaster Dammer (Cotoneaster dammeri)
Growing area: Homeland from Central China, this species is well established in Europe.
The size and shape of the bush: The branches of the plant are raised only 20-30 cm high, but they expand 1.5 m wide. The branches are very strongly pressed to the ground and themselves take root remarkably.
Decorative qualities: Decorative qualities are similar to the qualities of a cotoneaster horizontal.
Requirements for environmental conditions: There are no special requirements, the winter hardiness is normal, but for conditions of Siberia and the Far East the plant will not work.
It is used in landscape design in the same way as the previous one, but it is often still used to create a shrub lawn.
Here are some proven varieties of Dummer’s cotoneaster:
- Coral Beauty - about 50 cm tall, has red-orange fruit.
- Eichholz - distinguished by large single bright fruits. The most frost-resistant grade.
- Stogholm is a real giant, reaching a height of 1 m with bright red fruits.
The look similar to Dummer's cotoneaster is Cotoneaster adpressus. He has one drawback that limits his use in gardening - he requires shelter for the winter.
Cotoneaster ordinary (Cotoneaster integerrimus)
Growing area: grows throughout Europe, from the Northern Baltic to the Caucasus Mountains, usually found on mountain slopes.
Size and shape of the bush: A rounded bush can reach up to 2 m in height, shoots are directed upwards.
Decorative qualities: Wide, dark green leaves on top of a cotoneaster, gray and felt below. Young branches are also pubescent. Flowers in inflorescences pale pink. The fruits of the cotoneaster are bright red, until September they will hold on to the branches and attract birds.
Requirements for environmental conditions: There are no special requirements, the cotoneaster successfully takes root in central Russia and is distinguished by good drought resistance and winter hardiness.
In culture, common cotoneaster is grown just over half a century, but not as widespread as a shiny cotoneaster or horizontal cotoneaster. Most often used for planting in a fence.
Another underutilized species is Cotoneaster racemiflorus (Cotoneaster racemiflorus), characterized by smaller and lighter leaves with white-haired pubescence below. It is considered promising for central Russia.
Other perspective views for use in landscape design can be:
- Cotoneaster Alaunsky (Cotoneaster alaunicus), the natural area of which covers the whole of Russia (except for the northern regions),
- Kizilnik splayed (Сotoneaster divaricatus), which is distinguished by an interesting dome-shaped crown and red autumn color.