The size of sweet cherry fruits is not so large compared to its other stone fruit relatives. But there is a variety that stands out quite impressive size of the berries. The name of its corresponding - Large.
History of the variety
Long and painstaking work of Ukrainian breeders preceded the emergence of this new variety. The basis of the positive qualities of cherries is Napoleon White, for pollination of which mixed pollen from varieties such as Valery Chkalov, Jaboulet, Elton was used. In 1983, the Krupnoplodnaya sweet cherry variety was included in the Ukrainian register of plants. Large fruits and high yields soon made it popular almost throughout the territory of southern Russia.
This type of sweet cherry is a straight-stem tree up to 10 meters high with light bark and branches covered with long ellipsoid leaves. Crohn middle density has a spherical shape. Flowering cherry begins in early April and looks fascinating. The branches are almost completely covered with small flowers, turning the tree into a white ball. Flowers are collected in umbrellas with a variety of stamens and have, as a rule, 5 petals and sepals. The tree grows very quickly compared to other varieties and begins to produce crops already from the age of four. Annually gives at least 45 kg of excellent fruits for the season Cherry-Cherry Cherry.
From mid-June, their maturation begins. Quite large in size (weighing up to 12 g), the fruits have a different shape, but most often closer to a blunt-heart-shaped with a pointed tip. The thin, glossy skin is very durable; at first it has a red color, which, as it ripens, becomes more and more dark, as a result almost black. The flesh is of the same color, juicy and sweet, with a bitter taste, its quality depends largely on the conditions in which the Big Cherry cherry grows. Stone is large, easily separated from the pulp.
The fruits are located on a thick stalk placed in a small funnel. They are tied, as a rule, in pairs, in rare cases in threes. Their maturation lasts a little longer than other varieties.
Features of growing
Large cherries refers to those plants for which the care is of no small importance. By providing good conditions, you can get a real long-lived tree.
Soil plant does not impose special requirements. Can do without regular fertilization. But it grows especially well on non-saline chernozem, alluvial soils of river valleys. Good illumination is more important, since large-fruited sweet cherries grow very weakly in the shade. The description of the plant marks a rather low ability of the root system to regenerate, therefore it is necessary to tillage the soil carefully, going deeper than 15 cm.
Fertilizing the plant should be done moderately, otherwise overfeeding is possible, as a result of which the growth increases, and this can lead to the formation of fragile wood.
Of great importance for the full development of such a plant as a large-fruited sweet cherry is a properly chosen and equipped place for planting. This variety prefers areas that are well lit by the sun, located on a hill. It is good if there is a fence or any structure nearby, this contributes to the accumulation of snow in winter and to the creation of a more comfortable microclimate. It is not recommended to plant sweet cherries in areas with close groundwater storage.
In the autumn, before planting, they thoroughly dig up the soil to a depth of not less than 30 cm, adding to it organic fertilizers (manure, humus) at the rate of 10 kg per square meter and mineral (200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potash). They must be thoroughly mixed with the ground.
If the soil is heavy loamy, their liming is carried out (500-600 g of lime per square meter). Cherry pit is prepared two weeks before planting.
Watering and feeding
To obtain a high quality crop, soil moisture is of great importance. Sufficient watering for a young tree - 25-40 liters in one procedure with a break of one month. When large-fruited cherries begin to bear fruit, the amount of water during irrigation increases to 50-60 liters. If the summer is rainy, the plant can do without this procedure, but during the dry period it should be watered up to 4 times a month.
Large cherries do not need much fertilizer. The feeding made during the planting of a young tree is quite enough for the first 3-4 years, before the onset of the fruiting phase. Urea is sometimes used during this period to help improve plant growth. 2 years after planting, you can make a small amount of nitrate and ammonium, but not more than 25 grams per 1 square meter. Manure is the safest fertilizer that positively affects both tree growth and fruit formation. It is enough to make it only once every three years.
Cherry variety Krupnoplodnaya is highly resistant to diseases, and insect pests are not afraid of it. Therefore, it is necessary to spray a tree with various chemicals only if there is an urgent need for it, for example, when there is a risk of infecting a plant from other varieties of sweet cherries located in the neighborhood.
Sweet cherry is famous not only for its large fruits and excellent taste. In its composition there is a huge amount of useful substances that have a beneficial effect in cardiovascular diseases, problems of the gastrointestinal tract. Very useful for people with allergies, Cherry Large Cherry.
The description of the variety of this plant will allow you to understand how to create the necessary conditions for growing it in your home garden.
Characteristics of sweet cherry
Agronomists bred the cherries with the largest fruits as far back as the 1980s, pollinating the varieties Valery Chkalov, Elton and Zhabule. The dimensions make this version one of the most profitable for sale. Large sweet cherry grows rapidly, has strong and coarse branches. The height of an adult tree reaches 5 m, the bark is brown, the leaves are large, slightly elongated, pointed at the top, and have notches at the edges. During the flowering period, white large flowers cover the tree. Berries most often appear on last year's growths and bouquet branches, and the tree usually begins to bear fruit on the 4th-5th year of life.
Attention! The average yield for middle-aged cherries (12-13 years) is 44-56 kg of fruits annually.
Gardeners, of course, are most interested in berries, which even outwardly are very attractive and juicy:
- size - up to 2 cm in diameter,
- average weight - 10-13 g,
- maximum weight - 18 g,
- shape - rounded,
- the taste is sour-sweet, considered dessert,
- color - from dark red to burgundy,
- the cover is dense, but thin, with an ebb, easily separated from the pulp,
- the pulp is dense, gristly.
