Swede - what kind of vegetable is it? For therapeutic and nutritional properties, a high-yielding root crop resembles a well-known turnip. It is famous for its high content of microelements and vitamins. This is a biennial cruciferous plant with fleshy dissected leaves. In the first year of ripening, the vegetable develops a large flat-round root crop, towering above the soil, and a rosette of leaves. In the second year, it blooms and produces seeds. The thickening of the root begins on day 40 after germination. The flesh of rutabaga is rather hard yellow or white in color.
It is known from reliable sources that our ancestors “tamed” the vegetable crop. Some claim that nature itself gave people this valuable vegetable by naturally crossing cabbage and turnip.
In many countries of the world, she is loved and revered. It is especially appreciated in Germany, where very tasty delicacies are made from it. In this country, there is even a popular fairy tale about swede, as we have in Russia about a turnip. It was brought to Russia not so long ago - in the 16th century, and immediately became widely known among the population. However, with the advent of potatoes, its cultivation has declined sharply, for which reason it is difficult to say. But in the countries of far abroad and the Baltic whole plantations are set aside for its cultivation. There swede is very appreciated.
Growing and caring for root vegetables
The plant tolerates cold, so it is grown even in the northern points of agriculture. Mature plants normally tolerate frosts up to -6 o C, young roots - up to -4 o C. Seeds begin to grow at + 2 ... + 4 o C. The most acceptable temperature for the development of vegetable culture is + 16 ... + 20 o C.
When cultivating you need to take care of lighting to get a high yield. It grows well on wet soils vegetable. Swede is often affected by various diseases, so it requires careful care. The best soil for its cultivation is sandy and loamy with a neutral reaction. Also suitable cultivated peat. Stony, marshy and sandy areas are not suitable for cultivation at all.
Before sowing the soil should be fertilized and lime. For these purposes, rotted manure, compost, phosphate and potash organic fertilizers are suitable. Extremely needs large quantities of boron. If you comply with the above requirements, you will grow sweet, juicy and tasty rutabaga. What kind of plant it was was described above, and you will learn about the useful qualities later.
It should be noted that the vegetation period at the root is quite long - 115 days. To speed up this process, you can plant it seedling method or sowing (seeds). Before planting, the seeds should be put in warm water for half an hour. Then wrap them in a damp cloth and hold for six hours. After all the manipulations, dry the seeds and disperse them into the holes made in advance to a depth of 3 cm, while powdering with ordinary tooth powder.
Vegetable growers recommend adding a little superphosphate along with the seeds so that the young do not experience a deficiency of phosphorus. An important condition: before planting the soil should be wet. After sowing, the beds should be compacted, and after four days, loosen the soil crust. The first shoots will appear on the sixth day. This pair of leaves will grow on the 10th day. In the second phase of the leaves, thinning is made between the beds up to 10 cm.
The procedure is repeated after a few weeks. During one season, 2 loosening between the beds and at least three weeding is carried out. Ground lime or ash will help to protect the plant from infection with cruciferous fleas. Fertilizer sprayed on the third day after disembarkation. Do not forget that moisture-loving swede (see photo below), so in dry weather, the vegetables must be watered (two liters of liquid per 1 sq. M). The soil should be moistened to the full depth, so that the roots get enough moisture.
It is recommended to water the solution with fermented grass. You can eat the fruit when they reach 6-7 cm. Harvesting is carried out before the onset of frost. In order not to damage the peel of the vegetable, the tops should be carefully cut with a sharp knife. Then it is placed in dry boxes and covered with peat or sand. Stored at a temperature not higher than +4 o С swede. Cultivation and care consist in regular weeding, systematic loosening of beds, feeding, watering and combating dangerous pests of a given crop.
Description of varieties
Until recently, the choice of varieties of this valuable plant was very scarce. Today in the Russian markets you can buy different varieties of foreign selection, characterized by high taste. We describe the most popular and best of them.
"Wilma" - medium early with crispy and sweet root vegetables. Their weight reaches 500 grams. Well tolerated transportation, long stored and consumed even fresh.
"Krasnoselskaya" is considered one of the best table varieties. The flesh at the root is sugary, juicy and dense. The average weight is 300-600 grams.
Kuusiku is a mid-late fodder and high-yielding variety with a fruit weight of up to two kilograms and valuable tops.
"Swedish yellow" - a variety of table-feeding destination. It tolerates frosts. Very tasty and sweet swede.
Varieties related to foreign breeding
"Marian" - resistant to powdery mildew and keel. With sweet pulp and pleasant aroma.
Lizi is a juicy, very sweet root vegetable. Best of all previous varieties.
Ruby is similar in taste to Lizi.
In your garden you can grow any attracted variety for consumption. With proper care, the crop will exceed all expectations.
Biochemical composition and caloric content of vegetables
Swede noteworthy because it is enriched with mineral salts (potassium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, copper, sulfur), pectins, ascorbic acid, proteins, fiber, rutin, essential oils, vitamins of group B. Vegetable can rightly be called a well of vital for human body trace elements and vitamins. It contains mustard oil, which helps to fight harmful microorganisms. Rutabaga is a low-calorie product, it only has 35 kcal (per 100 g). Nutritionists and doctors advise to use it to everyone who watches his figure, adheres to proper and balanced nutrition.
In ancient times, people used this plant for therapeutic purposes in inflammatory processes. Widely used to treat measles swede. Useful properties of a root crop are caused by wound healing, antiburn, antiinflammatory and diuretic action.
He made healing drugs that were used to treat people with lesions of bone tissue. Miraculous composition allows you to adjust the gastrointestinal disorders, normalize the "chair", remove puffiness, and clean the intestines from toxins and toxins. It is proved that the swede perfectly dilutes the phlegm and relieves cough.
It is recommended for avitaminosis and atherosclerosis. With its help, you can improve immunity and restore vitality of the body. The healing properties of swede were known in Medieval times. People used it to normalize metabolic processes. Vegetable juice was used for burned wounds and burns.
The swede, useful properties described above, at all times used to maintain and maintain health without the use of drugs. We offer popular and effective recipes, proven practice and over the years.
- With a dry cough: you need a medium-sized vegetable, which must be cleaned and ground in a meat grinder. In the "stuffing" add honey (2: 1 ratio). Therapeutic mixture to use on a small spoon four times a day, washed down with warm water.
- In case of chronic pathologies of the respiratory organs: take 50 grams per pound of root vegetables. chalk, the same amount of butter and walnuts. Finely chopped rutabagas to stew, a few minutes until cooked and add honey. Take with chopped nuts.
How to use?
Add root vegetables, not only in desserts, but also in different sauces, salads and main dishes. Since this is a low-calorie product, it can be used instead of potatoes, making delicious stews and mashed potatoes. Thus, you provide your body with vitamins and do not add weight. Vegetable goes well with dried fruits, fresh apples, mushrooms, eggs, carrots, celery.
Refill it with low-fat yogurt, sour cream or olive oil and enjoy the taste. We offer several fortified recipes for you and your children.
Spicy dish with pork and turnips
You will need the following products: lean pork (three hundred grams), potatoes (4 pcs.), Rutabaga (two hundred grams), leeks and spices - at your discretion.
