Exact dates cannot be named, because the weather is different everywhere, and spring is unpredictable for its surprises. Sometimes it is cold for a long time, and all the plants freeze and do not dissolve the buds, and then, with warmth, suddenly everything stands green for a couple of days. So watch the currants and the weather. In the Urals, such treatment is usually carried out in early April.
Pests and diseases: treatments
From this scourge, you can wash shoots with tar soap. Sprinkle with green soap or garlic extract. For two or three weeks helps spray biological product "Fitoverm."
The photo shows a female with wings. They can fly at any time and immediately start a whole colony of aphids. Therefore, treatment should be done regularly.
Gallic aphids are red swellings from the upper side of the leaves on red currants. We treat as from a simple aphid.
Red currant leaves with characteristic red swellings
Shoot Aphid - it usually breeds and harms on the tops of young black currant shoots. These twisted tops should be cut and burned. You can not throw them in the garden. Aphid larvae pupate in the soil and the next generation of pests will appear, and more than one will have time to emerge before the fall!
Characteristically folded leaves at the ends of the young shoots of currants
Plant tops damaged by any kind of aphids can be sprayed with solutions:
- Soap-soap solution
Then sprinkle with ground red pepper or spray plants with "green soap".
When it becomes warm, put the geranium in pots or planted under currant bushes. Its smell does not tolerate many pests.
Kidney currant mite
Diseased plants are visible through very large, swollen buds. If there are not very many of them, then pluck out all the kidneys with a tick and burn them. If the bush is severely affected, then it is better to cut and burn it completely. The kidneys must be removed before disclosure, otherwise the mites will pass on to the other buds.
The biggest buds
- 300 grams of garlic (leaves or arrows) mince.
- Add 200 g of onion peel
- 1 tbsp. spoon of mustard powder
- 2 tbsp. birch tar spoons
All this mixture insist in a bucket of water a day. Then I filter and spray the bushes.
If not all components, you can make only garlic infusion. Mince 200 grams of garlic heads through a meat grinder and leave for a day in warm water. Then also strain and spray. This infusion can process plants all summer if any pests appear. Also helps spraying "Fitoverm."
Shchitovki stick around the branches and suck the juice out of them. Gradually the branches wither, and then dry. It is necessary to spray or wash the branches with a soap-keracine mixture. In a liter of water stir 80 grams of soap to dissolve and half a spoon of kerosene. By the way, the smell of kerosene does not tolerate many pests. Or use "Fitoverm."
Fire attacks, sawyers
Very dangerous garden pests. Shrubs are sprayed with infusions of plants with phytoncides (garlic, tomatoes, horseradish, nourished, wormwood).
Butterfly fireworm (1), its caterpillar (2), damaged berries (3)
Sawflies lay their eggs in large green berries. When caterpillars eat seeds in them, they immediately turn a ripe color. These early berries on the gooseberries and currants should be immediately collected and burned. Otherwise, the caterpillars go out and fall into the ground. Then a new generation will appear.
If there is no time to pick berries, spray the bushes "Fitoverm".
Butterflies do not like the smell of tar, turpentine, kerosene. Some of these fluids can be put in jars under the bushes to scare away butterflies of firefighters and sawflies. To make the bushes unattractive when the butterflies fly out (bloom), it is helpful to powder them with tobacco dust or ash.
If the enemy still penetrated, as you learn from the eaten leaves, you will have to shake them on the litter (you can use an open umbrella).
such voracious caterpillars will quickly eat currant leaves
In order not to allow firefighters and sawyers to hide in the ground under bushes, it must be loosened in summer and for winter.
In order for the butterflies to fly past the bushes, insert the elder branches into the ground. You can plant a small bush near the currant bushes and gooseberries.
If you plant these plants around the perimeter of the site, near the beds, shrubs, trees, then the butterflies of many pests will fly around your site!
The spores of this fungus are spread by the wind in the spring, and, once on the plants, quickly germinate. The tops of the shoots are covered with white scurf, as if sprinkled with flour. Such crown immediately cut off and burn. There are several ways to protect currants and gooseberries from powdery mildew. The recipes are different, but everyone needs to spray the bushes before and after flowering for prevention.
- A solution of soda ash and soap. 50 grams of soda and soap should be dissolved in a bucket of warm water.
- Infusion of wood ash. 1.5 kg of ash insist day in a bucket of water, sometimes stirring, strain. Dissolve 50 grams of soap.
- 1% solution of ferrous sulfate.
- Infusion slightly fermented mullein.
This method will help get rid of many pests.
It is necessary to water the currant bushes and gooseberries with very hot water with the addition of aspirin. Add 10 tablets of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) to a bucket of boiling water. Stir until dissolved. We pour water into the watering can and go to water the bushes.
While we are doing all these manipulations: pour-pour, the water will cool down a bit and will be just very hot. Sprigs of a plant do not suffer from such treatment, but various pests really dislike it.
Once again I pay attention: they make this treatment before bud break!
Ten liters is enough for two or three bushes.
With careful attention to plants, you will notice disease and pests on time. So, successfully get rid of them, immediately starting treatment. Perfectly this will help folk methods. They will not poison your crop and help you get rid of plant diseases.