In the berries of Large-fruited many vitamins and other nutrients: A, PP, B1, B2, E, C, calcium, magnesium, as well as sodium, potassium and iron. 100 g of the product contains 50 kcal. 80% of the fruit consists of water, 9.8% - of sugar.
Reviews of truckers on the pros and cons of the variety
Large cherries ripen around mid-June. In addition to size, according to gardeners, it has the following advantages:
- consistently yields high yields
- color buds resist frost well,
- the tree is not afraid of drought,
- tolerates transplant well and takes root in a new place,
- little susceptible to the fungus that causes moniliosis (fruit rot).
Cons varieties are also related to its size:
- With frequent rains or waterlogging during watering, the fruits begin to crack.
- The tree is not resistant to coccomycosis and bacon carcinoma.
- High sterility. For abundant harvests, additional pollination is needed in any way: artificially or by planting nearby the cherries of the varieties Bigarro, Surprise, V. Chkalov, Francis, Oratovsky, Diber black.
Gardener's advice on planting and care
Summer residents note that, according to the requirements, large-fruited cherries are similar to other varieties. She needs:
- good soil
- sufficient lighting
- correct fit.
It will not be possible to root the sweet cherry in the autumn - the shoots are very sensitive to frost and will simply not survive in the winter. In the spring, it is also important to guess the correct time, but short-term frosts are less dangerous. Therefore, large-fruited cherries are usually planted as soon as the snow melts and the ground is digging. It is necessary to root the shoot before the vegetative process starts in other trees.
Attention! The shoots of seedlings of this variety are usually longer than those of the “relatives”.
In order for the tree to begin, you need to choose the right area:
- Cherries are adversely affected by places where cold air stagnates and there is little light.
- The shadow of the buildings limits the amount of sun. This is bad for growth.
- You can not plant a tree in the hollows. The best place for him is the southern slope.
- Between two large cherries there should be a distance of at least 3 m. Between the rows - 5 m.
- To the composition of the soil variety is not very demanding, but will not grow in poor soil. The tree does not like extremes: too dry (sandy) or too wet (swampy, clay) soil.
According to the dacha residents, the care of this sweet cherry is not too complicated, but you should follow the recommendations clearly, otherwise you will lose a bountiful and massive harvest:
- control soil moisture
- water regularly (about 20-40 liters per month on a young tree),
- Do not feed the first 3 years - enough fertilizer applied during planting. Then once every 3 years (or even less often) use rotted manure,
- in the fourth year of the tree's life, fertilize it with urea, for good growth.
Since the second winter, the large-fruited sweet cherry is completely resistant to frost. But gardeners do not advise to leave it completely without protection. Dig and moisten the ground, snow over the tree trunk. Crop varieties produced regularly. Shorten the crown by no more than half to increase the yield of tasty fruits.
Period of flowering and ripening
Cherry flowers, as a rule, are not damaged by spring frosts, as they bloom later, when the threat of frost disappears. It is worth noting that even when the buds are covered with snow, the crop of this variety is preserved
At the Cherry plant there are beautiful white flowers with five petals, gathered in inflorescences of 5-6 pieces. Berries are tied to last year's fruit growth. Cherry blossoms bloom abundant, fruit variety annually. Harvest ripens in late June. The color of the fruit is dark red, burgundy, the flesh is sweet juicy. The skin is glossy, shiny, dense.
The frost resistance of the root system and the above-ground part of the sweet cherry is high. Only in one-year-old saplings the roots do not tolerate strong frosts. Long frosts up to - 30 ° C can lead to the death of the plant. In the northern regions, they grow this crop in places protected from winds.
The variety withstands negative temperatures down to -25–30 ° С. The degree of freezing is influenced not only by low temperatures in winter, but also by the condition of the tree in the first year of the growing season. Sweet cherries, depleted by excessive harvest, weakened by drought, damaged by diseases and pests, can die even at a temperature of -15–20 ° C.
How to plant a large-fruited cherry
Saplings live best in autumn in the first half of October. Planting within these periods ensures the growth of the root system, since the soil has an optimal amount of moisture and a suitable temperature. Finish the autumn planting of cherries 15 - 20 days before the soil freezes.
You can root this variety in the spring. Do it in a short time in March. After loosening the soil in pristvolnyh circles. Sweet cherry seedlings react positively to mulching, especially when grown without irrigation. A layer of mulch with a thickness of 4–6 cm from straw, humus, peat, compost prevents drying of the soil, development of weeds, and contributes to better growth and fruiting of sweet cherries.
How to choose a sapling
For planting take both annual and biennial seedlings with a closed or open root system, which can be bought in nurseries and garden stores. When purchasing a variety of sweet cherries, it is necessary to choose the escape, which has a well-developed root, there are no dry and broken processes.
The branches of the seedling have a certain elasticity. Also, they must not have any defects. Ensure that the bark is intact, without cracks and injuries. When choosing a variety, pay special attention to the fact that the plant should be grafted. If you look at a grafting site on a seedling, this is a good copy.
Timing and landing scheme
If you plant plants late in the fall, there is a danger that they will not tolerate the first winter. The sweet cherry of this variety continues, albeit slightly, to evaporate moisture. Therefore, during late autumn planting, the death of a tree in winter is more likely not from frost, but from drying out. Especially in areas with strong winter winds. Cherry planting plantation Krupnoplodnaya and the description with the photo below.
Late landing in the spring leads to the same results as in late autumn. Therefore, take into account tips:
- At optimal periods (at the end of March - early April) spring planting and normal care during the growing season, by the beginning of the rest period the plants form good shoots and have time to harden.
- Spring planting lasts from the beginning of the thawing of the land in each specific area of not more than 10-12 days.