Cut the meat into small portions and send it to cook. Cut the root vegetable and potatoes into small cubes. Fill with water and simmer with salt and thyme until they are soft. Pass the leeks and put them together with the pork to the vegetable mass. Serve with green salad.
Include this super-healthy vegetable in your diet more often, because rutabagas differ in excellent taste. What it is and what it is prepared for is described in this article.
Features rutabagas, requirements for growing conditions
Rutabaga is a culture of northern European origin. Studies of geneticists have established that rutabaga is a hybrid species, resulting from the crossing of turnips or rape and cabbage. Swede as a vegetable is widely cultivated in Europe, in America (Canada, USA), less - in Asia (India, Japan, China).
Swede was brought to Russia from Western Europe. The possibility of obtaining peculiar forms of swede by old Russian gardeners who grew cabbage and turnips in common areas not only for food, but also for seeds, is not excluded. At the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, rutabaga was a widespread vegetable plant. Then its areas were reduced.
The reduction of crops for table purposes is caused by an increase in the production of potatoes, as well as an expansion of the range of vegetable crops. At present, swede has the most widespread distribution in Russia in the Nonchernozem Zone, in the Urals, and in Siberia.
Swede on nutritional value exceeds turnip. In its root crops that have reached harvest ripeness, the dry matter content reaches 11-16.8%. The swede contains carbohydrates (5-10%), including quite a lot of fiber (up to 1.7%), pectic substances, protein (1.0-1.6%). There is vitamin C in the swede (24-50 mg per 100 g), and under favorable growing conditions in young root vegetables, its amount reaches 63-100 mg per 100 g. It should be noted that vitamin C is well preserved in storage as in storage, and when cooking. In a small amount there are vitamins: B1 (0.05 mg per 100 g), B2 (0.05 mg per 100 g), B6 (0.2 mg per 100 g), PP (1.05 mg per 100 g), R. In varieties with yellow pulp, in addition, there is carotene.
Its content, depending on the color, is 0.05-0.2 mg per 100 g. By the presence of vitamin B1, the turnips are not inferior to tomatoes and are superior to beets, the content of vitamin C is much higher than carrots, beetroot, tomatoes, onions, and approaches fresh cabbage, but richer in minerals and sugar. Ash in the swede accumulates 0.7-1.6%.
It should be noted that rutabaga accumulates quite a lot of potassium - 238 mg per 100 g, calcium and phosphorus - 40 mg per 100 g, iron - 1.5 mg per 100 g, there is sulfur and some other elements. It found a small amount of organic acids, mustard oil, rutin.
From the foregoing it follows that swede in its nutritional qualities is among the most valuable vegetable crops. Its value is especially great for the northern regions, where plants demanding for heat do not always produce crops and therefore are few in vitamins and fruits and vegetables.
The specific "turn" taste and odor characteristic of root crops depend on the content of mustard oil in plants, which is characteristic of all cabbage plants.
Leaves are also good pet food. Those owners of summer cottages and individual gardens that do not have farm animals, turnip leaves should be laid in composts for the preparation of organic fertilizer.
Root vegetables are valuable medicinal raw materials. It is recommended as a vitamin, antimicrobial, anesthetic, spasmodic sputum and, therefore, an expectorant with a strong cold cough, bronchial asthma. Swede has a wound healing, anti-sclerotic, anti-cancer action. These properties are used in a number of diseases. It is sometimes used as a diuretic for heart and kidney edema, pyelonephritis, laryngitis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, insomnia, obesity. Due to its low calorie content and a small amount of sugars, it is useful for diabetes and obesity. For the treatment of chronic diseases, dietary food is recommended with the inclusion of fresh, boiled or stewed rutabaga in the menu. Brushy juice, taken instead of root crops, is very effective in preventing many diseases.
Rutabagas are low in demand for heat and the most cold-resistant of vegetable plants. Seeds in moist soil start to grow at a temperature of + 1 ... + 3 ° С, but before the average daily air temperature is above + 5 ... + 6 ° С, seedlings develop slowly. The optimum temperature for rutabagas is + 15 ... + 18 ° С (assuming sufficient moisture supply). Temperatures above + 20 ° C inhibit the growth of root crops, and under the influence of low temperature (0 ... + 10 ° C) for one or two months a flower can be formed.
In autumn, when the average daily temperature is + 5 ... + 6 ° С, the growth of root crops decreases. After freezing the root crops taste deteriorates, they lose the ability to be stored for a long time in winter. It is noticed that a sudden sharp drop in temperature to a minus plant is tolerated more painfully than a gradual one.
Different varieties of turnip vary the length of the day and night. Our domestic and some Western European varieties are adapted for cultivation in the northern regions. The varieties of southern origin on a long day in the northern areas in the first year of life form a flower. Sunny weather contributes to better growth, development and increased content of vitamins in rutabaga.
Soil moisture requirements
Rutabaga is a moisture-loving plant. To obtain a high yield of good quality, it is necessary that it grows in moderately moist soil during the entire growing season and at a sufficiently high humidity. The best sites for it are low, but not waterlogged. Rutabagas poorly tolerate soil drought.
Critical periods in her life in relation to soil moisture is the first month, until the roots penetrate deep into the soil, and the last - before harvesting. She has a decline in growth when dry weather occurs, as a rule, is observed after a while.
With excessively heavy watering and in rainy summer, the rutabaga becomes watery. With great moisture, when the water stagnates in the upper layers of the soil, and the horses of the plants do not have access to air, the swede stops normal growth, and the roots suffer from bacteriosis.
What is swede and how does it look
The plant is nutritious fiber and carbohydrate, they are well absorbed by natural proteins. Besides trace elements, and minerals it has:
- vitamin C,
- beta carotene
- zinc and iodine
- phosphorus and iron,
- magnesium and sodium,
- Vitamin PP, B, H, K.,
- potassium and calcium.
Nutritional Fetus a total of 37 kilocalories. The fruit is very saturated with vitamin C, it is much more than, for example, in other vegetables, while it remains fresh for a long time. The food product is excellent in the case of vitamin deficiency, scurvy, weakened immunity.
Mustard oil is also present in the vegetable, which has a detrimental effect on various harmful microorganisms and fungi. The sense of swede arises from the presence of useful components in it; it is they who assist the liver in removing toxins and removing carcinogenic substances from human blood.
Constantly taking it for food, you can spend a good prevention of diseases of the colon. Very high medicinal qualities swede, the health of the digestive tract. This procedure strengthens digestion, and prevents the occurrence of constipation, relieves bloating.
Due to the large zinc root vegetable good suitable for pregnant women, as well as a strong floor for the proper functioning of the prostate. Eating a product well reduces weight, because the fiber contained in it cleans the digestive system, and the rest of the beneficial elements activate metabolism.
Root is used to treat pathologies of the respiratory system, it is used as a cough. А также несёт пользу в процессе вирусных инфекций и простуд. Брюква уменьшает опасность сердечных приступов, сбавляет порог холестерина, предостерегает от припадков эпилепсии и избавляет от возникновения анемии.
For those suffering from high blood pressure, it also makes sense to understand the benefits of swede health. It favors a decrease in pressure, prevents the appearance of spasms of the veins and normalizes the flow of oxygen into the human body.
In addition, it is desirable to use the fruit in the case of:
- diabetes mellitus
- with poor dental condition.