Well helps to cope with various sheet-eating and sucking pests of the biological preparation "Fitoverm". He is destroying pests, but birds will not poison him.
biological product Fitoverm
It is impossible to use chemistry in small gardens, because not only pests are poisoned, but also the beneficial inhabitants of the garden, and the land, and the harvest.
Timing: When to process currants in spring?
Treatment from pests and diseases is carried out before bud break, in March - April. During this period, there is still snow on the site, the plants are sleeping, the buds are not moved, and this means that the risk of burning young tissue is minimal. But the early spring spraying on pests and causative agents of dangerous diseases will be a powerful blow!
In 2018 Auspicious days for treating shrubs for pests and diseases are:
- 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 25 (from 14:46), March 26,
- 2, 3, 4 (from 10:56), 5, 6 (to 22:02), 9 (from 10:51), 10, 11 (to 22:41), 14 (from 7:27), 15, 17, 18 (from 16:03), 19 (until 18:28), 23, 24, 29 (from 11:13).
Unfavorable days for working with plants:
- March 2, March 17 (until 21:58), March 31,
- April 16 (from 12:52), April 30.
A very common folk method. Spraying of currant bushes and gooseberries with hot water is made once, for sleeping buds in March - early April. A hot shower does not eliminate pests and pathogens by 100%, but it can destroy the first generation, slows the spread of garden “evil”:
- caterpillars, aphids, scales, kidney moth, powdery mildew on currants and gooseberries (water temperature 80 - 85 degrees),
- moths, sawfly on apples and pears (water temperature 65 - 70 degrees),
- weevil, mite, pennitsa on strawberries (water temperature 70 - 80 degrees),
- ants, aphids, slugs (tillage under trees and shrubs with water of 85 - 95 degrees).
The water is brought to a boil and then poured into a cold watering can with a shower head. Hot water is poured on the branches (for convenience, they can be tied with a rope). One 10-liter watering can is enough for 2-3 medium sized bushes.
There are no specific recommendations regarding the temperature at which the air can be poured over the bushes. The only condition: do not carry out processing in the cold. A week after watering berry bushes with boiling water, you can spray them with a 1% solution of copper sulphate.
Copper sulfate for currants and gooseberries
Against a whole complex of diseases and pests, treatment with copper-containing solutions is effective:
- A solution of copper sulfate 1%: 50 - 100 g of vitriol dissolved in 10 liters of water,
- Urea + copper sulphate: 500 - 700 g of urea per 10 liters of water + 50 g of copper sulphate,
- Bordeaux liquid 3%: 300 g of copper sulphate and 225 g of hydrated lime-fuzz per 10 liters of water,
- Copper-containing preparations “Khom”, “Oksikhom”, “Abiga-Peak”: according to the instructions for use.
Treat currant and gooseberry bushes with solutions of the indicated concentration BEFORE kidney swelling / blooming .
What else can be sprayed currants in the spring?
The arsenal of tools for applying in early spring is huge!
- Acaricidal agents are used against kidney mites: Tiovit-Jet, Kleschevit, Akarin, Aktellik. Preparations will be effective in cool weather (average 5 degrees Celsius), and at a temperature of 12 degrees it is recommended to use the biological product Fytoverm.
- Against the complex of pests on swollen buds, but before the leaves unfold, insecticides are used: Iskra, Decis Profi, Tanrek.
- From anthracnose, powdery mildew, insect pests, berry bushes are sprayed with a solution of 2% nitrafene solution.
- Kemifos, Prophylactin, Rajok, Horus, Skor, Pharmaiod - all these agents are used in the spring, according to the instructions.
Depending on what pests and diseases raged on the bushes last season, it is advisable to apply:
Chemical agent for controlling pests and diseases of fruit trees, berry bushes and strawberries. Raspberry, black currant and gooseberry bushes are treated with a solution of 2% concentration: 200 g per 10 liters of water. Terms: March-beginning of April, one-time, before bud break.
Modern fungicide to protect fruit trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants. The first treatment is done in the spring, before bud break: 5-10 ml of the product is diluted in 10 liters of water and sprayed with raspberries, honeysuckle, currants, gooseberries, apricots, apples, pears, grapes.
Fungicide, an aqueous solution of which is treated garden for preventive purposes. Currants and gooseberries are sprayed into a bottling phase. The drug will rescue those summer residents who do not have the opportunity to come to the site in early spring.
Manual collection of damaged kidneys
It is possible to distinguish the kidneys damaged by mite back in February - they have a rounded shape and resemble miniature cabbage cabbage.
Healthy buds have an elongated shape. Damaged buds should be collected and burned. It is also necessary to destroy the shoots, which last season suffered from aphids - they, as a rule, are severely twisted. The mechanical destruction of the kidney mite minimizes the use of chemicals in the garden plot, which is very important for gardeners, isn't it? 😉
When to process shrubs
Do in the springtime, then when the buds are just starting to bloom. It is better to process shrubs in warm, dry weather when the temperature reaches approximately + 18 ° С.
It is difficult to limit the processing dates, because spring is always full of surprises and in different regions comes at a certain time. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the weather and plants in the garden.
How to process gooseberries and currants?