- If the spring planting is late, the plants may die. The main reason is the same - lack of moisture.
- The root system of seedlings, as a rule, is shortened and cannot, at first, provide the plant well with the necessary amount of water.
In order to plant a large-fruited cherries spring, the earth must be prepared in autumn.
- Dig a landing hole. Its width and depth make two times more than the roots of the plant. After that, two buckets of fresh compost or rotted manure fall asleep in the hole.
- If the acidity of the soil is increased, add lime or dolomite flour. At the bottom of the pit, drainage (15 - 20 cm) is made of fine crushed stone, gravel, broken brick, and sand. Then fall asleep to two-thirds of the volume of the prepared soil mixture. Mostly the well is prepared 10–15 days before planting so that the soil settles well.
Caring for cherries Krupnoplodnaya
From the moment of planting the variety it is necessary to form the crown. Most often, this type of pruning has an aesthetic value, since Cherry-Cherry cherry does not reduce the yield indicators. In the autumn period, they make rejuvenating, regulating and shaping pruning of sweet cherries. Her time is mid-October.
Sanitary care of cherries is carried out so that moisture does not accumulate in the thickened crown and does not nourish the spores of fungal diseases. One-year saplings of large-fruited sweet cherries are formed before the beginning of the growing season - in spring. A two-year sapling pruned in a year - in early spring. Over time, the wave of growth in strong shoots weakens.
Top dressing and watering
Large sweet cherries are demanding on soil moisture, this is due to the surface placement of the root system and significant transpiration.
At the same time, in watery areas, the roots suffer from a lack of oxygen. When ripe, more moisture is required. During flowering and fruiting trees are watered every three days. If this period coincided with the drought, then the frequency is evaded.
Description of the variety. Fruits, tree, shoots and main advantages
The variety is the brainchild of the long labors of the Ukrainian breeders, who became M.T. Oratovsky and his colleague N.I. Turovtsev. Scientists took the “Napoleon Belaya” cherry, which became the main donor of all the positive qualities of “Large-fruited”, as the basis for breeding. For pollination of "Napoleon" a mixture of pollen from different varieties of sweet cherries was used, including "Valery Chkalov", "Elton" and "Jabule".
Back in 1983, a new variety took pride of place among other varieties of the Ukrainian Plant Registry. Today, thanks to the large size of the fruit and regular yield, the variety is distributed throughout virtually the entire part of southern and central Russia.
Distinctive qualities of the fruit
Thus, the weight of fruits of this variety varies on average from 10.4 to 12 grams. The maximum weight is 18 grams. Such an indicator is quite rare among other varieties of sweet cherries. The shape of the berries is wide-round, very attractive, which allows them to be used for sale.
The cherries are dark red in their color, but not at all similar to the fruits of the “Divers Black”. They are distinguished by thin, but very dense, peel of fruits, which ensures the suitability of berries for transportation over long distances. Also, the skin can easily be separated from the pulp, and its surface is very smooth.
The flesh is the same color as the skin. Juice is also dark red. The structure of the pulp is dense and juicy, different cartilage. The taste of the fruit is very good. The taste is characterized as sweet and sour, the evaluation of professional tasters is 4.6 out of 5. The stone of the fruit is also quite large, but is almost ideally able to separate from the fruit.
Pods ripen in this variety of sweet cherries in average terms, approximately in the second half of June. You can use them in different ways. Годятся как для свежего употребления непосредственно в пищу, так и для приготовления из них компотов.
Описание дерева и особенностей его роста
The adult and fruitful tree of the Krupnoplodnaya cherry variety is of medium size. The growth of a tree is very rapid, if you plant it on the site along with other varieties of sweet cherries, by the 4th year it will be significantly ahead of its neighbors in size. The crown shape of this tree is mostly spherical (unless the gardener wishes to form another). The main branches, which are of skeletal type, are represented in small numbers, but they are very strong and coarse. Crown thickened in the middle degree.
Cherries are mainly formed on such parts of the tree as bouquets and last year's increments.
In addition to large-sized fruits, the variety boasts and early onset of fruiting. It is able to give the first harvests as early as the 4th year after planting the seedling at a permanent place of growth.
On average, from one tree bearing fruit for 10 years, about 44-56 kilograms of berries are harvested.
Virtues of the variety
Besides the fact that the tree every year is capable of bringing abundant crops of large berries, it is also very beneficial in other aspects. After all, the Krupnoplodnaya sweet cherry has a high resistance to low temperatures. In addition, the tree sustainably tolerates drought, which is practically not displayed on its fruits. It is not very demanding to the soil, it may not be fertilized regularly.
Cherry "Krupnoplodnaya" in fact not affected by moniliasis. The tree is very rare, but still sometimes can be affected by diseases such as coccomycosis and bacterial cancer of stone fruit plants.
Naturally, gardeners appreciate this tree primarily for large berries, which also have excellent taste.
How to plant a sapling of the “Krupnoplodnaya” sweet cherry variety?
To carry out the correct planting of the cherry tree, it is very important to know not only about the characteristics of the variety (although this is also important), but also about the necessary conditions for the growth of sweet cherry. After all, in order for a tree to grow well and be able to bear fruit, it needs good soil and proper lighting, proper and timely planting.
Time and place - what is the best for “Krupnoplodnaya” sweet cherry?
First, about the time of year. Cherry seedlings usually have very long shoots, even if they are only one year old. But the resistance to frost in these shoots is low. And if such a tree is planted in the fall, it will simply freeze, as all the water contained in the wood will freeze. But the spring cherry planted in spring will already have time to get acclimatized to the new soil and will supply the necessary water to the shoots and branches.