When complications of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, swede can cause damage, and, in general, it is not worth it to overeat.
Interesting data on rutabaga
Vegetable is considered a breeding acquisition in the field of agricultural production., it was obtained by an artificial method of combining cabbage with turnips.
This root crop is great for all products:
- to nuts
- to meat
- all sorts of vegetables,
- and also to fruit.
Rutabaga was so much liked by the Swiss that in this state every year on every Saturday of November on the coast of the reservoir Zurich, in the town of Richterswil, they hold a celebration dedicated to swede. A lot of edible items made from it await the visitors of the holiday, burning candles ignite at 8 pm, and a bright parade comes.
This crop is a rather undemanding to some conditions type. It is able to grow as if nothing had happened both in the northern regions and in the southern regions, easily withstanding even severe cold. This is an exceptional vegetable that almost never needs feeding and does not fear almost any parasites.
Due to the fact that Rutabaga is a fruit very similar to a turnip, it is often offered on the market under such a view. It is added to recipes of all kinds of national food in the countries of America, Great Britain and Norway.
Recently, this plant has vainly disappeared from the attention of farmers, and in fact it represents, the ideal vegetable, which is completely easy to grow and prepare. It is known that the unparalleled taste and benefit of swede have virtually no flaws!
Harvesting and storage
Rutabagans are collected at the end of summer. - the beginning of autumn, everything will depend on the variety and terrain. After the harvested vegetables are cut tops to the very base, they are cleaned from the soil, dried outside in a place covered from sun and rain, and transferred to the basement, where fruits are saved on average throughout the year.
This vegetable is allowed to save more in the dried version. Under such circumstances, vegetables are peeled, cut into slices, dried in the sun.
Cooked by this method, the pieces are laid out on a baking sheet and dried in the oven at a temperature of 50-60 degrees Celsius. The process lasts about five or six hours, the oven door in this case should be open, and the slices are stirred from time to time.
Unfortunately, our swede has been undeservedly forgotten. This vegetable is widely used for medicinal purposes, for proper eating, in cosmetic medicine and in conventional cooking.
For farmers, its cultivation is not at all difficult. So you should especially draw your attention to such a useful vegetable.
Culinary recipes with turnip
Before cooking, vegetables should be poured with hot water, thoroughly rinse off dirt and clean. Ogudin to eat is not suitable. All hard parts must be removed with a well-ground knife.
These portions of the root will spoil the cooked dish by adding a bitter taste to it. You do not need to store the peeled fruit in a cold place, in which case it will lose its juice, and in this case its useful qualities will not be so saturated.
If, however, you leave it in that state, then keep the remnants in a tied bag.
Check out rutabaga recipes:
- Cream soup. This recipe is very easy, you will need to fry in a frying pan one by one: onions, turnips, grated potatoes and carrots. Then they are mixed with half a cup of barley grits, one teaspoon of turmeric, pepper and salt and boiled for half an hour. After that, all that is cooked is ground by a blender, so that the semi-liquid mass is homogeneous. Before eating a dish, you can decorate it with parsley or other herbs and sour cream.
- Cutlets. It is necessary to take a few grated fruits of normal size without skin, mixed with finely chopped onion, one chopped carrot, a little pepper, turmeric and salt. Then divide this mass by 1 spoon, dipping in a plate with breadcrumbs, sculpt not very large burgers and fry in a well-heated pan with corn oil. It is recommended to prepare a gravy of three tomatoes, for this, wash them, chop them in a meat grinder and mix with 1, 5 tablespoons of water. Pour this mixture into the contents of the saucepan and simmer on low heat for half an hour.
- Fresh. For medicinal purposes, squeezed fresh vegetable juice is used to make it cut into small pieces and grind in a meat grinder. Squeeze the juice from the mass and eat or treat wounds. Apple and rutabaga salad in sour cream, very popular in cooking. Finely chop two sour apples and grate one root vegetable, add salt and three tablespoons of sour cream. In the final, you can add a little coriander and a little young onion for the flavor of the flavor.
- Dried. Rinse the swede with hot water, peel and cut into strips. After that, lay it all on plywood, covered with a cloth, and then take it to a sunny place or place it in the oven. The required drying temperature, about a hundred degrees. Periodically, after 2 hours, open the door for two or three minutes. Perform this procedure for three days, six hours each. Pre-fruits are allowed to slightly boil in salty water, thanks to this they will be longer preserved and will take a more intense taste.
- Stewed. For those who like white mushrooms, you should use them to stuff the Rutabagas. First of all, this component should be thoroughly washed, cleaned of garbage and boiled in boiling water for 1-2 hours. In the meantime, mushrooms are cooked to cook the main element of the dish. Wash the vegetable and then remove the skin from it. Further cut from the fruit pulp, retaining only the wall. The resulting mold should be filled with a mixture of toasted onions, carrots and white mushrooms. Put the stuffed fruit inside the enamelware, pour half the water, and simmer adding a little oil for 20 minutes with the lid closed. Decorate the prepared dish with sour cream and green leaves.
Important! Swede is able to save for the whole year, at low and high temperature conditions. In addition, the swede does not harm, provided that all its contraindications are taken into account. It is best to store it in frozen, diced.
Useful properties of swede
Swede contains sugars, proteins, fiber, starch, pectins, B vitamins, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotene (provitamin A), rutin, mineral salts (potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, iron, copper), essential oil. Ascorbic acid contained in the sweat is highly resistant to heat treatment and long-term storage.
The rutabagus contains the highest percentage of trace elements of calcium, so it is a good remedy for treating patients suffering from softening of the bone tissue. In the distant past, swede seeds were used for treating measles in children, for rinsing the mouth and throat in inflammatory processes. Rutabaga root vegetables were considered an excellent wound healing, diuretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-burn agent. Swede juice is an effective remedy for wound healing. Rutabaga is a valuable food item, especially in the winter and early spring periods when there is a lack of vitamins. In clinical nutrition it is recommended for constipation, include in the diet of patients with atherosclerosis. However, the use of edible dishes from swede is contraindicated in acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Such a composition helps to normalize the activity of the gastrointestinal tract (fiber cleans the intestines), weaken the stool, reduce edema (diuretic effect). Swede also has a mucolytic action - the ability to thin the sputum.
In the Russian village several centuries ago, swede was consumed in the winter, it was believed that it was especially useful for older people, as it helps to maintain vitality. Young people used it for colds - this contributed to the rapid recovery, which is quite rational, because the swede contains a lot of ascorbic acid, which strengthens the immune system. When dry cough, swede helps to transfer it to a productive cough, with sputum (by liquefying it in the bronchi), which leads to recovery. Especially well helps rutabaga in chronic inflammatory diseases of the bronchi and lungs.
The swede was also taken to relieve edema in cardiovascular and renal diseases, as it has diuretic properties and removes excess fluid from the body.
Rutabagum contributes to the improvement of metabolic processes and elimination from the body of "harmful" cholesterol, which is deposited in the form of plaques in the walls of blood vessels. Therefore, it is recommended to take with atherosclerosis.
A large amount of fiber contained in swede contributes to the normalization of the chair - this property is used in chronic constipation. It enhances peristalsis, improves the digestive process and metabolism, which is very useful for obesity.
Swede juice has antibacterial properties, they have long been treated purulent wounds and burns.