This pest most often affects the shoots and leaves of fruit bushes. The result of his life becomes a violation of the growth and type of young shoots. They are bent, and the leaves are noticeably curled. The main place of localization of these insects is the inner half of the leaf, with the formation of yellow or red blisters on top.
- Damaged shoots and leaves must be cut and burned to protect the shrub from active reproduction of this pest.
- Aphids do not tolerate the smell of geranium, therefore, for the prevention of effectively put a pot with such a plant near the bushes of gooseberry and currant.
- It is possible to treat fruit bushes with a 3% solution of nitrofen in early spring, which makes it possible to destroy overwintered eggs.
- Of the chemicals for the treatment of such bushes used a solution of chlorophos (20 g per 10 liters of water). Its effect can be enhanced by adding 30mg of malathion to the solution.
- Well process bushes fufanon before budding buds.
- Can be involved in the processing of damaged branches of the dandelion solution. To do this, chopped leaves and dandelion roots need to fill with hot water and let it brew for several hours. Then spend spraying shrubs.
- Helps to get rid of aphids infusion of ash and tar soap. Here 200 - 300 grams of ash must be poured over with boiling water and infused for 24 hours. Then strain the solution, add soap and process bushes.
- You can rub the laundry soap on a grater, pour hot water over it and process the gooseberries and currants with the solution.
Get rid of this insect is not easy, because the aphid multiplies very quickly. Therefore, the treatment with infusions is carried out weekly and only Fitoverm helps to maintain the effect up to one month.
This insect is a white caterpillar with a brown head, which settles inside the branches of the gooseberry and currant. A glass-bowl can destroy most of the crop, since in the moves it has made, butterflies develop, which leave their nests at the end of the flowering period. They quickly lay eggs on the damaged areas of the bark, after 10 - 12 days, caterpillars appear, which begin to eat away the core of the branches.
- It is necessary to trim the branches damaged by the caterpillars and burn them.
- The shrub can be treated with biological agents (lepidocid, fitoverm, bitoxibacillin).
- From chemical means of struggle, a good effect is given by fufanon, kemifos, kinmiks, which must be processed after the flowering of the berries.
It is very difficult to get rid of such a pest, because it is localized inside the branches of shrubs. For this reason, one should carefully select the material for planting gooseberries or currants.
Fire and Saws
The most dangerous garden pests. Their butterflies fly out from under the bushes, during flowering, so it’s best not to let them out of the soil at all. To do this, the ground under the bushes to cover the dense material and a good press the edges. This procedure is done before the flowering of plants.
Sawflies lay their eggs in large green berries, and when the caterpillars eat seeds in them, the fruits turn a ripe color. These berries on the gooseberries and currants must be immediately collected and destroyed, otherwise the caterpillars will sink into the ground to produce a new generation.
- The bushes are sprayed with infusions of plants with phytoncides (garlic, tomatoes, horseradish, steeple and wormwood).
- If there is no time to pick berries, then the bushes can be sprayed with Fitoverm.
- The butterflies of the firefighters still do not tolerate the smell of tar, turpentine and kerosene. A small amount of such liquids can be put in jars under bushes. Another useful gooseberry during the flowering powder of ash or tobacco dust.
- In order to make fireworks and sawyers unable to hide in the ground under shrubs, the soil must be properly loosened in summer and late autumn.
Other processing methods
- To scare away leaf-eating and other pests, plant marigolds, tomatoes, calendula, garden mint and tansy well between berry bushes.
- It is possible to lay between the bushes sprigs of wormwood and elderberry.
- In early spring, even before bud breaks, it is effective to water currant and gooseberry bushes with very hot water with the addition of aspirin. The branches of the plant will not be affected, but a large number of pests will simply die.
It is important to cultivate not only the berry bushes themselves, but also the soil around them, because the earth often becomes a haven for harmful insects.
The treatment of plants with chemicals should be carried out with extreme caution.because they kill not only pests and diseases, but also beneficial microorganisms. A great helper in the fight against pests and diseases are folk methods that do not poison the crop, and the work invested pays off the benefits of grown berries.
Prevention and treatment of garden diseases
Fruit pests primarily affect the leaves. This is fraught with a complete lack of kidney next year. Since the structure of the foliage of these berry crops is such that at the base of each leaf a kidney matures, and if damage occurs to the leaf, it dies or is not laid at all. The result is dry shoots without foliage and buds, respectively, such a bush will not yield. Infected fruits and foliage, accumulating on the ground, serve as a breeding ground for pests for neighboring plants, as well as a refuge for them for the winter. Therefore, in the spring, all parts of the plant should be processed: branches, buds, young shoots, as well as soil and leaf foliage on it.
It is recommended to start fighting for the currant and gooseberry harvest in early spring. It is desirable to spray the shrub before the budding of new buds or during their very early swelling. Если зима (погодная) затягивается, начало опрыскивания следует отложить.
Spring signs and culprits of diseases
Gooseberries and all kinds of currants, possessing sweet berries and fleshy green foliage, are attacked by various diseases and insect pests. They suck juices from young bushes, eat leaves, which sharply worsens the immunity of plants and exposes them to diseases that are brought by viruses or fungal spores. Spreads of diseases are insects that carry infected plant particles on the bristles of the legs or proboscis and antennae.