But besides that sweet cherry is planted in spring - It is important not to delay with this occupation. Planting a sapling is important until all garden trees begin to grow during the growing season. Namely, it should be time immediately after thawing of the soil. That is, as soon as the earth begins to succumb to digging - take a shovel and start preparing a pit for a seedling.
The second important task that you need to perform before planting a sweet cherry is to choose the right place. Cherry is very susceptible to stagnant cold air and limited amounts of sunlight. Therefore, choose the southern slopes for it and in no case plant a sweet cherry in the deep depressions or yars. In order for the tree to have enough sun, plant it on the sunny side of the plot.
It is very important that the shadow of home constructions, houses or other trees does not fall on it. Note that when laying a garden, the distance between two cherries in one row should be no less than 3 meters (if we are talking about such large trees as the “Large-fruited” cherry). At the same time, between the rows of sweet cherry the distance should be approximately 5 meters.
In what soil to plant sweet cherry "Krupnoplodnaya"
This sort of sweet cherry not particularly demanding on soil, but still it will not grow in absolutely fertile soils. It is best to squeeze it into fertile loamy or sandy soil, which may contain the optimum amount of water and air. Thus, clay or marshy land will not be a good conductor for water and will hold it for a long time.
This can cause rotting of the root system of the tree. Sandy soil will also have a negative effect on tree growth, as it will be too dry for sweet cherries.
But what type of soil would not be, you still need to take care of it regularly, dig it up (so that it is saturated with the optimal amount of air), and control its humidity. Keep in mind that groundwater level should not be higher than 1.5 meters. It can also be adjusted using a specially designed and self-made drainage system.
What nuances should pay attention when choosing a sapling?
For planting cherries, you can choose as one, so two-year sapling. Most importantly, its root system is very well developed and has no damage. It is especially important that the sapling does not have dry roots and they are not broken.
In addition, in the market it is very often possible to meet seedlings, expressed not by grafting, but from a stone. However, from the stone it is very difficult to grow exactly the sort you want. After all, through the selection of such seedlings breeders derive new varieties of trees.
How to plant a sapling cherry "Large-fruited"
We have already spoken above about what the distance between the trees should be. Therefore, in preparing the pits it is very important not to forget about it. Pit should be twice as large and deeper than the root system, since a large amount of fertilizer should be put on its bottom. Namely, half of the pit is filled with compost mixed with soil (the amount of compost should be about 3 buckets).
This layer is compacted and covered with soil to which fertilizer has not been mixed. . Also, it is necessary to dig a strong and long stake into the bottom of the pit, because the cherry tree at a young age does not have a sufficiently strong trunk, which can easily be damaged by both winds and various animals.
Next, proceed to the immediate planting of a sapling. Before landing you need to re-examine its roots, because even with very careful storage, any misstep can cause the roots to dry out. In this case, the seedling is placed in water for about 8-9 hours, and only after that it sinks into the pit.
Neatly spreading the roots on the surface of the mound, which we created by pouring the fertilized soil into the pit. Gradually fill the hole to half, and trying not to damage the roots, compact the soil. We pour in a bucket of water and continue to fill the pit with earth until the end. It is very important not to prikopat root neck, it is best to leave it above the surface of the soil, so that it protrudes by 4-5 centimeters.
Having dug a hole in the ground, they seal the ground again and water it very well. For watering you can use another 10-20 liters of water. The space around the trunk is mulched. This will keep the land moist for a long time.
What you need to know about the proper watering and fertilizing cherries?
Soil moistureIn which cherry grows, you need to constantly monitor. On the territory of Ukraine and the Central Russian region, as well as its southern regions, the tree needs regular watering. On one young tree about 20-40 liters of water are brought in with an interval of one month.
In the adult and fruiting sweet cherry, the demands will be higher, and its normal growth requires about 40-60 liters of water per irrigation. Naturally, with abundant rainfall it is not necessary to water the tree at all, and in their absence it is possible to take part in this procedure up to 4 times a month.
Top dressing it doesn’t have to be so regular. The young tree, except for organic fertilizers introduced during planting, will not require any additional feeding during the first three years of growth and before the tree enters fruiting. The only thing you can fertilize cherries in the second year after planting is urea, which will have a very positive effect on its growth.
For the third year, cherries will be needed nitrate and ammonium. But it is even dangerous to apply a large amount of these fertilizers to the soil, so no more than 25 grams should be used per 1m2. But the best will affect the growth of cherries and the formation of berries organic fertilizer - rotted manure. At the same time, you can make it no more than 1 time for 3 years. Every year, under the autumn digging of the earth around the trunk of a cherry tree, it is possible to introduce wood ash.
Pest and frost protection
The variety we are talking about is practically habitual pests are not terrible. Even the degree of damage by various fungal diseases in “Krupnoplodnoy” is very low.
Therefore, in order to avoid saturation of fruits with various chemical and toxic preparations, it is better not to carry out any spraying unless it becomes absolutely necessary (after all, pests and diseases can get on this variety of cherries from other varieties adjacent to it, with very bad and prolonged rains or droughts, the tree can also become susceptible to diseases).
In questions preparation of cherry "Krupnoplodnaya" for winterNo need to miss any details. The tree is of course winter-hardy, but only if it is well looked after by the gardener. First of all, you need to carefully dig up the soil and water it abundantly (if the ground is not moistened with rain).
A young tree for the winter must be tied to a special stake. The trunk of the tree is enveloped in snow and, for protection from rodents, is surrounded by roofing felt. It is possible to protect a tree from rodents also with the help of a spruce branch.
Sweet cherry - what kind of pruning does a tree need?