Hazardous properties of swede
Rutabagum is a very useful plant, but there are some negative properties. It contains a large amount of fiber, which negatively affects the state of the digestive system. Therefore, in cases of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the best solution would be to stop using it in order to avoid exacerbations of the disease.
In this video, a recipe for a simple and healthy dietary salad with turnips is suggested.
What is useful rutabaga
Contains proteins, cellulose, sugars, pectins, starch, vitamins B, C, carotene, essential oil, mineral salts, rutin. Vitamin C very resistant to heat treatment and long persists.
The root has a high calcium content, which is why it is used to treat patients who suffer from softening of the bone tissue. In the past, the vegetable used for treating measles in children, caressed the throat and mouth for inflammation. Swede was considered wound healing, antiburn, diuretic, anti-inflammatory agent. In the spring and winter periods, the vegetable is a very valuable food because of the lack of vitamins in the body. Recommended for constipation and atherosclerosis. In diseases of the digestive organs, it is contraindicated to eat swede.
The composition of the vegetable normalizes the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, reduction of edema and loose stools. Swede mucolytic action - dilutes the sputum.
It used to be believed that the root crop supports vital forces, especially in the elderly. Young people used it for colds, because there are a lot of ascorbic acid in the sweat, which strengthens the immune system. Translates dry cough into productive with sputum, which leads to convalescence. Good for chronic diseases of the lungs and bronchi.
Due to the diuretic action and removal of excess fluid from the body, the swede was used to relieve swelling in renal and cardiovascular diseases.
Root crop improves metabolism and removes from cholesterolwhich is deposited on the blood vessels. It is recommended to take with atherosclerosis.
Fiber normalizes stools, is used in chronic constipation. Enhances peristalsis, improves metabolism and digestion, therefore, is useful for obesity.
Juice turnips treated burns and purulent wounds, due to its antibacterial properties.
There were very few varieties of this plant, until recently. Breeding allowed to acquire different types on the Russian market, which differ in taste. We describe the best of them:
- "Wilma" - a sweet, crunchy root vegetable. Can be used even fresh, well stored.
- Krasnoselskaya is the best table variety. The flesh is thick, sugary and juicy.
- Kuusiku is a high-yielding large variety with valuable tops.
- “Swedish yellow” is a sweet and tasty variety of feed purpose. It tolerates frosts.
Sweats and turnips - what's the difference?
In appearance, turnips are easy to confuse with turnips, which is not surprising, since these plants are related. However, a detailed study can notice a number of differences.
What is swede? This is a vegetable that was bred by crossing cabbage and turnip. From the second “parent,” the root crop inherited its form and dense structure, but the rutabaga is somewhat larger. And also the density and color of the pulp are different, in the hybrid it is painted in a soft peach color and harder than that of turnip.
The taste of these fruits is also different, and there is no characteristic bitterness in the swede. The chemical composition of the hybrid is much higher than turnips, for example, it contains more vitamin C and calcium.
Council Experienced chefs argue that turnip is more suitable for eating raw, and it is better to preserve turnip. Root crop is added to various dishes or eaten separately.
Funds based on this root are effective for the following diseases:
- Cold and colds. It is necessary to grind the pulp to a state of gruel, mix with honey in a ratio of 2: 1. Take one teaspoon before meals with plenty of warm water.
- Acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In this case, you will need to chop the root and squeeze the juice from the pulp. It should be consumed 3-4 times a day, diluted with broth hips, currant juice or cranberries.
- Constipation. In the presence of such problems, you can make mashed swede or bake in her oven, cut into slices. Eat root vegetables should be 2-3 times a week, 150-200 g at a time.
- Cardiovascular diseases and iron deficiency anemia. You will need to squeeze the juice from the grated pulp and drink it before eating 100 ml. This remedy is also effective for edema associated with impaired renal function and problems with the heart.
- Diseases of the musculoskeletal system. It is necessary to mix the juice, squeezed from one fruit, with 30 kg of honey and take twice a day.
- Cleansing the body and losing weight. In this case, it is worth using turnip juice or eating grated root vegetables with mushrooms or prunes.
- Burns, purulent rashes and other skin lesions. To cope with these problems will help compresses from the crushed pulp of rutabaga.
Attention! Funds prepared on the basis of swede, in no case do not replace drugs, they only help to accelerate recovery. Treatment will be effective only if an integrated approach.
Swede juice will help to deal not only with burns and purulent wounds, but also contribute to the disappearance of acne, blackheads and boils. To do this, you will need to moisten a cotton pad or gauze in it and attach it to the problem area for 30-40 minutes, and then wash it off. With abundant acne, it is recommended to wipe your face with juice at night.
Light salad of rutabaga and apples
To prepare the salad, you can take apples of any kind, with a sour or sweet taste, which you prefer. They will need to be cleaned from the stalks and the core, chopped on a grater and mixed with grated turnips. As a sauce, suitable vegetable oil, sour cream or mayonnaise.
And to get the most benefit from the salad of turnips and make the dish more saturated, you can add dried fruits, greens, carrots or vegetables to the main ingredients.
When the root is ready, you need to do the following:
- Carefully remove the pulp from the swede, leaving a wall thickness of 7-10 mm.
- Fill "cups" with mushrooms, fried with onions. If desired, you can add grated carrots to the filling.
- Fold the portions into the pot with thick walls, add water and simmer until cooked, tightly closing the container with a lid.
Served stuffed swede with sour cream and herbs.
Soil and nutrient requirements
Rutabagum can give a good harvest on soils of various mechanical composition, but loamy, rich in humus and calcium, especially occurring in the floodplains of small rivers, are more suitable for it. It grows well on heavy clay soils and is able to grow in well-cultivated peat sites. It is unsuitable for it uncultivated, very sour, poor dry sandy and crushed soil.
In peasant farms near St. Petersburg at the end of the 19th century, Krasnoselskaya rutabaga managed best of all on clay soils located in the valley of the floodplain of the Ligovka River, which is annually flooded with spring waters. On these soils was widely used permanent cultivation rutabaga. At the same time, she here almost did not get sick with a kilo, while on sandy soils it was often affected by this disease even in the first year of cultivation.
Swelling for good growth requires the presence of all major nutrients in the soil. Она поглощает из почвы много кальция, который необходим для построения клеток корнеплодов и является одним из основных питательных элементов. Кроме того, известкование повышает устойчивость растений к киле.
Азот входит в состав особенно важных для растений органических соединений – белков, хлорофилла и других, он необходим для брюквы с начала ее жизни, так как способствует формированию листьев и получению хорошего урожая корнеплодов. It provides high yield for a shorter period of time, increases the protein content. However, if it is introduced in excessive amounts in the roots, the content of dry matter, sugars, vitamin C decreases, the keeping quality of the roots deteriorates, the growth of the head increases, the resistance to decay decreases, and more hollow root crops are formed.
Phosphorus It is part of the proteins of the cell nucleus, regulates the metabolism and contributes to the increase of sugar content of root crops. It begins to be absorbed by the roots of the swede from the very beginning of seed germination. Therefore, in abundance, it is necessary to provide the swede with this battery when the main soil is filled with fertilizer.