So, on old shoots powdery mildew settles. This is a mealy gray bloom with black patches that thickens over time, causing the berries to shrink, lose their juices, and the leaves are wrapped in a straw and so dry.
The caterpillar clinks its way inside the shoot, and the currant bud mite, respectively, in the kidneys. Spider mite females prefer to winter in last year’s leaves, next to spores of ascomycete fungi, which cause anthracnose in currants.
Currant mites actively reproduce in overwintered buds (females lay 3-8 thousand eggs each), exaggerating them hypertrophied to 1 cm in diameter. Later, they crawl into young, budding kidney “dwellings”, and the old kidney dries out, never hatching. Ticks also carry terry disease from plants to plants, which replaces flowers and berries with lilac needle outgrowths. Due to the large number of pests and the constant migration to new places, a good harvest from the affected areas cannot be expected.
Currant bud moth also eats young buds of currant and gooseberry. The caterpillar of this pest is a bright orange color, waiting for the winter in cocoons near the ground, and with the onset of heat, it moves to the swelling buds, damaging 5-7 pieces each. Butterflies appear at the time of the formation of the first greening berries and lay their eggs there. Hatching larvae completely devour the sweet flesh and ripening seeds. As a result, having dyed ahead of time, clusters of currants perish.
Voracious aphid are very small bugs that cause great harm because they eat everything in their path: foliage, swollen buds, flowers, leaving no chance for the bushes. Twisted leaves, crooked low-growing shoots - this is the result of their activities. Another kind of aphid, curly currant, is no less harmful: they parasitize on the inner side of the leaves, forming red growths on the outer side — galls.
red growths are galls.
Currant glass eats the wormwoods inside the branches and winters inside them. Whitish caterpillars with a black-brown head can thus kill more than half of the branches on the bush. Butterflies hatching there, resembling wasps with purple wings, lay eggs not far from the kidneys or into holes in the bark, which the young caterpillars devour in a few weeks.
Shchitovki - these inconspicuous insects live on currant and gooseberry branches and feed on their juice, which leads to drying of the bushes.
Gooseberry and currant berries are very affected by ogniwi and sawflies: the latter place eggs in already appeared, but still green fruits, hatched caterpillars eat pulp and seeds, because of which the berries become “ripe” color. Therefore, there are absolutely no such early fruits, they must be destroyed as soon as possible - this is protection from future generations of caterpillars.
Terms of spring processing
Work should begin as early as possible. There is no exact “correct” date - the weather is no different now from year to year. However, experts recommend focusing on weather conditions: if they are consistently warm for several days (from plus 15-18 degrees) both during the day and at night, then it is time to start spraying.
It is important! It is necessary to monitor the weather and the plants - it is advisable to carry out the treatment of pests before the bud breaks. In different regions this period occurs at different times, for example, in Siberia, it falls on April.
Spring processing - what is it for?
Spring inspection is a kind of prevention. Proper treatment of the bush and soil prevents the development of diseases, the spread of pests. In order for the entire season to bear fruit without problems, it is necessary to maintain its nutrition, watering and health.
The absence of fungi and pests ensure the health of the fruit bush. Therefore, during the season, varieties of currants and gooseberries, prone to disease, are periodically treated with biological or chemical preparations. The first treatment is carried out in the spring, immediately after warming and melting snow.
The first treatment in early spring determines the health of the shrubs and the need for future treatments. Insect pests are just starting to wake up.
The fruit bodies of fungal diseases are hidden in isolated cocoons. At this point, they can be removed with one general treatment, to stop in the bud the future lesions and diseases. If you miss the time, allow pests to wake up, take the kidneys and the surface of the branches, then instead of a single spring spraying, you will have to fight diseases for the whole season.
What to process: buds, branches, last year's leaves or soil?
The choice of treatment is determined by the physiology of the pest. If the causative agent of rot overwinter in the soil - it is necessary to treat the soil around the plant. If the pest pupates in the bark, it is necessary to process the branches at the base of the bush. If the cocoons overwinter in the foliage, then all last year’s plant residues should be collected and folded for composting.
How to process: boiling water, biological products or chemistry?
The choice of means for processing plants is determined by the characteristics of your garden. If in the previous season there were invasions of pests, a chemical insecticide will be needed.
If the season was calm - you can do preventive measures, process the bush with hot water or water with potassium permanganate. If you need to improve soil fertility, feed the plant - you need to use biological products. They will increase the growth of the plant and provide him with a strong garden "immunity."
When to process: at the end of winter or early spring? And at what temperature?
The first processing of shrubs are planned at the time of the snow. This usually corresponds to a temperature of about + 5 ° C. What happens in different regions at different times. In the south - at the end of winter, and in the north - in the middle of the first spring month.
And now let's talk more about how and how to handle currant bushes, gooseberries in the spring. And what to look for during the first spring processing.
Spring signs of disease
In order to prevent the spread of pests, you need to know their place of wintering. It is easier to remove a small amount of them in a localized space — on the bark or on a patch of soil, than to remove a large population of insects from the entire bush.