Formation of the crown of cherries occurs independently. The only thing that is important for a grower to do is to monitor the uniform growth of different branches and, if necessary, shorten the leader a little. Pruning the same young shoots is carried out in the same way as for other garden trees - they are shortened by ¼ or half in order to increase the quality of the berries.
However, it will have to tinker with the shape of the crown in the event that the tree was somehow damaged and its main conductor suffered. In this case, the main conductor immediately will have many competitors. If they are allowed to develop, in adulthood some of the roughest competing branches can break from abundant harvests.
Therefore, among the competitors, choose the one that has the most direct growth and is the strongest among all the others.
It is recommended to immediately prune damaged and affected branches and shoots. After trimming all cuts are processed. For this it is best to use copper sulphate. If pruning is done in the fall, the amount of this substance should be particularly abundant. Also, all cut branches must be destroyed with the help of fire.
Advantages and disadvantages
The choice of many large-fruited gardeners for cultivation depends not only on the impressive size of this variety, but also on other advantages:
- Stable and high yields.
- Excellent cold tolerance, drought tolerance.
- Good survival rate at the new site of seedlings during transplantation.
- Low susceptibility to fungal diseases, in particular, moniliasis - fruit rot.
The disadvantages of the variety are mainly related to its large size:
- Berries crack when overwetting due to abundant irregular irrigation or rainy weather.
- The trees are not resistant to diseases - coccomycosis, stone bone bacterial carcinoma.
- A high degree of sterility, therefore, to obtain abundant yield, additional pollination is required either artificially or by planting near the cherry of the “large-fruited” varieties such as: “bigarro”, “surprise”, “Francis”, “Oratovsky”, “Valery Chkalov”, “ Diver black.
Description of the advantages and disadvantages of cherries of this variety are taken into account when growing fruit trees.
Features of planting varieties
For a good growth of fruit crops the following conditions are necessary:
- high quality soil
- proper lighting area,
- timely landing.
Cherry seedlings “large-fruited” have rather long shoots, but their resistance to frost is very low. In the autumn, landing is not worth it. The moisture contained in the wood can freeze, and the wood freezes. The most favorable time for planting is spring. It is important to carry out this procedure until the moment when the vegetative period of the trees comes. As soon as the soil thaws, they begin to dig up the area, preparing holes for planting.
Cherry trees require a lot of light. Therefore, a place for planting is better to choose the sun. Excellent southern slopes on the site. You can not plant a sweet cherry in the deep lowlands, ravines, as cultures are unstable to stagnant cold air. When laying the whole orchard between cultures in the same row, a distance of not less than three meters shall be made. Trees should not shade each other in the future with large crowns. Between the landing rows of cherries a distance of 5 meters is made.
Sweet cherry variety “large-fruited” is not very demanding on the qualitative composition of the soil, but it is desirable that the soil be fertile loamy or sandy loam with nutrients. Clay and marsh areas are not suitable for the cultivation of cherries, since such a soil composition retains water, which can adversely affect the roots of fruit crops. Sandstones will be too dry. Ideally, when the level of groundwater is not higher than 1.5 m. If moisture is closer to the surface, it is advisable to make a drainage system.
Both annual and biennial seedlings are suitable for planting, but with surely proven quality roots that are not dry or broken. The pits are dug 2 times larger than the size of the root system of cherries, since a large amount of fertilizer will also be laid - about three buckets of compost mixed with the ground. Such a nutrient layer is compacted with ordinary soil. Into the bottom, they put in a strong peg for a garter in the future of a non-adherent seedling.
Cherry roots inspect that if they are not sure about their quality storage, they should be immersed in water for 8 or 9 hours so that they are slightly moist. A hillock is made in the landing pit where the tree is inserted. The roots are straightened, then gently tamped down to the ground with a soil, pour in a bucket of water, then go to sleep. It is important not to prikopat root cervix in the process, they must be left above the surface of about 4 to 5 cm.
Planting pits with seedlings neatly tamped, plentifully immediately watered, using from 10 to 20 liters of water. The pristvolny space must be mulched to preserve the soil moisture.
Recommendations for the care of the cherry "large-fruited"
According to the description of care arrangements For the variety among experienced gardeners it is necessary to note the main areas:
- high-quality watering
- making feedings
- pest protection and disease prevention,
- preparation for wintering.
It is not necessary to allow stagnation of water, but drought for cherries is contraindicated, so watering is carried out as needed. Regular irrigation is necessary only for young trees, it is advisable to make from 20 to 40 liters per seedling. Pruning crowns do only in the spring before the growing season. Cuts while neatly smeared with garden decoction or other antiseptic.
The first three years, the seedlings can not feed, the cultures will lack of the nutrients that were made during planting. Only then every 3 years add rotten manure. To ensure good growth for the trees, urea is introduced in the fourth year.
From the second winter period, the “large-fruited” sweet cherry becomes quite resistant to cold weather, but it is still worth sheltering trees from frost. In the northern regions, closer to winter, it is necessary to dig up the soil in the near-circle wheel, moisten it, then cover it with hay. Often, trees or foliage from the autumn are sprayed with a superphosphate solution before the start of frost, then the sweet cherry will get stronger, and the cold will not be afraid of the culture.
Properly grooming the fruit pit, it is possible to grow high-yielding trees, collect 50 kg of juicy tasty berries of “large-fruited” cherries.
How did the cherries variety Krupnoplodnaya
Cherry Large-fruited differs from other varieties of culture huge size of the fruit. The mid-season variety was obtained by breeders from the Ukrainian Research Institute of Irrigated Horticulture M. T. Oratovsky and N. I. Turovtsev as a result of pollination of the Napoleon variety with white pollen Elton Zhabule and Valery Chkalov. The new hybrid has adopted all the best from its parents: large size, juiciness and sweetness of fruits.