Potassium is of great importance in the photosynthesis of plants, has an impact on the outflow of carbohydrates from the leaves to the roots, therefore, like phosphorus, contributes to the accumulation of sugar in the roots, which increases the resistance to many diseases.
Swede is able to actively accumulate potassium from its reserves in the soil. However, it has been observed that enhanced soil refueling with potash fertilizers may contribute to the greater development of the keel.
Swede, like turnip, responds positively to sodium fertilizer, and yields a higher yield with the joint introduction of potassium and sodium. According to experiments with turnips in England, large amounts of root crops were formed when potassium was introduced in large doses, but with bitter and hard pulp, and while enriching the soil with potassium and sodium in a large amount, swede was large with soft, sweet pulp.
To be continued
Valentina Perezhogin, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
We know about the incredible possibilities of the vegetable healer from antiquity. It was used by folk healers and healers. Now it is used much less frequently, but still has not lost its popularity.
With regular use, the swede will bring the work of many internal organs back to normal, as well as improve general well-being and condition. Its effect is to cleanse the body. It will perfectly replace the necessary drugs in this business.
The main benefit of this vegetable is for the intestines. A large amount of fiber in the root normalizes the digestive system and removes toxins.
Rutabagus is unique in nature. Its beneficial properties are not lost during processing at high temperatures. You can eat a vegetable in any form:
The original taste of rutabaga will be a spicy twist of a cooked dish.
Boiled vegetable is used as a prophylactic oncology. Baked swede will help with constipation. And the juice of a fresh vegetable will cope with a serious cold - pneumonia.
The benefits of root crops versatile, it includes:
- Strengthening bones, teeth and nails
- Help and prevention of viral diseases
- Removing excess fluid
- Puffiness removal
- Treatment of diseases of the upper respiratory tract
- Prevention of cardiovascular disorders
- Preventing anemia
- Normalization of metabolism
- Wound healing
- Recovery of tissue after burns
- Pulling pus
- Mouth Cure
- Getting rid of cholesterol
- Cleansing and strengthening the walls of blood vessels
- Sugar replacement for people with diabetes
- Removal of fatigue and recuperation
- Improving the condition of the skin of the human body
- Strengthen hair follicles
- Baldness Prevention
Such an impressive list leaves no doubt: the benefits of vegetables are enormous. Swede will cope with an impressive list of diseases. But it is applicable not only for the treatment and normalization of the work of various organs, its useful properties are widely used in cosmetology for:
- Pore cleansing
- Skin moisturizing
- Getting rid of age spots and freckles
- Acne and other skin inflammations
- Reduction and tightening of scars
The use of swede is also felt for pregnant women. In the root of many useful vitamins, as well as folic acid, affecting the formation of the nervous system of the baby.
Useful video number 1 (salad recipe):
Harmful properties of medicinal root vegetables
Rutabagum is of great benefit, the main thing - do not overdo it with its use. Otherwise, instead of the desired positive effect, you can harm the body. The very first noticeable side effect will be increased gas formation.
Contraindications to the use include diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The beneficial properties of the root during the inflammatory process in these organs will be a disservice: they will only aggravate the condition.
The rutabagum contains fiber in its composition, and in large quantities, it is it that has a beneficial effect on the process of digestion. But in the case of inflammation is harmful: irritates the mucous membrane of the digestive system.
All negative substances of the vegetable are in the tip. Therefore, before applying it must be cut. Otherwise, with reduced immunity, intoxication cannot be avoided.
Contraindications to use
Swede will harm a person with diseases in the chronic stage, and especially if you use this root crop during the period of exacerbation. There are contraindications, and they should be taken into account, otherwise the beneficial properties of the vegetable will only aggravate the course of the disease, which ultimately will adversely affect the health and condition of the body as a whole.
The list of those diseases in which the swede is harmful, and the benefits approach zero:
- High blood pressure
- Renal failure
- Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract
- Allergic reaction to cruciferous vegetables
Use is also excluded in case of individual intolerance to the product.
Do not include the root vegetable in the diet of children under the age of six months.
The right choice and preparation for use
On the shelves of fruit and vegetable stalls you can hardly find rutabagas. Where, then, buy it? On the shelves of large supermarkets, everything is there.
Choose a root vegetable is easy, pay attention to the main points:
- Dense and firm fruit
- Smooth skin
- Lack of wrinkles and fibrous roots
- No visible damage
- "Heavy" by weight
And how to clean it? The procedure does not differ from cooking other vegetables for food and consists of several stages:
- Wash thoroughly.
- Cut into two halves.
- Cut off the top purple part. It is in it concluded all the harm of this useful root.
- Peel the halves with a sharp knife.
- Cut out all the hard elements from the pulp. There is no harm from them, but they can spoil the taste, since they are so bitter.
After simple manipulations, the product is ready for use.
Can be found on sale swede coated with wax. It is not scary, and in no way will affect its properties, benefits and taste.
It is also important to know how much this vegetable is stored. The recommended time limit is no more than one week, while in a tightly closed package, where air does not fall, and always in the refrigerator.
Product for women who dream of losing weight
The calorific value of swede is small: in 100 grams of the product, only 37 kilocalories, which in relation to the recommended daily norm is only 1.78%.
Consider what is the caloric content of one swede medium size.
Quantity - 1 pc.
Calorie - 111 Kcal
Such data allows us to recommend swede as a product for weight loss and body cleansing. Girls who watch their weight must include this root vegetable in their diet. And for many reasons: the benefits are enormous, the harm is minimal, a large number of systems of healthy and proper nutrition are developed on this ingredient.
Swede - a plant source of protein. This is the product that is perfect diet of vegetarians. It also contains many vitamins and amino acids that work on building new cells and restoring existing ones. Try this root vegetable and enjoy all its beneficial properties.
Useful video number 2:
Vegetable puree at home
When cooking soup-puree, in addition to swede, you can take any vegetables. Cabbage, carrots, zucchini, potatoes, onions and garlic are suitable as a complement to the dish.
All components will need to be cut, put into a pan and cook, then grind in a blender, seasoned with salt and pepper. Serve the soup, sprinkle the portions with finely chopped greens.
This will require the following components:
- fat cottage cheese,
- 2 eggs,
- 50 ml of milk,
- powdered sugar.
Cottage cheese fray with eggs and melted butter, then add milk and whisk thoroughly.
Then the mass is spread in a plentifully greased form and baked in the oven until golden brown appears. Before serving, sprinkle dessert with powdered sugar.
Contraindications to the use of swede
Speaking about the benefits of swede, we must not forget that it contains a large number of coarse dietary fibers, which cause a reduction in the muscular layer in the intestine, in addition, its use can provoke meteorism. In addition, the product is rich in glucose, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels.
For these reasons, it is worthwhile to limit the consumption of swede or to completely abandon this product under the following conditions:
- ulcerative lesions of the stomach and intestines,
- gastritis and colitis in the acute stage,
- type 2 diabetes
- pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Sweating is categorically contraindicated for children under 8–10 years of age, because the digestive system at this age is not yet ready to digest heavy food.
On a note. Like most foods, turnips can cause allergic reactions. One of the signs of intolerance is a dry cough, runny nose and bloating.
How to grow swede in the garden?
Grow a swede on the plot will not be particularly difficult. To do this, it will be necessary to prepare the soil in autumn by digging up the chosen territory, and then add humus and organic fertilizers.