And in order to easily detect wintering grounds, it is necessary to know the characteristic signs of the presence of one or another beetle, caterpillar, butterflies.
What to look for in the spring inspection of plants:
- Dry “burned” branches and cocoons on branches near the ground are a kidney pest, a mole.
- Unnaturally large buds, similar to a head of cabbage - bud mite.
- Plaque on the ends of branches - mealy dew.
- Holes inside the branches - glass box.
In any case, the wintering sites and the primary spring pest exit should be removed.
How to treat a bush from pests?
In order to prevent most of the pests and diseases of the gooseberry, currant, you can use the following instructions:
- Inspect the bush after wintering. Identify dry, tainted, bloody, all unusual and strange branches, and remove them.
- Move away from the bush, collect and lay in the compost last year's foliage.
- Spill the soil around the shrub with hot water, you can add manganese or soda.
- Wash the branches of the plants with the same hot water - from a watering can.
- If necessary, if there is suspicion of the presence of a certain pest - spray the plant with a toxic chemical or an active biological substance.
These simple actions will save shrubs from 90% of possible diseases.
Selection number 1: folk remedies for spring processing
The most popular folk remedy is the treatment of shrubs with boiling water. This simple method brings great benefits to the garden and the plants. In order to water the bushes, the water is heated to the boiling point, placed in a container (bucket, watering can), carried to the street to the bushes.
The contact time of hot water with the surface of the branches should be short - a few seconds. Water is poured on the branches in small portions. The temperature of the water for treating the bushes in the spring can be below the boiling point and be 80-90 °. For soil treatment, it is better to withstand the temperature around boiling - 95-100 °.
To enhance the effect of hot water, you can add salt (natural antiseptic), potassium permanganate, soda. The concentration of soda solution is 3 tbsp. l 10 liters of water.
The salt concentration is similar to soda, also 3 cl. spoons of 10 liters. The concentration of manganese - to light pink. On the branch 1 bush consumes up to 1 liter of hot water. One bucket of boiling water can handle 1-2 plants.
An infusion of antiseptic poisonous herbs, a decoction of dried tansy, wormwood, celandine, and tobacco can be used as boiling water. They are brewed in a ratio of 0.5 liters of cans of dry grass per 10 liters of water. After brewing - insist, filter, before processing the bush - heated to 95 °, poured into a watering can and process branches and soil.
Dry tobacco and mustard are also used as an antiseptic treatment. They sprinkle the soil around the shrub. In this case, use up to 200 g of dry powder for 1 bush. An alternative to dry tobacco are the seeds of aromatic spice plants, which are sown next to the shrub. For this, mustard seeds, chives, tansy seeds and wormwood are used.
What can be processed: chemistry
Modern gardening has various plant treatments. Their list is updated annually with new drugs. The advantages of chemical agents - speed of action and high efficiency.
The disadvantage is the need to use protective measures, the danger of poisoning if used improperly used toxic chemicals. Let us cite as an example several chemical agents tested over decades.
The name of this tool is associated with French winegrowers from the province of Bordeaux. Several centuries ago, they invented mixing copper sulphate with lime to neutralize the acid in its solution. This makes the tool not so aggressive, while maintaining overall effectiveness against fungi and pests.
To prepare the solution, 100 g of copper sulphate, 100 g of quicklime and 10 liters of water are taken. It is important to comply with the technology of preparation of Bordeaux mixture:
- Mix quicklime with water - 100 g of lime + 5 l of water. It turns out "slaked" lime or the so-called "lime milk".
- Separately mix 100 g of copper sulphate and 5 liters of hot water (reheat before mixing).
- Pour blue solution of blue vitriol into white "milk of lime". Important: vitriol is poured into the "milk", and not vice versa. At the same time, blue vitriol solution is added to the “milk” in a thin stream, slowly and with constant stirring.
- Add to the solution 100 g of liquid soap - for better adhesion to the branches of shrubs.
The resulting mixture can handle up to 10 fruit bushes. The solution can be used for spraying for 5 hours. After the designated time, the lime particles stick together into lumps, impede spraying and clog the holes of the watering can.
A chemical product that contains strong poisons - phenols, and is characterized by an effective action against pests. It works against various lesions - ticks hibernating in the bark and the aphids stored in the foliage and fruit bodies of powdery mildew. It has the form of a paste, which is diluted with water before spraying. The concentration of the solution for the treatment of the bush - 200 g per 10 liters of water.
On a note: pest removal is most effective in the open power phase. During the laying of eggs, female insects crawl out, look for food on the trunks and kidneys, become available for destruction. Therefore, in the presence of harmful larvae, caterpillars, insects, shrubs of plants are necessarily sprayed with an insecticidal agent again, during the period when the females of the insects lay eggs.
How to sprinkle better: biological products
In the past few years, biological remedies have become more effective. They combine high performance and safety. They do not contain toxic substances, poisons that poison the soil and humans.
They have enzymes and biologically active substances that help the plant to become strong and not become infected with pests. And also create a specific protection, using insect antagonists, predators.
Available biological agents can be divided into two groups:
- The first - drugs with a complex of friendly bacteria. They improve the nutrition of the roots, strengthen the bush and make it immune to diseases.