The average berry weight is 10–12 g
On a variety testing, the Krupnoplodnaya variety has been located since 1973, and was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation in 1986.
Sweet Cherry Large-fruited is grown not only in the south: in the Krasnodar Territory and the Crimea, but also successfully cultivated in the Central region of Russia.
Cherries do not like when water comes close to the surface of the soil. It carries bad and cold winds. Choosing a place for planting culture, it is necessary to take into account these two very important factors. The best option for the location of Large-fruited in the garden will be the sunniest place on the south side of the site.
It is recommended to plant a sweet cherry only in spring, when the threat of recurrent frosts is over. В противном случае неокрепший саженец просто замёрзнет. Если вы приобрели черешню осенью, то прикопайте её и отложите посадку до наступления тёплых весенних дней.
Large-fruited is not picky about soil composition, but to get an excellent harvest, you need to fertilize the area before planting, and also fill the landing pit well with nutrient composition. In the fall, dig up the earth and add humus, potash salt and superphosphate. The dosage of mineral fertilizers indicated by the manufacturer on the package.
How to plant a seedling: instructions
- We dig a hole for planting cherries, its width and depth should be about 2 times the root system of the seedling.
The size of the planting pit should be at least 2 times the root system of the seedling
Clay talker will help to avoid sapling roots drying
The roots of the seedling in the planting pit are covered with earth and tamped down the ground
The root neck should be elevated above ground level. Otherwise, the tree will grow poorly and do not bear fruit for a long time.
Pruning and crown shaping
Experienced gardeners advise cutting the sweet cherry in spring, giving the crown the desired shape. Shoots (subordinate branches) shortened by about a third. This technique stimulates the laying of new fruit buds.
Pruning of shoots helps to create new buds.
For seedlings grown in a specialized nursery of garden plants, the crown is usually already formed according to all the rules, and in the first years after planting the gardener doesn’t need to do anything. For the third year, formative pruning should be carried out, retaining 6–9 skeletal branches, while they are also shortened, leaving 60 cm of last year’s growth. To strengthen the trunk, in the 4th year after planting remove all shoots located below the skeletal.
Adult specimens require annual sanitary pruning. All new shoots that depart at an acute angle from the trunk or grow vertically are removed.
When pruning branches with a diameter of more than 1 cm, it is imperative that the cuts are covered with garden bar.
Cherry protection from frost
In the autumn after the end of leaf fall, trees should be plentifully watered, whitewashed and bifurcated, and young specimens should be wrapped with spruce leaves to protect against frost.
Whitewashing of the trunk in the fall will help protect the bark from frosting
In winter, you need to trample snow around cherries, after making a snowdrift near the trunk. This agrotechnical technique will help protect the tree from freezing and from mice. Durable ice crust formed around cherries will not allow rodents to make manholes in the snow and thereby reliably protect the root system from damage.
Other sweet cherry varieties with large berries
Large-fruited is not the only type of sweet cherry with huge berries, there are others:
- Diver black. Large sweet cherries of this variety have a dark red, almost black skin and juicy flesh with a very pleasant aroma. Fruit weight reaches 6 g.
- Yuliya. The variety is one of the most winter-hardy, besides, the tree looks very attractive. The fruits are creamy yellow with a pink blush.
- Bull heart The weight of the berries is 7–8 g, the taste is excellent. However, the transportability of fruits is low, so the cherry is recommended for cultivation only on private plots.
- Melitopol large-fruited. Late-ripening variety with tasty large berries with a heady aroma. The tree does not grow more than 3 m in height, which greatly simplifies harvesting.
- Regina. A variety created by German breeders with large fruits weighing 10–11 g. Resistant to pests and diseases.
History of breeding varieties
For the first time this variety was bred on the territory of Ukraine - its originators are MT breeders. Oratovsky and N.I. Turovtsev. In the selection work, the Napoleon Belaya sweet cherry variety was used, and Elton, Valery Chkalov and Zhabulé were the pollinators. In 1973, a new variety entered the test, and in 1983 was entered in the State Register.
Description of a type of sweet cherry Large-fruited
Black Cherries Krupnoplodnaya is a medium-sized tree that can grow up to 5 meters in height. The main skeletal branches of the tree are few, but they are very strong and covered with coarse bark.
The natural form of the crown is usually spherical, unless it is formed by artificial means, and of medium density. The leaves of the cherries are not remarkable - oblong, slightly pointed at the ends, juicy green. The easiest way to recognize the tree is by the white flowers that bloom thickly in April and envelop the entire crown of cherries in light shade.
A unique feature due to which the variety got an expressive name - these are unusually massive fruits of sweet cherry. One berry can weigh from 10.4 to 12 g, occasionally there are even fruits with a mass of 18 g. The shapes of the berries are round, covered with a thin, but dense skin, the color of which can vary from saturated red to almost black. The pulp has the same color. By the time of ripening, this variety belongs to the category of mid-season sweet cherry - fruits appear approximately in the middle-end of June.
Ideal areas for growing large fruit cherries are the southern regions, the Crimea and the Krasnodar Territory. However, the variety is successfully cultivated in the middle lane - it all depends on the quality of care for Large-fruited, on the proper watering and pre-winter processing of the plant.
Lack of moisture, this variety carries quite well. On the hottest summer days, cherries will require additional watering, but it is quite enough to do it once a week with 50 liters of water. The rest of the time, watering a tree can be done once a month in the amount of 20-40 liters of water under the trunk - such volume of moisture is sufficient for healthy growth of the sweet cherry.