In the spring, you can plant seeds in the beds, deepening them by 3-4 cm, but it is better to prepare the seedlings.
Do it this way:
- Go through planting material, discarding damaged or spoiled seeds.
- Spread blanks on wet gauze, lay a plastic bag, and sent to heat.
After the appearance of the first sprouts, seeds are planted in a container with fertilized soil.
In late May or early June, when at least 3 sheets appear on the bushes, they are planted in beds, and the row spacing should be 40-50 cm.
Swede need to regularly weed, leaving the distance between plantations of 8-10 cm, watering and feeding organic. Harvest can be both before the start of frost, and after their onset, the fruits of this will not die.
On a note. According to experienced gardeners, it is best to grow swede in areas with a cold or temperate climate.
What is swede, cultivation and care in the open field
What does a modern resident of Russia know about such a vegetable as swede? Most likely, almost nothing. Although our ancestors had this plant in high esteem, in our time it has been safely forgotten. And in vain, because it is useful and nutritious. It is valued in European countries, where it is very popular. Learn all about swede, what it is, about its farming practices and its care.
What is swede - general information
Rutabagum belongs to the same family of plants as the well-known cabbage, radish and turnip - Cruciferous. This is a biennial plant that can be eaten and used for animal feed.
In the 1st year of his life, a leaf rosette and a large root crop are formed from sown seeds; in the 2nd, a flowering arrow with pods grows in which seeds mature.
Rutabaga leaves resemble the leaves of other members of the family, but have a bluish tinge.
Swede fruit is a root crop that is round, oval, rounded flat or cylindrical, depending on the variety. The skin in its upper part, which protrudes above the ground, has a grayish-green or red-violet color, and in the lower part is yellow.
The flesh of root vegetables of swede is dense, it may be different variations of yellow or white, has a sharp peculiar taste. The color of the skin and the pulp of the vegetable are varietal characteristics. Externally, the root resembles a turnip or fodder beet, only its color is different.
The taste of rutabaga is something between a turnip and cabbage.
In addition to the vegetable there is a fodder rutabaga. This is a hybrid of swede and feed cabbage. It is extremely unpretentious, consistently high-yielding, well stored and does not lose its nutritional value, therefore it is popular as a fodder unit for livestock.
Popular swede varieties
This vegetable plant in Russia is almost not grown, so its varieties are derived quite a bit. But, if you wish, you can find the following varieties of swede:
- Vereisk. The variety is included in the list of breeding achievements in 2010. It belongs to mid-season, the roots can be harvested at 83-90 days after the emergence of sprouts. The leaves are green, medium in size, with a petiole of medium length, form a semi-upright outlet. The root crop is flat-round, with an intense purple staining of the skin. The flesh is juicy, tender, yellow. One rutabaga of this variety weighs approximately 250-300 g. The yield is 3.5-4.0 kg per m2.
- Hera. Year of inclusion - 2010. Mid-season (85-90 days). The leaves are green, medium size. Rounded root with pronounced anthocyanin coloring of the peel. The flesh is yellow, tender and juicy. Productivity - 4.0-4.5 kg / m2 with a weight of one root crop of 300-400 g.
- Child love. The year of entry into the State Register is 2009. Medium early variety (90-117 days). The leaves are green in a semi-upright outlet. Rutabagus is round, with unexpressed anthocyanin staining. The flesh is tender, yellow, juicy. The average weight of a root crop is 350-400 g. The yield per square meter is 5.9-6.3 kg.
- Krasnoselskaya. Old variety, introduced into the State Register in 1950. Mid-early, ripening period 90-120 days. The root crop is flat-rounded in shape, large, weighing 350-650 g. The flesh is sweet, dense, intensely yellow, rich in ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Productivity - 5-7 kg / m2. Rutabaga Krasnoselskaya unpretentious, cold-resistant, not affected by disease, no arrows.
- Novgorod. The year of inclusion is 2007. Mid-season variety (the term of ripening of root crops is 120 days). Leaves are light green in color, long on medium petioles. The root crop is rounded elongated, with a pronounced anthocyanin staining. The flesh of this swede is tender, juicy, yellow. Productivity per m2 - 4.0-4.7 kg.
- Light dream. The newest variety, included in the State Register in 2015. Refers to medium-early (65-70 days). The leaves are light green, of medium size on thin petioles, form a semi-upright outlet. The root crop is elongated, yellow, anthocyanins are absent. Productivity - 2.4-3.4 kg of swede per m2 with an average root crop weight of 300-350 g. Taste is good.
All varieties of this vegetable can be grown in private farms and cottages throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
Growing swede seeds
Get a generous harvest of healthy root vegetables on the site can any gardener. In order to cultivate a vegetable turned out to be successful, it is enough to know its preferences, prepare a garden for planting and purchase swede seeds of the variety you like. There are no particular difficulties in the care of the culture, the main thing is to follow the agricultural techniques.
When planting swede - optimal planting dates
Rutabaga grows well and bears fruit at moderate temperatures. The heat of the plant is badly tolerated, often go to the arrow, do not form roots. For the formation of the crop enough plants 16-20 ° C. Given the short period of the growing season of the culture, it is customary to sow the rutabaga in the open field in two periods.
- In the spring, this is done from late April to May, given the climatic features of the region. Planted seeds at ground temperature above 5 ° C. The harvest ripened in summer is used soon.
- Summer planting in June - July is practiced if they want to leave the roots for winter storage. Swede ripening occurs in September - October. Clean ready vegetables before the first frost.
Choosing a place to plant
Rutabagum prefers to grow on well-treated, drained soils. Best of all, rich in humus, loose soils, according to the mechanical composition of sandy loam and loam, are suitable for it. Their reaction should be neutral or weakly acidic. Planting is also possible on peatlands, but only after their cultivation.
Areas that are not suitable for growing vegetables are close to water. Despite the fact that swede plants love moisture, its excess is unacceptable for them. Also, it will not be possible to collect a good harvest on sandy and stony soils.
In the first case, the plants will lack nutrition, in the second roots will not be able to develop normally, they will turn out to be ugly.
It is also necessary to preliminarily introduce baking powder on heavy clays and carry out liming on acid soils.
Tomatoes and potatoes will be the best predecessors of turnips in the garden. You can grow the culture and after the representatives of the legume family, cucumbers, on the siderata (except rape and mustard). A bad choice would be the beds where radish, radish, daikon and turnip were previously grown.
To grow swede from seeds, the preparation of the beds begin in the fall. Under digging make organic and mineral fertilizers. Use humus or compost (3 kg per 1 m2), fresh manure is used only in top dressing.
В зависимости от плодородия грунта также вносят фосфорно-калийные удобрения (до 30 г каждого на 1 м2) или золу. После известкования добавляют только минеральные подкормки. Весной грядки разравнивают и рыхлят перед посевом.
Можно также пролить их Фитоспорином — М или составом Байкал ЭМ-1 для дезинфекции.
Подготовка к посадке семян брюквы
Before sowing the seeds in the ground, they are prepared. First, carry out the disinfection of planting material. It is pickled in solutions of fungicides or kept in potassium permanganate, then washed and dried. When summer planting permissible soaking in growth promoters, germination. If the swede planting takes place in spring in the cold ground, it is best to sow the seeds dry.