- The second is a means of specific action, which contain natural pest antagonists, those predatory insects that use pests for their own reproduction.
On a note: the nature of the second group is a biological fungicide. The first is useful fertilizers.
Let us give examples of biological preparations that have proven themselves as a means of combating and preventing fungal and bacterial lesions.
A remedy that contains a complex of plant-friendly bacteria. Basically - these are the beneficial microorganisms that live in the upper layers of the soil and are responsible for its health and fertility. It also contains the spores of bacteria that interfere with the digestion of insect pests.
Bitoksibaksillin is a kind of drug for soil dysbacteriosis and a means of leaf-eating caterpillars. Among various pests, it infects aphids and moths better than others. In addition, it helps to restore the soil, improves the nourishment of the shrub.
Note: soil dysbacteriosis is inherent in many land plots due to improper land use, depletion and environmental pollution.
For spraying use 80-100 ml of the liquid preparation per 10 liters of water. The working temperatures are not lower than + 8 ° С, optimal - from + 18 ° С. Sprayed in cloudy weather or after lunch, in the late afternoon.
A remedy that contains hay bacillus bacteria. Available in powder, paste and liquid form. Non-toxic. Its effectiveness ranges from 65 to 95%.
Used in a wide range of temperatures, from -40 to +40. For spring spraying, powder is more suitable than other forms. It is diluted in a ratio of 5 g of powder to 10 liters of water. Fitosporin paste is used for spraying a leaf. Vegetative leafy bushes are also treated with liquid phytosporin.
On a note: hay wand dies in bright light. Therefore, Fitosporin is better to spray plants in cloudy weather or at the end of the day.
The preparation contains Trichoderma fungi that parasitize on pathogenic species of fungi - pathogens of powdery mildew, anthracnose.
The concentration of the spray solution is selected depending on the purpose of treatment and the degree of damage to the plant. For prophylaxis, 100 g of the drug per 10 liters of water is sufficient. In the presence of fungal infection - 200 g per 10 liters. With severe lesions - 1 part concentrate trichophyte to 2 parts water.
Features: Trichodermas are active in an acidic environment, they lose their activity in alkalis and in the light. Therefore, on alkaline soils after liming it is necessary to use Trihofit after abundant watering. And also harrow the ground after spraying. Or use the drug in the evening, at night.
It is safe for humans, a universal remedy is a biological fungicide that stimulates the work of plant cells, forcing them to produce enzymes to protect and combat fungal infections.
The stimulating effect of Mikosan appears for a long time, for several weeks after spraying. In addition, it forms a protective film on the surface of the branches, which prevents the contact of the pathogen and the plant. In addition to the prevention and control of fungal infections, Mikosan improves plant nutrition and soil composition.
Dilute 100 ml of the drug in 10 l of water. Spend up to 1 l per shrub and up to 8 l when spraying the land on weaving. Consider: Mikosan has an alkaline reaction, therefore it does not mix with acidic agents, live bacterial cultures, EM drugs (“effective microorganisms”).
Biological protection products have many advantages and one important disadvantage. The range of their use starts from good heat temperatures, from + 10 ° to + 25 ° С. And the first spring treatment is started as soon as the snow melted and on the street a slight warming of + 5 + 10 °. At such temperatures, the effectiveness of biological protection agents is reduced.
With the beginning of spring, nature begins to wake up after a long sleep, along with it various pests of the garden begin to come to life. На своих дачных участках садоводы выращивают многие ягодные кустарники, включая различные виды смородины, крыжовника, малины, и важным условием получения богатого и качественного урожая плодов является борьба с непрошенными гостями. Обработка кустов смородины и крыжовника специальными растворами позволяет не только избавить посадки от болезней и вредителей, но и предупредить их появление.
Spring pest control on currants and gooseberries (detection of pests on the bushes)
Every year getting healthy, high-quality berries of currants and gooseberries is becoming increasingly difficult, since pests attack these berry bushes with a vengeance. We have to constantly improve methods and techniques to combat them, as well as develop new tools for treating currant bushes and gooseberries. After all, many insects perfectly tolerate winter conditions, and the onset of spring gives them a signal to reproduce, thereby increasing the danger of fruit bushes. Processing of currants and gooseberries should be carried out with the use of various decoctions and infusions, and only in the case of the complete absence of a positive result should be resorted to the use of chemical protection measures. In order to significantly reduce the number of pests in the dacha garden, it is recommended to carry out a set of procedures for the care of currants and gooseberries during the year, in compliance with the agrotechnology of their cultivation. It is necessary to carry out the treatment of bushes with observance of safety precautions, otherwise, destroying harmful insects and diseases, it is possible to destroy the entire crop.
With the onset of spring should carefully examine the fruit bushes for the presence of diseased, dry and damaged branches. Be sure to release them from the plant, and it is recommended to prune the tops of the frozen shoots to healthy buds. It is known that the main wintering place for pests of a garden is fallen leaves, which they leave when spring comes and begin an active process of their vital activity. That is why all the fallen leaves should be collected in heaps and burned, the same should be done with the cut branches.