Cherry Crop Dusters
The black sweet cherry belongs to samobesplodny grades. This means that next to it you will need to plant other varieties that will act as pollinators - only then it will turn out to produce a bountiful harvest from the tree. For large fruit pollinators can be:
- Francis Cherry is an early blooming variety, it comes at the beginning of May, and ripening takes place by the end of June, at about the same time as the large fruiting sweet cherry.
- Sweet Cherry Surprise - flowering varieties begins in May, 5 - 10 numbers. But the fruits of this variety can be collected only by mid-July.
- Dyber Black's Cherry - the variety blooms in average terms, and its ripening is more late. Fruits are usually harvested in late June - early July.
All of these varieties planted next to the large fruit cherries, will be able to guarantee a bountiful and high-quality crop of the latter.
Yield and fruiting
The description of a large-fruited black cherry variety suggests that the fruits of the plant ripen in average terms, and the crop appears in the second half of June. The tree begins to bring berries not immediately, but only 3 years after the seedling is rooted in the garden.
As for the yield, it is simply amazing at the variety - one tree can produce up to 56 kg of fruits annually.
Scope of berries
Large, fleshy, sweet and sour fruits. Large-fruited sweet cherries have a high tasting score of 4.6 and can be very diverse in cooking. Berries are eaten fresh, they squeeze healthy juice out of them, make compotes and fruit drinks, and make jam for the winter. Sweet cherry can be used as an ingredient for baking.
Disease and pest resistance
The variety is considered highly resistant to damage from diseases and insects. However, with inadequate care and unfavorable weather, the large-fruited sweet cherry may also suffer some ailments. Of the diseases of sweet cherry most often affect:
- scab - is expressed in the appearance of yellow spots on green leaves,
- monilioz - drying of young branches and ovaries,
- klyasterosporioz - bright red spots appear on the leaves, fruit growth stops,
- gum ache - the bark of the tree begins to exude a resin in which the bacteria are settled.
The procedure for these lesions is about the same. Diseased parts of the tree are removed, and healthy ones are treated with antiseptics.
Of the pests for the tree are especially dangerous aphid, weevil and cherry fly. If insects are seen on the leaves or in the fruits of the Large-fruited fruit, it must be urgently treated with appropriate solutions.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The positive qualities of large-fruited cherries are much more than disadvantages. The advantages include:
- highest yield,
- juicy and sweet taste of fruit,
- resistance to lack of moisture and low temperatures,
- resistance to pests and diseases affecting the tree is very rare,
- low demands on care.
The minus of a variety is its sterility - pollinating varieties are required for abundant fruiting. Also the lack of wood is the intolerance of high soil moisture - in the rainy seasons problems may start with the cherry tree.
Since young seedlings are very sensitive to cold, it is recommended to plant Large-fruited sweet cherry not in autumn, but in spring - otherwise the shoots of the tree will simply freeze. Spring planting must be done on time - after the last frosts, but before the beginning of the vegetative period in neighboring pollinating trees.
Choosing the right place
This variety loves the sun and warm air, so planting a tree is necessary in a well-lit area. The distance to the nearest trees should be about 3 meters.
The variety does not tolerate stagnant moisture, so swampy or clayey land is not suitable for it. The tree favorably perceives loam and sandy soil with good airing possibilities.
Planting trees in the ground as follows:
- Prepare a hole - 2 times more volumes than the size of the roots of seedlings.
- At the bottom of the pit lay out a layer of compost mixed with conventional earth.
- Top fertilizer covered with soil, digging in a peg for garters.
- A sapling is placed in the pit, straightening the roots over a layer of soil.
- Top of the earth is filled up to the bottom of the pit, then a bucket of water is poured out and the ground is filled up again - to the end. After that, the soil around the tree compacted, watered again, sprinkled with mulch.
Follow-up care for cherries
Caring for a large-fruited sweet cherry will not require much effort from the gardener.
- Cut need to dry and damaged shoots, as well as the usual branches that begin to compete with the main. Remove branches that grow below skeletal branches. Shoots are shortened annually by a quarter or half.
- In dry weather, young trees water 20 to 40 liters of water each month, and 40 to 60 liters of water are required for an adult sweet cherry. In case of drought, watering is carried out weekly, and in case of heavy rainfall it is stopped altogether.
- In the first 3 years, the tree does not require any fertilizer. For 3 years it is recommended that ammonium and nitrate be scattered under the barrel - no more than 25 g per square meter of soil. Also, once every three years, rotted manure should be thrown at the trunk.
- The variety is resistant to diseases and harmful insects, protection to the tree requires minimal. It will be useful to whitewash the barrel with hydrated lime.
- Before the onset of winter, it is recommended to dig a little soil, make the last watering, and then cover the trunk with hay or spruce branches. Also after leaf fall, sweet cherries should be sprayed with a solution of superphosphate.
Diseases and pests control and prevention measures
Large fruit cherries are not recommended to be treated with chemicals without the need, since pests and diseases rarely affect them. As a prevention, it is enough to wrap the trunk with roofing felt to protect against rodents, and in the winter period to form a snowdrift around the trunk.
To toxic drugs resorted only if the tree is really sick. To get rid of insects, Inta-Vir, Actellic and Decis solutions are used, and sections and damages on the trunk and branches are treated with copper sulfate solution.
Cherry Large-fruited - quite unpretentious fruit tree. If you follow the basic rules of pollination and care, the variety will please with very abundant crops.
Large-fruited red cherry is characterized by a high wakeiness of the kidneys after pruning. The harvest ripens on the fruit branches of the previous year. They have a lifespan of usually no more than three years.