Scheme and depth of landing
In order for swede plants to grow well and develop, the required row spacing is 45-50 cm. In the row, the sowing is done at intervals of 3-5 cm, then the seedlings are thinned. During the formation of root crops between plants leave 15 cm.
Another option is possible landing in shallow holes. At the same time, the distance between the rows remains the same, the indentations in the row are made after 15 cm. Several seeds are sown in one well, the excess is removed after.
They sow swede in the spring to a depth of 2.5-3 cm. In the summer, 1.5 cm will be enough. After the seeds are sprinkled with fertile soil or peat, the beds are watered. Before emergence of the plot cover with agrofibre. Next, it is removed.
Loosening and weeding the soil
Free access of air to the roots is necessary for plants so that they can grow normally and consume nutrients from the soil. Therefore, the beds where swede grows are constantly loosened.
Do it after each watering or the last rain. They process inter-rows to a depth of 8 cm. The first loosening begins to begin immediately after germination, but only superficially. As plants grow, tools are buried more.
During the formation of root vegetables spud.
The proximity to the weed turnip selects a part of the food from the vegetable, which certainly affects the size and quality of the roots. Young plants may die from it. Weeding seedlings in rows is done manually, tool use is allowed between the rows. Beds with grown vegetables can be treated as a convenient gardener.
Watering and fertilizing
Swede demanding soil moisture. Juicy, tasty roots, it forms only with additional watering. Irrigation is carried out with warm water. An average of 10 liters of liquid is used per 1 m2. The frequency of the procedure depends on the temperature and weather conditions in the region. Dry soil and excessive waterlogging are equally undesirable when growing crops.
If they irrigate too rarely, small, coarse root crops grow. With excessive soil moisture, the crop rots or the vegetable’s flesh becomes watery and tasteless.
To make it easier to maintain the optimum level of humidity, apply mulching plantings. As materials used sawdust, straw and hay, chopped grass, peat, compost.
As the plants grow, the layer of mulch increases.
Feed rutabagas several times per season. The first time fertilizers are applied when 2-3 leaves appear in plants. As a nutrient mixture using a solution of mullein or complex water-soluble or liquid preparations.
The second subcortex is carried out during the beginning of the formation of root crops. Apply the same complexes or ashes and superphosphate. 1 month before the harvest, the turnips are fed again with the same compositions. Foliar fertilizing with boric acid is effective with the active formation of root crops.
The main vermin pests are insects. Adults, cabbage flies, slugs, cruciferous fleas, aphids can take a fancy bed with plants. Such effective biopreparations as Bitoxibacillin, Fitoferms, Lipidotsid or other insecticides will help in the fight against them.
All available are the popular methods of pest prevention and control. Dusting the plants with tobacco dust, pepper, mustard, ash helps protect the swede from damage.
Collection and storage of rutabaga root vegetables
For fresh consumption, the largest swede of spring sowing can be removed selectively as it ripens and until the entire crop is exhausted. Root crops of late sowing, which are supposed to be sent for storage, must finally mature in the garden beds.
Cleaning is carried out in dry and warm weather before the onset of autumn frosts. Swede slightly undermined, if the soil is dry, and then pulled out for the tops of the hands.
The harvested root crops are cut or unscrewed tops, and then laid them out in a dry ventilated room for several days to dry. After the whole substandard is taken away, it is set aside separately. This swede is used first.
Root crops that go to storage, put in boxes, sprinkling them with sand. The container is lowered into the cellar, where the swede will be stored at t +0 ... + 4 ° С.
Vegetable growers reviews
Rutabaga, though not a popular vegetable, is still grown by some gardeners. They share their experiences in reviews.
Swede began to grow quite recently, when its seeds were commercially available. The vegetables that grew in my garden really liked the taste. In their raw form, they somehow resemble a turnip and a kohlrabi, and in boiled one - potatoes. Plant swede surely, I think, and you will like it. Romance was an experimenter by nature, so I bought swede seeds and sowed them on the site.
Grown quite large and strong plants, roots were somewhere with a large orange. We are happy with the harvest, with the taste of swede too: I made dishes from it that my whole family liked, albeit to varying degrees. If you wish, plant this vegetable in your garden beds.
Valentina My hobby for turnips began with the fact that I bought her seeds to plant in a small area, which I did not know how to sow. I thought something would grow. But it turned out that this is a rather unassuming and fruitful vegetable. His roots are large, with an unusual, but interesting taste. Now swede grows with me constantly.
Rutabaga as a fruitful, useful and nutritious culture deserves to be remembered. Be sure to plant it on the plot to diversify your diet with dishes from it.
Two-year culture. In the first year, a leafy rosette and a root crop are formed. The following year, flowers appear and seeds ripen.
- stem - tall straight,
- leaves - oval peristonadrezanye, are pubescent, but more often glossy, bluish tint. In the year of flowering leaves grow larger,
- inflorescence - a brush with golden-yellow petals,
- fruit - form in the form of an elongated multi-seeded pod size 5-10 cm, smooth or slightly bumpy,
- sunflower seeds - spherical dark brown.
The shape of the root crops is round, oval or cylindrical, the color of the skin varies from gray-green or rich violet to yellow. Inside, the pulp is yellow or white, according to the varietal trait. To taste, turnip root vegetables can be compared with turnip taste, but at turnip, it is juicier, softer and more savory.
Thanks to its beneficial qualities, the swede acts like:
- wound healing
Here are some areas and diseases for which swede may be helpful:
- Strengthen bones and teeth (due to a large percentage of calcium).
- Burns and purulent inflammations (use fresh juice, because it has wound healing and antimicrobial properties).
- Restoration of the digestive tract, gastritis, enteritis (normalizes digestion, prevents constipation, eliminates flatulence).
- Fight against atherosclerosis (has a positive effect on metabolic processes, removes cholesterol from the body to prevent the deposition of plaques on the walls of blood vessels).
- It protects against the development of fungi and bacteria in the body (mustard oil in rutabaga, glucosinolates - phytonutrients help remove toxins from the liver, and carcinogens from the blood).
- In pregnancy (due to the large amount of zinc).
- Diseases of the respiratory system (used as an expectorant).
- To lower blood pressure, eliminate spasms of blood vessels, stimulate the flow of oxygen (which is important to remember for hypertensive patients).
Regular use of swede helps to combat the appearance of colon cancer.
As a preventive measure against many diseases, it is good to regularly drink fresh swede juice.
Tincture of swede seeds has long been treated for measles in children. In inflammatory processes it can rinse the mouth and throat due to its mucolytic and expectorant properties, the ability to liquefy and phlegm.
To get rid of cough you need:
- Swede finely rubbed.
- Stir in honey and infuse.
- When juice stands out, squeeze and take on a tablespoon three times a day.
For skin and hair
Used swede and in cosmetology:
- To get rid of freckles and to speed up hair growth, use fresh juice of swede. It is rubbed into the scalp or rubbed with the place where freckles appear.
- For a moisturizing mask from turnips for the face, the swede needs to be crushed, add sour cream, honey and juice of fresh cucumber, mix. Apply mask to face, after 15-20 minutes, remove with a cotton swab or tissue.
In cooking, turnips are used:
- raw in salads (including tops),
- after heat treatment (stewed, fried and boiled).