For many insects, the place of wintering is the soil, in the depth of which they hid from frost. With the onset of heat, it is necessary to scatter ash around the bushes and slightly dig up the earth between them, which will allow destroying the nests of many pests, as well as destroying their larvae. An important condition for obtaining a good harvest is the spring processing of currant bushes and gooseberries from various insects.
Kidney mite on currants
With the arrival of spring with a careful examination of the currant bush, you can find a lot of dried buds of brown color, from which many gardeners are trying to free the plant. Many of them naively believe that in this way, together with the dry kidney, they destroy the tick that was in them. However, this view is erroneous, because for its growth and development, the tick prefers young buds. The habitat of this pest inside healthy buds gradually leads to their deformation and loosening, and inside them you can find the remains of disfigured leaves. Of course, in the future, this kidney can not grow well and develop, it is dying off, which, as a result, will affect the crop.
A huge amount of ticks can accumulate in one kidney, therefore, as it grows, it becomes crowded, and they begin to spread along the rest of the kidneys. As a result of such a relocation, even such an unpleasant viral disease as terry-likeness, which is characterized by the formation of thin needles instead of fruits, can develop.
There are several methods to combat this insect, which are successfully used by gardeners-gardeners in early spring:
- With a small number of affected kidneys, you just need to cut them off and burn. If all or some more buds are affected on a bush, then such a plant is best cut off and burned, too,
- after removal of sick kidney from the currant, the shrub can be treated with a special solution prepared from 300 grams of grated garlic, 200 grams of onion peel, 10 grams of mustard powder and 20 grams of birch tar. All the ingredients are mixed together in a large container, pour a bucket of water, followed by infusion for 24 hours. We filter the prepared infusion and use it to process currant bushes,
- another simple and affordable means of dealing with ticks - treating the plant with boiling water before the buds begin to swell, without any harm to the latter,
- Before the beginning of the flowering period, the berry can be treated with a suspension of colloidal sulfur, diluting 75 grams of the drug in a bucket of water,
- From commercially available chemicals, you can use a solution of fufanon or karate, after treating the plants before the buds swell and the flowers appear.
Processing of currants and gooseberries for the two most unpleasant diseases
The most common plant disease in which small brown spots appear on the leaves is anthracnose. In this disease, gooseberry leaves and currants become brown in color, begin to dry out, and soon fall off. The main site of anthracnose is the underside of the leaves, as well as the shrub parts closest to the ground.
The main tool to combat this disease is the Bordeaux mixture, the treatment of which is best carried out before the appearance of young leaves. When an anthracnose is detected already at a rather late period, the currant and gooseberry bushes are treated with phytosporin, acrobat, prequickur and other fungicides.
A good effect is obtained by treating fruit bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid, as well as 3% solution of copper sulphate, for which 300 grams of the preparation should be diluted in 10 liters of water. Processing by these means is desirable to be carried out in the evening.
Folk remedies for spring processing
Universal remedy for pest control currants and gooseberries - a simple boiling water. It cannot be said that this method is 100% protection, but it remarkably destroys those insects that climbed out to escape and those that have been sitting in fallen leaves since winter. In this case, the shrub does not cause any harm.
To carry out the passage with boiling water preferably in the last days of March - the first of April. Snow by this time should already melt, and the soil can still be frost-bitten. Water should be taken at the rate of 10 liters per 3-4 bushes. Immediately after boiling, boiling water is poured into a watering can, which makes the treatment of the bushes more convenient and safe for the worker (the possibility of burns), and also cools it to the required temperature of 80-85 degrees. Many gardeners additionally dissolved in a bucket of boiling water 10 pcs. aspirin tablets. Such a hot shower is good for gooseberries and currants, affected by powdery mildew and starting to smite.
Important! It is impossible to spill the land under the bushes for a long time, so as not to awaken early sap flow and flowering, when there is a possibility of late frosts. Also it is impossible to water with hot water already swelling kidneys.
Another means is a soap solution (50 grams of grated household soap is diluted with 2-3 liters of water to dissolve, and another dozen liters of water are added), diluted soda ash, tincture of tomato tops, garlic, tobacco or marigolds. The onion peel, soaked in a sufficient amount of water, also repels pests well.
For cleaning from fungi and other pests, an alkaline solution of ordinary baking soda works well, which must be diluted in a ratio of 100 grams per 10 liters of water. To defeat the winter insects, you can use already soda ash, diluted at the rate of 50 grams per 10 liters.
Ground sulfur in the proportion of 20 grams. on 1 square. The meter of bushes to be treated will help to get rid of ticks and their larvae, the treatment is best done in late April and early May.
To combat the fungus and as a dressing for gooseberries and currants, a solution of 100 grams is used. wood ash per 10 liters of boiling water, infused for 2-3 days and carefully filtered.
Principles of processing shrubs in the spring.
- Black currants and gooseberries are treated before bud break.
During this period, activities are carried out with the aim of destroying pests and pathogens.
- But during flowering you can not touch the bushes.
Otherwise, you will not get the berries - pollinating insects are dying or ignoring flowers sprayed with medicinal mixtures.
It is best to plan preventive measures:
- for april
- when the buds do not open,
- at the same time air temperature reaches 15 ° C.