The variety of large-fruited cherries is fruitful, which reflects badly on vital forces. Flower buds are laid on short shoots, and the branches become bare after fruiting. Old shoots of the variety are laid bare because of the short period of life of the bouquet branches. Therefore, pruning is necessary, which helps the fruit tree to preserve flowers before pollination.
Before you begin the formation of crown cherries, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of pruning. The most popular is summer. It must be held in August. During the active growth wave, the sweet cherry should not be cut off. If you pruning in June (shortened by 1/3 long shoots), you can increase the mass of fruits.
The large-fruited black cherry itself does not shed the ovary, and most of it ripens, the trees are overloaded under the weight of the fruit and often the branches break off. In addition, the summer pruning delays the development of fruit buds, so the tree will bloom later and will not fall under the return frost. Therefore, the harvest will be guaranteed.
The crown is formed: cup-shaped, sparse-tiered, combined, without a tiered. Cup-shaped is divided into two types: Armenian and improved bowl. They can be combined with each other. When leaving, they monitor the angle of the semi-skeletal branches to the conductor. It is necessary to avoid their crowding - this can reduce the productivity of the crown.
Diseases and pests of sweet cherry
The warmer and higher the humidity level, the more actively the diseases develop. There is a high probability of damage to those fruits on which there are wounds. They are the first to be hit: the flesh becomes loose and the fruits fall off. Berries that remain on the tree, compacted and blackened, and also becomes a place for the development of spores that spoil the harvest.
Moniliasis varieties can be warned: it is sufficient to promptly remove infected fruits, including before hibernation. Spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid also helps. After harvesting, you can carry out another treatment - this time with copper sulfate. The ratio with water is 1: 100, at the rate of 3 liters per tree. When collecting the affected berries, contact with healthy berries should be avoided so as not to become a carrier.
Another type of disease - rust. It is characteristic, first of all, for July - the hottest month when the fruits of most stone trees ripen. At the same time on the front side of the leaves appear spots of a rounded shape, which resemble rust in color. Over time, these leaves fall off, and the trees weaken, they endure the winter worse. Only two years and sweet cherry completely stop fruiting.
The scab is capable of infecting both large fruits and leaves of sweet cherry. The first quickly stop growing and dry, and the second are covered with spots of brown-brown hue and curled up. The fight lies in preventive measures. In late autumn or early winter, it is necessary to dig the soil around the tree along with the leaves. Spraying in several steps is also suitable:
- when green buds appear,
- after flowering tree
- after picking the fruit.
For this purpose, Bordeaux liquid and copper oxychloride are used in the proportions described above to combat rust.
Gray rot is able to hit young shoots of large-fruited sweet cherries, leaves and fruits. Berries become gray and get an unpleasant smell. The disease is transferred by the fruits remaining on the tree, they successfully survive the winter, and then the spores infect a new crop starting from flowers. As a result, a part of the tree or it may dry out completely and die.
Insect class pest. It is easy to determine by the calf in 3 mm and orange color. The fly infects the berries of the large-fruited cherries, laying off the larvae of the offspring in them. Two weeks later, worms develop inside the ripe fruit, destroying the harvest. The period of activity falls on May – June, when the air temperature does not fall below +15 degrees, which contributes to the warming up of the earth. Insect likes sunny days with hot weather.
The influence of the fruit fly on the sweet cherry Large fruit becomes apparent after 20 days, when the berries fall. During this time, the pest goes through two molts and pupates in the surrounding area of the plant. During the period of activity, the fly makes up to 60% of the fruit become unusable. The fight includes loosening and digging the soil around the tree, which destroys the pupae. The fruits of sweet cherries are treated with a solution of drugs Karate and Decis. Re-spraying in two weeks kills new offspring.
Aphids infect large-fruit cherries before other pests. Larvae appear after disclosure of the kidneys. The purpose of the pest is foliage, eating which, the insect slows down growth and reduces yield. Nutrient medium for aphids - plant sap. Affected shoots collapse and do not develop. Sweet cherry loses its immunity and is exposed to fungal diseases. The pest fills the tree for several days, the laid eggs are able to transfer the winter, therefore not to do without pruning.
Infected branches of sweet cherry Krupnoplodnaya cut and burned. Pristvolny circle cleaned of fallen leaves and weeds, on which the larvae are deposited. Профилактические опрыскивания черешни от грибковых болезней снижают вероятность появления вредителя. Подкормка и полив укрепляют сопротивляемость растения. Весной и на зиму ствол белится с добавлением клея ПВА.
Долгоносик поражает не только спелые ягоды. В ход у вредителя идут завязи, почки и бутоны черешни. The elephant larva winters in the soil and is activated after its warming up. Therefore, the basis of prevention is loosening the soil near the trunk. Do it in the fall and spring before the start of active sap flow. Remove the exfoliated bark of cherries and whiten the shoots with lime mortar. Before flowering beetle shake blows on the branches. After flowering, the drug Aktellik is used, which is diluted with water in the proportions specified by the manufacturer.
Sweet cherry processing Large-fruited
In order to prevent the spread of disease, the affected areas of cherries should be regularly cut, the ground under the trees should be dug up along with the leaves, and the tree itself should be sprayed at least twice: before and after flowering. A solution of copper oxychloride (40 g per 5 liters of water, 4 liters per tree) or a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid is well suited for this purpose.
Preparing for winter cherries Krupnoplodnaya
If sweet cherry seedlings are purchased earlier in the first or second decade of September, then additional precautions should be taken when purchasing and transporting, which will help to keep the seedlings in a dry condition.
The sweet cherry root system is treated with a solution of clay with mullein, the so-called talker. Often, a heteroauxin-type growth regulator is added to this mixture.