Stewed or boiled rutabaga will be a good side dish for meat or fish. You can stuff a vegetable, make a soft stuffing for it from pies. In Udmurt cuisine such pies are called syrchinyan.
Delicious swede along with other vegetables in vinaigrettes and stewed vegetable stews. Dried tops of rutabaga will be a savory addition to sauces and first courses. Here are examples of some simple and delicious swede dishes.
To make a light salad of raw swede and carrots, you need:
- Grate the middle swede, two carrots.
- Add a handful of raisins.
- Mix everything by adding a handful of chopped walnuts.
- Season salad with light mayonnaise sauce or Greek yogurt.
Another recipe for light salad with turnips:
- 50 g soaked raisins in hot water and leave for 15 minutes, rinse.
- Grate one swede, one apple.
- Mix the ingredients of the salad, sprinkle with chopped green onions, fill with vegetable oil.
You can make rutabaga soup this way:
- Cut 1 cubes of turnips, 1 onion and 50 grams. radish celery.
- Grate 1 carrot.
- Pour over vegetables 1.5 l. boiling water and add half a cup of washed barley grits.
- Boil for 20 minutes, add salt, pepper, turmeric before cooking.
- Fill with sour cream.
It is useful and tasty to eat swede without adding anything, just boiling it or baking it in the oven.
Most popular swede varieties
Among the table varieties the most famous are the following:
- Variety "Krasnoselskaya." This is a table variety with aging from 90 to 120 days. It has a sugary yellow flesh. The root itself is rounded, slightly flattened, gray-green in color. Fruit weight 300 - 600 gr. Successfully subject to long-term storage. Varieties bred in Russia.
- Variety "Novgorod". The aging period is also about 120 days. The fruit is round, slightly elongated, purple in the upper part. Has compacted, juicy pulp. The weight of the average root 400 gr.
- Sort "Hera". The aging period is shorter, on average from 85 to 90 days. Fruits are round, weighing 300-400 gr., The taste of the pulp is juicy, full-bodied.
- Variety "Ruby". Aging period is about 100 days. One of the most frost-resistant and picky varieties of soil composition. It is unpretentious in leaving, freely maintains temperature jumps.
- Variety "Swedish". The ripening period is about 130 days. The fruits are rounded green, rolling in yellow, color. It is a high-yielding variety, but according to its taste characteristics it is somewhat worse than the varieties listed above.
- Variety "Kohalik Xining". Fruits ripen for a period of about 100 days. The record holder in size and weight of the fruit. The weight of one swede can be up to one and a half kilograms. The flesh is firm and juicy, has a bright rich taste without bitterness.
- Variety "Dzeltenie Abolu." The term of aging is 120 days. The fruits are greenish-purple, the flesh is soft with a sugary taste.
In addition to these well-known varieties, there are not such popular, but also excellent types, for example:
Most varieties of rutabagas belong to the foreign selection, but there are also bred in Russia. Although they are few: the State Register contains only six positions. Their undoubted advantage is the possibility of growing almost everywhere.
Rules for planting and growing swede in the open field
Both neutral and acidic soils are suitable for growing swede in the open field. Light fertile loams and sandy loams are more suited to this crop. The soil should contain a lot of moisture, but do not form stagnant water. For acidic soils, it is recommended to add ash or lime to them.
This culture is harmful fresh manure. Therefore, it is recommended to put it on the bed during the autumn digging or replace it with compost or humus.
It is not bad to add from autumn to the beds, where the rutabaga will be planted in the spring, also mineral fertilizers:
Another plant will benefit from lime or dolomite flour, wood ash.
In the photo you can see the popular varieties of swede.
Light dream Gera Vilma Novgorod Swedish Kassnoselskaya
Rules for planting and growing swede in the open field
Both neutral and acidic soils are suitable for growing swede in the open field. Light fertile loams and sandy loams are more suited to this crop. The soil should contain a lot of moisture, but do not form stagnant water. For acidic soils, it is recommended to add ash or lime to them.
This culture is harmful fresh manure. Therefore, it is recommended to put it on the bed during the autumn digging or replace it with compost or humus.
It is not bad to add from autumn to the beds, where the rutabaga will be planted in the spring, also mineral fertilizers:
Another plant will benefit from lime or dolomite flour, wood ash.
The photo shows mineral fertilizers used in the cultivation of swede.
Urea 50 r. 1 kg. Dolomitic flour 66 r. 5 kg. Potassium sulfate 94 p. 1 kg. Superphosphate 87 r. 1 kg.
Terms for landing
The time of landing of the swede in open ground is determined by weather conditions and the region of planting. Plant swede can be planted with seeds directly into the ground or seedlings grown in advance in pots. When planting seedlings result is more guaranteed.
Usually sown swede in late April - early May. Seedlings in pots are sown forty days before its intended landing in the ground. Sow the seeds need to a depth of about 1.5 cm in capacity with the soil mixture. But seedlings are planted in the ground no sooner than three full leaves appear on it.
How to plant seeds in open ground?
Proper swede planting begins in the fall with the preparation of the beds.
They dig up and make:
Seeds are planted to a depth of about 2.5–3 cm, leaving a distance of about 45–50 cm between rows. After emergence, they are punctured so that there are about 4 cm between bushes. When they are formed on bushes, 4 full leaves are thinned again so that approximately 15 cm between the bushes.
Rutabaga is a plant that withstands cold. The optimum temperature for the formation of root crops is 15-18 ° C. The plant is not only not afraid of frost and temperature changes, but does not die in hot and dry weather. But the heat reflects badly on the taste of swede.
Subsequent care and cultivation
The main requirement for the care of swede - abundant watering and a lot of light. Rutabagum matures poorly in darkened areas. Swede loves watering. It should be carried out at the rate of 10 liters. water per 1 square. m seeding.
Important feeding. Two weeks after planting seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to feed the plant with slurry. Re-feeding is carried out with mineral fertilizer with the beginning of the formation of the root.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
The plant suffers more from parasites than from diseases.
Rutabagus pests and control methods:
- Cabbage flies. To combat them, it is necessary to sprinkle the beds with a dry mixture of naphthalene and river sand at a ratio of one to ten. After ten days, the treatment must be repeated.
- Medvedka. Lives in the wet earth and spoils the roots of the plant. You need to fight it with the help of digging up the ground in the fall. During the period of development of the plant, it is imperative to loosen between the rows in order to destroy the motions and holes of the insect, water it with solutions to combat the pest.
- Cabbage Aphid. Settles on the back of the leaves, from which they are deformed and twisted. You can fight by spraying the leaves with solutions of a mixture of superphosphate and sodium chloride, or dissolved in water with soap with ash.
- Cruciflo flea. You can prevent its occurrence by scattering the ashes between the rows.
To protect swede against cruciferous flea seedlings in the soil need to powder with wood ash. Seeds before planting should be disinfected.
Harvesting swede carried out just before the frost. The tops from the rutabaga are cut off at the base, the vegetable is cleared from the ground, but not washed. It is better to store vegetables in the cellar on the shelves or in boxes, sprinkled with sand or sawdust. You can also lay it in shallow trenches, dug in the ground, again sprinkled on top of straw or dry sawdust.
On the cultivation and storage of rutabaga, you can watch the video provided by the channel "Alexander"