It is impossible to predict exact dates of processing, as each region has its own characteristics, and the weather gives unforgivable surprises to summer residents. However, if weather forecasters warn people about return frosts, it is recommended to temporarily postpone gardening.
Before treating the bushes, take care of protective clothing and rubber gloves, even sparing agents can irritate the skin of the hands and face.
It is difficult to get rid of pests, they spoil shoots, berries and prevent the summer resident from fully enjoying the harvest.
Every gardener must know and fight against known species of insects:
Often the shoots of plants are completely covered with the smallest green insects, leaving behind themselves twisted tops.
- In no case should these parts of the shrub be thrown at the site, they must be burned immediately.
- In the spring, be sure to sprinkle with garlic extract prepared according to a proven recipe.
- Garlic should be crushed or minced.
- Then the resulting mass is poured 1 liter of water.
- In a dark place, the mixture is infused for several days before it is used for its intended purpose.
- 100 ml of infusion is added to a bucket of water, and the preparation is sufficient for several shrubs.
- If in the late spring you find aphids on the shoots, be sure to wash the shoots with tar soap.
- In addition, for a few weeks it allows you to forget about the misfortune of spraying the drug "Fitoverm."
- Any kind of aphids can be defeated by folk remedies, using for this purpose solutions of dandelion, weeds.
- In early spring, it also makes sense to sprinkle the twigs and soil around the currants and gooseberries with red pepper.
- Experienced gardeners offer another way to fight the pest - on warm days, put geraniums in a pot right under the shrub, many insects cannot stand the smell of this flower.
Shchitovk not always able to detect in time, however, these insects tightly stick around the branches and suck out all the vital juices of currants and gooseberries. Gradually, twigs and shoots dry out, die.
Treat the plant can be a soap mixture with the addition of conventional kerosene.
In 1 liter of water dissolve about 80 g. Of household soap and a few drops of kerosene.
It is worth noting that the smell of this substance scares off almost all types of pests.
From the caterpillars of fire.
Many novice gardeners would like to know what can be done with black currants against fireworm caterpillars. Butterflies fly out from under the shrub when the berry crop blossoms.
A simple way to prevent insect attacks is pieces of film that cover the ground under the plant.
So, the pests can not get out of the soil and die, which means that the currant is not attacked by fire. Make it necessary to bloom in April.
Amazing ripening berries and sawflies. It is noticed that, like fire attacks, these insects do not like:
smells of tar, turpentine and kerosene.
- Therefore, it makes sense to put under the bushes jars with liquids.
- Additionally, you can powder the plants with wood ash or tobacco dust.
Seasoned gardeners traditionally plant tansy and marigolds between the berry bushes in spring, lay elderberry and wormwood branches in order to reduce the risk of pest infestation of currants and gooseberries.
From kidney tick.
Currants often suffer from kidney mites, diseased plants are characterized by swollen diseased kidneys. It is necessary:
- Shrubs with buds pick out and burn along with the pest.
- But severely affected bushes should be cut down.
Purified shrubs are sprayed with a hearty infusion prepared from the following ingredients:
- garlic leaves (300 g),
- onion peel (200 g),
- mustard powder (1 large spoon),
- birch tar (2 large spoons).
- All ingredients are drawn in a bucket of water for at least a day.
- Then filter.
- And the resulting liquid sprayed plants in April, when the heat comes.
Replace the infusion can be drug "Fitoverm", applied according to the attached instructions.
Boiling water to protect the currants and gooseberries.
Before spraying shrubs, use the old and effective method. Hot water spilled on the ground during the melting of snow destroys insects hibernating in the soil, as well as pathogens.
Experienced gardeners advise:
- Boil 10 liters of liquid on the fire, add a few aspirin tablets.
- Water is poured into a metal watering can.
And used for watering currants and gooseberries, scalded not only the ground, but also the twigs, devoid of buds and especially the leaves.
Practice shows that hot water effectively protects plants from pests and diseases.
Apply boiling water only 1 time, it is best to schedule such a procedure at the end of March.
As a prophylactic agent suitable:
- The infusion of wood ash - 1.5 kg of the component insist in a bucket of water for at least a day, stirring occasionally.
- As well as the infectious agent is killed by a solution of ferrous sulfate (1%) and a diluted mullein.
- White-coated tops cut off and burn immediately.
- And the plants themselves are washed with a solution prepared from soapy water with the addition of 1 large spoon of baking soda.
The gooseberry sometimes suffers from anthracnose, the leaves of the shrub become covered with brown spots that merge with each other. So, the foliage withers and falls, rainy weather contributes to the development of the disease.
In the spring before blooming buds, choose what to process berries.
In early April, spray branches and soil around the gooseberry:
- copper sulphate (1%),
- and Bordeaux liquid is suitable for this purpose (100 ml per 1 bucket of water),
- colloidal sulfur.
After the initial processing of currants and gooseberries, start feeding plants, cleaned and prepared for the warm season, the bushes will gratefully accept nutrients. But if you do not have time to spill the soil with boiling water or spray the culture, do not rush to do it after bud break.
It is possible to protect plants during the formation of berries, using gentle and safe means.
That's all for today. Protect your plants and you will get a rich harvest of berries.